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Open AccessReview

Evidence of the Practice of Self-Medication with Antibiotics among the Lay Public in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Scoping Review

1
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan 25200, Malaysia
2
Department of Pharmacodynamics and Biopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Hungary
3
Institute of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Semmelweis University, 1089 Budapest, Hungary
4
Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia
5
College of Pharmacy, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100, Pakistan
6
Qualitative Research-Methodological Application in Health Sciences Research Group, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan 25200, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 May 2020 / Revised: 10 August 2020 / Accepted: 14 August 2020 / Published: 12 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance: From the Bench to Patients)
The current scoping review is an attempt to explore the key reasons, determinants, patterns and prevalence related to self-medication with antibiotics (SMA) among the lay public. An online search was conducted using Google Scholar, Science Direct, ProQuest and PubMed. A two-phase mapping approach was used. In the first phase, studies were screened. In the second phase, the data were extracted from selected studies followed by the assessment of data quality. A total of 24 studies were included; 20 were cross-sectional, 3 were qualitative and one was observational. The most common indications were flu, cough, common colds, sore throat, diarrhea, toothache and fever. The most common determinants reported were past good experience and suggestions from friends or relatives. The use of SMA was observed to be more frequent in younger aged individuals belonging to low- or middle-income groups. The prevalence rate was reported to be high among the South Asian lay public and may be a major contributor to antibiotic resistance. In conclusion, this scoping review identifies a need for education campaigns and mass media campaigns to strengthen lay public awareness about the side effects and risks associated with SMA. In addition to this, there is a need to implement strict policies by government agencies to restrict over the counter availability of antibiotics. View Full-Text
Keywords: self-medication with antibiotics; SMA; scoping; review; low- and middle-income countries self-medication with antibiotics; SMA; scoping; review; low- and middle-income countries
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aslam, A.; Gajdács, M.; Zin, C.S.; Ab Rahman, N.S.; Ahmed, S.I.; Zafar, M.Z.; Jamshed, S. Evidence of the Practice of Self-Medication with Antibiotics among the Lay Public in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Scoping Review. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 597. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9090597

AMA Style

Aslam A, Gajdács M, Zin CS, Ab Rahman NS, Ahmed SI, Zafar MZ, Jamshed S. Evidence of the Practice of Self-Medication with Antibiotics among the Lay Public in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Scoping Review. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(9):597. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9090597

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aslam, Adeel; Gajdács, Márió; Zin, Che S.; Ab Rahman, Norny S.; Ahmed, Syed I.; Zafar, Muhammad Z.; Jamshed, Shazia. 2020. "Evidence of the Practice of Self-Medication with Antibiotics among the Lay Public in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Scoping Review" Antibiotics 9, no. 9: 597. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9090597

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