Optimizing software to become (more) energy efficient is an important concern for the software industry. Although several techniques have been proposed to measure energy consumption within software engineering, little work has specifically addressed Software Product Lines (SPLs). SPLs are a widely used software development approach, where the core concept is to study the systematic development of products that can be deployed in a variable way, e.g., to include different features for different clients. The traditional approach for measuring energy consumption in SPLs is to generate and individually measure all products, which, given their large number, is impractical. We present a technique, implemented in a tool, to statically estimate the worst-case energy consumption for SPLs. The goal is to reason about energy consumption in all products of a SPL, without having to individually analyze each product. Our technique combines static analysis and worst-case prediction with energy consumption analysis, in order to analyze products in a feature-sensitive manner: a feature that is used in several products is analyzed only once, while the energy consumption is estimated once per product. This paper describes not only our previous work on worst-case prediction, for comprehensibility, but also a significant extension of such work. This extension has been realized in two different axis: firstly, we incorporated in our methodology a simulated annealing algorithm to improve our worst-case energy consumption estimation. Secondly, we evaluated our new approach in four real-world SPLs, containing a total of 99 software products. Our new results show that our technique is able to estimate the worst-case energy consumption with a mean error percentage of 17.3% and standard deviation of 11.2%.
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