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Article

The Impacts of Animal Health Service Providers on Antimicrobial Use Attitudes and Practices: An Examination of Poultry Layer Farmers in Ghana and Kenya

1
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Accra 1628, Ghana
2
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
3
Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast 5007, Ghana
4
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 00153 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors contributed equally and are presented in alphabetical order.
Received: 22 July 2020 / Revised: 24 August 2020 / Accepted: 26 August 2020 / Published: 28 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Usage of Antibiotic in Agriculture and Animal Farming)
International organizations and governments have argued that animal health service providers can play a vital role in limiting antimicrobial resistance by promoting the prudent use of antimicrobials. However, there is little research on the impact of these service providers on prudent use at the farm level, especially in low- and middle-income countries where enforcement of prudent-use regulations is limited. Here, we use a mixed-methods approach to assess how animal health-seeking practices on layer farms in Ghana (n = 110) and Kenya (n = 76) impact self-reported antimicrobial usage, engagement in prudent administration and withdrawal practices and perceptions of antimicrobial resistance. In general, our results show that the frequency of health-seeking across a range of service providers (veterinarians, agrovets, and feed distributors) does not significantly correlate with prudent or non-prudent use practices or the levels of antimicrobials used. Instead, we find that patterns of antimicrobial use are linked to how much farmers invest in biosecurity (e.g., footbaths) and the following vaccination protocols. Our results emphasize that more research is required to understand the interactions between animal health service providers and farmers regarding antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance. Addressing these gaps will be crucial to inform antimicrobial stewardship training, curriculums and, guidelines whose ultimate purpose is to limit the selection and transmission of antimicrobial resistance. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial use; poultry farming; health seeking; Ghana; Kenya; antimicrobial resistance; antimicrobial stewardship antimicrobial use; poultry farming; health seeking; Ghana; Kenya; antimicrobial resistance; antimicrobial stewardship
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MDPI and ACS Style

Afakye, K.; Kiambi, S.; Koka, E.; Kabali, E.; Dorado-Garcia, A.; Amoah, A.; Kimani, T.; Adjei, B.; Caudell, M.A. The Impacts of Animal Health Service Providers on Antimicrobial Use Attitudes and Practices: An Examination of Poultry Layer Farmers in Ghana and Kenya. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 554. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9090554

AMA Style

Afakye K, Kiambi S, Koka E, Kabali E, Dorado-Garcia A, Amoah A, Kimani T, Adjei B, Caudell MA. The Impacts of Animal Health Service Providers on Antimicrobial Use Attitudes and Practices: An Examination of Poultry Layer Farmers in Ghana and Kenya. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(9):554. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9090554

Chicago/Turabian Style

Afakye, Kofi, Stella Kiambi, Eric Koka, Emmanuel Kabali, Alejandro Dorado-Garcia, Ann Amoah, Tabitha Kimani, Benjamin Adjei, and Mark A. Caudell 2020. "The Impacts of Animal Health Service Providers on Antimicrobial Use Attitudes and Practices: An Examination of Poultry Layer Farmers in Ghana and Kenya" Antibiotics 9, no. 9: 554. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9090554

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