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An Overview of Indicator Choice and Normalization in Raw Material Supply Risk Assessments

Resource Lab, University of Augsburg, Universitaetsstr. 16, 86519 Augsburg, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ben McLellan
Received: 2 July 2021 / Revised: 28 July 2021 / Accepted: 30 July 2021 / Published: 4 August 2021
Supply risk assessments are an integral part of raw material criticality assessments frequently used at the country or company level to identify raw materials of concern. However, the indicators used in supply risk assessments to estimate the likelihood of supply disruptions vary substantially. Here, we summarize and evaluate the use of supply risk indicators and their normalization to supply risk scores in 88 methods published until 2020. In total, we find 618 individual applications of supply risk criteria with 98 unique criteria belonging to one of ten indicator categories. The most often used categories of supply risk indicators are concentration, scarcity, and political instability. The most frequently used criteria are the country concentration of production, depletion time of reserves, and geopolitical risk. Indicator measurements and normalizations vary substantially between different methods for the same criterion. Our results can be used for future raw material criticality assessments to screen for suitable supply risk indicators and generally accepted indicator normalizations. We also find a further need for stronger empirical evidence of widely used indicators. View Full-Text
Keywords: criticality assessments; supply risk; raw material; concentration; scarcity; political instability; mineral resources criticality assessments; supply risk; raw material; concentration; scarcity; political instability; mineral resources
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MDPI and ACS Style

Helbig, C.; Bruckler, M.; Thorenz, A.; Tuma, A. An Overview of Indicator Choice and Normalization in Raw Material Supply Risk Assessments. Resources 2021, 10, 79. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/resources10080079

AMA Style

Helbig C, Bruckler M, Thorenz A, Tuma A. An Overview of Indicator Choice and Normalization in Raw Material Supply Risk Assessments. Resources. 2021; 10(8):79. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/resources10080079

Chicago/Turabian Style

Helbig, Christoph, Martin Bruckler, Andrea Thorenz, and Axel Tuma. 2021. "An Overview of Indicator Choice and Normalization in Raw Material Supply Risk Assessments" Resources 10, no. 8: 79. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/resources10080079

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