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Social Determinants of Health Influencing the New Zealand COVID-19 Response and Recovery: A Scoping Review and Causal Loop Diagram

Institute of Environmental Science and Research, Porirua 5022, New Zealand
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vladimír Bureš
Received: 17 May 2021 / Revised: 19 June 2021 / Accepted: 29 June 2021 / Published: 7 July 2021
The Coronavirus pandemic of 2019–20 (COVID-19) affected multiple social determinants of health (SDH) across the globe, including in New Zealand, exacerbating health inequities. Understanding these system dynamics can support decision making for the pandemic response and recovery measures. This study combined a scoping review with a causal loop diagram to further understanding of the connections between SDH, pandemic measures, and both short- and long-term outcomes in New Zealand. The causal loop diagram showed the reinforcing nature of structural SDH, such as colonization and socio-economic influences, on health inequities. While balancing actions taken by government eliminated COVID-19, the diagram showed that existing structural SDH inequities could increase health inequities in the longer term, unless the opportunity is taken for socio-economic policies to be reset. Such policy resets would be difficult to implement, as they are at odds with the current socio-economic system. The causal loop diagram highlighted that SDH significantly influenced the dynamics of the COVID-19 impact and response, pointing to a need for purposeful systemic action to disrupt the reinforcing loops which increase health inequities over time. This will require strong systems leadership, and coordination between policy makers and implementation at local level. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; social determinants; health system; New Zealand COVID-19; social determinants; health system; New Zealand
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sharma, S.; Walton, M.; Manning, S. Social Determinants of Health Influencing the New Zealand COVID-19 Response and Recovery: A Scoping Review and Causal Loop Diagram. Systems 2021, 9, 52. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/systems9030052

AMA Style

Sharma S, Walton M, Manning S. Social Determinants of Health Influencing the New Zealand COVID-19 Response and Recovery: A Scoping Review and Causal Loop Diagram. Systems. 2021; 9(3):52. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/systems9030052

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sharma, Sudesh, Mat Walton, and Suzanne Manning. 2021. "Social Determinants of Health Influencing the New Zealand COVID-19 Response and Recovery: A Scoping Review and Causal Loop Diagram" Systems 9, no. 3: 52. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/systems9030052

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