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Fibers, Volume 9, Issue 10 (October 2021) – 5 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Data analysis for Chemical Science replaces the conventional work of trial and error. However, laboratory work is essential to provide guidelines for designing and optimizing studies as they use both qualitative and quantitative data. Here, cellulose acetate-based nanocomposite membranes functionalized with alpha-hematite were examined to assess efficiency for reactive black adsorption 5 and, consequently, recyclability, and data analysis was correlated using a response surface methodology. Machine learning confirmed the synergism between the good adsorption of RB5 and its easy separation from nanocomposite membranes, ensuring its potential application in wastewater treatment processes. View this paper
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Article
Effect of Cold Plasma Treatment of Polymer Fibers on the Mechanical Behavior of Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites
Fibers 2021, 9(10), 62; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fib9100062 - 18 Oct 2021
Viewed by 345
Abstract
Fiber-reinforced cementitious composites (FRCC) are a class of materials made by adding randomly distributed fibers to a cementitious matrix, providing better material toughness through the crack bridging behavior of the fibers. One of the primary concerns with FRCCs is the behavior of the [...] Read more.
Fiber-reinforced cementitious composites (FRCC) are a class of materials made by adding randomly distributed fibers to a cementitious matrix, providing better material toughness through the crack bridging behavior of the fibers. One of the primary concerns with FRCCs is the behavior of the fiber when a crack is formed. The fibers provide a stress-bridging mechanism, which is largely determined by the bond that exists between the concrete and the fiber’s outer surface. While many studies have determined the properties of FRCCs and potential benefits of using specific fiber types, the effects of low temperature or cold plasma treatment of polymer fibers on the mechanical behavior of the composite material are limited. Polymer fibers are notable for their low density, ductility, ease of manufacture, and cost-effectiveness. Despite these advantages, the surface properties of polymers do not enable the bonding potential given by steel or glass fibers when used in untreated FRCC, resulting in pull-out failures before the full displacement capacity of the fiber is utilized. For this reason, modification of the surface characteristics of polymer fibers can aid in higher bonding potential. Plasma treatment is a process wherein surfaces are modified through the kinetics of electrically charged and reactive species in a gaseous discharge environment. This paper is a preliminary study on the use of atmospheric pressure plasma generated at approximately room temperature. This atmospheric, cold plasma treatment is a method for improving the mechanical properties of FRCC using polymeric fibers. In this study, polypropylene and polyvinyl-alcohol fibers were cold plasma treated for 0, 30, 60, and 120 s before being used in cementitious mortar mixtures. Compression and flexure tests were performed using a displacement-based loading protocol to examine the impact of plasma treatment time on the corresponding mechanical performance of the fiber-reinforced cementitious composite. The experimental results obtained from this study indicate that there is a positive correlation between fiber treatment time and post-peak load-carrying capacity, especially for specimens subjected to flexural loading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites)
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Article
Combining Experimental Data with Statistical Methods to Evaluate Hydrolyzed Reactive Dye Removal by α-Fe2O3 in a Cellulose-Based Membrane
Fibers 2021, 9(10), 61; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fib9100061 - 18 Oct 2021
Viewed by 354
Abstract
Water contaminated with toxic dyes poses serious problems for human health and environmental ecosystems. Unfixed reactive dyes and their hydrolyzed form are soluble in water, thus, their removal is particularly challenging. Among the different methodologies, adsorption is probably the most common since it [...] Read more.
Water contaminated with toxic dyes poses serious problems for human health and environmental ecosystems. Unfixed reactive dyes and their hydrolyzed form are soluble in water, thus, their removal is particularly challenging. Among the different methodologies, adsorption is probably the most common since it is easy to handle and has a low cost. Here, the removal by adsorption of hydrolyzed Reactive Black 5 (hydRB5) from a model wastewater through cellulose acetate/hematite membranes (CA/α-Fe2O3), designated as M1, M2 and M3, was performed. The pristine cellulose acetate membrane (CA) was designated as M0. Toward understanding the adsorption mechanism of hydRB5 on membranes, the rate of adsorption and maximum value of the adsorption capacity were evaluated using kinetic and isothermal studies, respectively. The results showed that the adsorption mechanism follows pseudo-first-order kinetics, and data are best fitted by the Langmuir isotherm method with a maximum adsorption capacity of 105.26 mg g−1 in pH~7. Furthermore, these membranes can be also regenerated by washing with NaOH and NaCl solutions, and the regeneration efficiency remains effective over five cycles. To complete the work, two statistical models were applied, an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and a Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimum value found is located in the usable region, and the experimental validation shows good agreement between the predicted optimum values and the experimental data. These composite membranes are also good candidates for the adsorption of other pollutants, even at industrial scale, due to their effective regeneration process and low production costs. Full article
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Review
Shielding of Cosmic Radiation by Fibrous Materials
Fibers 2021, 9(10), 60; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fib9100060 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 237
Abstract
Cosmic radiation belongs to the challenges engineers have to deal with when further developing space travel. Besides the severe risks for humans due to high-energy particles or waves, the impact of cosmic radiation on electronics and diverse materials cannot be neglected, even in [...] Read more.
Cosmic radiation belongs to the challenges engineers have to deal with when further developing space travel. Besides the severe risks for humans due to high-energy particles or waves, the impact of cosmic radiation on electronics and diverse materials cannot be neglected, even in microsatellites or other unmanned spacecraft. Here, we explain the different particles or waves found in cosmic radiation and their potential impact on biological and inanimate matter. We give an overview of fiber-based shielding materials, mostly applied in the form of composites, and explain why these materials can help shielding spaceships or satellites from cosmic radiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Multiple Application for Novel and Advanced Materials)
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Article
Phase Dislocations in Hollow Core Waveguides
Fibers 2021, 9(10), 59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fib9100059 - 24 Sep 2021
Viewed by 480
Abstract
This paper discusses the basic concepts of phase dislocations and vortex formation in the electric fields of fundamental air core mode of hollow core waveguides with specific types of rotational symmetry of the core-cladding boundary. Analysis of the behavior of the electric field [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the basic concepts of phase dislocations and vortex formation in the electric fields of fundamental air core mode of hollow core waveguides with specific types of rotational symmetry of the core-cladding boundary. Analysis of the behavior of the electric field phase in the transmission bands shows that the mechanism of light localization in the hollow core waveguides with discrete rotational symmetry of the core-cladding boundary cannot be completely described by the ARROW model. For an accurate description of the phase behavior, it is necessary to account for phase jumps of the magnitude of π when passing through the phase dislocations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fibers)
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Article
Analytical Formulas for Dispersion and Effective Area in Hollow-Core Tube Lattice Fibers
Fibers 2021, 9(10), 58; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fib9100058 - 23 Sep 2021
Viewed by 470
Abstract
In this work, we propose analytical formulas for the estimation of dispersion properties and effective area of the fundamental mode of hollow-core inhibited coupling fibers with a microstructured cladding composed by a ring of dielectric tubes. The formulas are based on a model [...] Read more.
In this work, we propose analytical formulas for the estimation of dispersion properties and effective area of the fundamental mode of hollow-core inhibited coupling fibers with a microstructured cladding composed by a ring of dielectric tubes. The formulas are based on a model which has already been successfully applied to the estimation of confinement loss. The model takes into account the effects of the coupling of the fundamental core mode with the cladding modes in the context of the single-tube approximation. Effective index, group velocity dispersion, and effective area of the fundamental mode are estimated and compared with the results obtained from numerical simulations, by considering ten different fibers. The comparison shows a good accuracy of the proposed formulas, which do not require any tuning of fitting parameters. On the basis of the analysis carried out, a scaling law relating the effective area to the core radius is also given. Finally, the formulas give a good estimation of the same parameters of other Hollow-core inhibited coupling fibers, such as nested, ice-cream, and kagome fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fibers)
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