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Cosmetics, Volume 11, Issue 2 (April 2024) – 34 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled, in vivo study was to determine the effect of a topically applied 0.1% PPAR ligand on the stratum corneum (SC). Here, we demonstrate via lipidomic analysis of tape strips a trend toward an increase in long-chain triacylglycerols (C50–C56) and medium- and long-chain ceramides (C42–C50) at the superficial SC. Using confocal Raman microspectroscopy, we found a significant increase in the orthorhombic organisation of lipids at the exemplary SC depth. An increase in unfolded states in the keratin results in an increased ability to bind water. The concentrations of tightly and strongly bound water increase, while weakly bound and unbound water decrease in the entire SC. Thus, the topical PPAR ligands improve the water-holding capacity and the barrier function of the SC. View this paper
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13 pages, 2398 KiB  
Article
Impact of Hair Damage on the Penetration Profile of Coconut, Avocado, and Argan Oils into Caucasian Hair Fibers
by Carolina Botelho Lourenço, Rebeca Mantuan Gasparin, Fernanda Malanconi Thomaz, Gustavo Carlos da Silva, Airton Abrahao Martin, Ana Cláudia Paiva-Santos and Priscila Gava Mazzola
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 64; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020064 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1876
Abstract
The mitigation of damaged hair conditions involves the application and penetration of substances to stabilize broken bond sites, restore lipids and proteins, reinstate hydrophobicity, and recover hair mechanical properties. Vegetable oils, in general, exhibit a list of advantageous characteristics much desired by consumers, [...] Read more.
The mitigation of damaged hair conditions involves the application and penetration of substances to stabilize broken bond sites, restore lipids and proteins, reinstate hydrophobicity, and recover hair mechanical properties. Vegetable oils, in general, exhibit a list of advantageous characteristics much desired by consumers, given the associated benefits for hair fibers. While coconut oil is highly popular in the hair care market and extensively studied for its ability to diffuse through the hair cortex, the effects of avocado and argan oil on the internal structure of hair and their potential benefits remain underexplored. Tensile and fatigue tests, as well as Raman spectroscopy, were carried out to investigate the interaction of these three oils with virgin and bleached Caucasian hair. The oils were applied in sufficient amounts directly to hair tresses and maintained for 24 h at 25 °C. Our results show that the three oils successfully diffused and interacted with the cortical region of the hairs. Their impact on hair mechanical properties depends on the level of damage and humidity conditions. In virgin hair, coconut and avocado oil reinforce the hydrophobic barrier of the cellular membrane complex, preventing water from causing intense perturbation of the mechanical properties, leading to increased stiffness and break stress. Meanwhile, due to the high degree of unsaturation of its fatty acid chains, argan oil increases water absorption, resulting in losses in hair resistance. When bleached, the hydrophilicity of the hair fiber increases, determining more affinity for argan oil. Consequently, the affinity with water is also elevated, causing increased fragility to mechanical stress. The analyzed vegetable oils are not always beneficial for hair care. Their specific chemical characteristics and hair conditions will influence the final results and should be taken into consideration in hair care product development. Full article
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11 pages, 2079 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Characterization of a Topical Delivery System for Nanoemulsions Using a Composite Film of Pectin and Tapioca
by Luciana Agostinho and Pedro Rocha-Filho
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 63; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020063 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1435
Abstract
Nanoemulsions represent a remarkable class of colloidal systems that play a pivotal role in the encapsulation, protection, and targeted delivery of active ingredients to the skin. One of the primary objectives in skincare science is to maximize the interaction between the active ingredients [...] Read more.
Nanoemulsions represent a remarkable class of colloidal systems that play a pivotal role in the encapsulation, protection, and targeted delivery of active ingredients to the skin. One of the primary objectives in skincare science is to maximize the interaction between the active ingredients and the skin. This can be achieved through various mechanisms, two of which are occlusion and extended contact of the formulation with the skin. Cosmetic masks can be used to improve the skin’s hydration by creating a barrier that minimizes transepidermal water loss while acting as a repository of the active ingredient, increasing the skin’s absorption of the formulation’s active ingredients. In order to diminish the environmental impact, natural-polymeric-material masks are being used, as an alternative to synthetic materials, for its biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this work pectin and tapioca starch were used to develop a polymeric mask to deliver a rice bran oil nanoemulsion and study some characteristics of the final product. The results show that the association of pectin and tapioca starch can be used to produce a film that can be molded and shows occlusive effects, besides being flexible and compatible with the skin. Full article
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15 pages, 2063 KiB  
Article
Potential Benefits of a Cosmetic Ingredient Combining Thermal Spring Water and Diatom Algae Extract
by Maria Lourdes Mourelle, Jordi Segura de Yebra, Jordi Ayats, Maria Vitale and Ana López Sánchez
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 62; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020062 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 2018
Abstract
The development of cosmetic ingredients improving the management of skin with irritation proclivity is an actual need. However, medical recommendations in specific cases, such as sensitive skin, include the use of as few and low-reactive ingredients as possible. In this context, we here [...] Read more.
The development of cosmetic ingredients improving the management of skin with irritation proclivity is an actual need. However, medical recommendations in specific cases, such as sensitive skin, include the use of as few and low-reactive ingredients as possible. In this context, we here describe the development of a new ingredient consisting of a mixture of thermal water and a diatom algae extract. First, we characterized a thermal spring water (La Solia, LS-TSW). Attending to its chemical composition, LS-TSW displayed an exclusive combination of different inorganic elements, with interesting potential properties when compared with other commercial spring waters. Then, LS-TSW hydrobiome was studied, and after finding specimens of Phaeodactylum-like sp., we proposed potentiating LS-TSW benefits with its combination with an oil extract of Phaeodactylum tricornutum (PtOE). Finally, we assessed the potential of the mixture during pro-inflammatory stimulation, in the first instance using an immune cell model, and then in an in vitro system mimicking keratinocytes under skin irritation. In the last-mentioned model, the ingredient of interest effectively attenuated the induced levels of different pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-6, IL-1, TNFα, NF-κB, and CCL1), at the level of gene expression. Thus, our results highlight the potential benefits of this combination in the context of skin irritation, opening roads for its use in new skincare regimens, and addressing an important dermatological concern. Full article
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8 pages, 4390 KiB  
Communication
Blending Hyaluronic Acid and Calcium Hydroxylapatite for Injectable Facial Dermal Fillers: A Clinical and Ultrasonography Assessment
by Bruna Bravo, Raquel Carvalho, Leonardo Bravo, Laís Penedo and Mariana Elias
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 61; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020061 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1377
Abstract
Both hyaluronic acid (HA) and calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) fillers have well-established indications in cosmetic medicine. Nevertheless, limited data are available on the effectiveness of combining CaHA and HA. The purpose of this report was to demonstrate the safety, tolerability, and clinical and ultrasonographic [...] Read more.
Both hyaluronic acid (HA) and calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) fillers have well-established indications in cosmetic medicine. Nevertheless, limited data are available on the effectiveness of combining CaHA and HA. The purpose of this report was to demonstrate the safety, tolerability, and clinical and ultrasonographic improvement of facial skin laxity using a blending technique that admixes HA and CaHA. Fifteen regular patients, including three men, between 25 and 71 years of age were reported. The participants were subjects who came regularly to the dermatologic office seeking a lifting effect without surgery. They were submitted to injection of an admixture of HA and CaHA and followed for 180 days. The clinical assessment consisted of photographic evaluation by two blind investigators, and a consensual subjective evaluation was performed by the physicians (PGAIS) using the five-point Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale. Dermal thickness was analyzed in jaw areas using high-frequency ultrasound. Subjects completed a satisfaction questionnaire with responses scored according to the five-point Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (GAIS) to evaluate patient satisfaction. After 180 days of follow-up, clinical assessments by blinded physicians found that all patients improved. All the participants were highly satisfied with the results and reported exceptional improvement. Dermal thickness increased by 9.4% (8.2–10.8%), 14.0% (12.2–15.9%), and 18.8% (16.2–21.9%) at D90, D120, and D180, respectively, by ultrasonography. In conclusion, an injection technique using an admixture of CaHA and HA fillers was well tolerated, offering high satisfaction and long-lasting progressive benefits. The authors believe that this procedure optimizes the treatment time and results because HA promotes early volume restoration and CaHA stimulates long-term dermal remodeling through the synthesis of collagen and elastin. Full article
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25 pages, 5605 KiB  
Article
Eco-Designing Cosmetic Products while Preserving the Sensorial-Application Properties: An Instrumental Approach toward Sustainable Formulations
by Giovanni Tafuro, Alessia Costantini, Mario Piatto, Silvia Lucchetti, Stefano Francescato, Laura Busata, Giovanni Baratto and Alessandra Semenzato
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 60; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020060 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1702
Abstract
Driven by growing environmental concerns and regulations, cosmetic companies are seeking reliable methods to promptly assess the possibility of replacing high-impact ingredients with sustainable alternatives. In this work, we exploited rheological and texture analyses to evaluate the possibility of using natural and biodegradable [...] Read more.
Driven by growing environmental concerns and regulations, cosmetic companies are seeking reliable methods to promptly assess the possibility of replacing high-impact ingredients with sustainable alternatives. In this work, we exploited rheological and texture analyses to evaluate the possibility of using natural and biodegradable raw materials for reformulating three commercial oil-in-water skin care emulsions from an eco-design perspective. Synthetic texturizers, like nylon-12 and PMMA, were replaced with starch, maltodextrin, and silica, while acrylic rheological modifiers were substituted with polysaccharide associations of sclerotium gum, xanthan gum, diutan gum, and carrageenan. Plant-based emollients and a biodegradable elastomer were used as alternatives to silicone oils. The flow and viscoelastic properties of the samples were characterized using rheological tests under continuous and oscillatory flow conditions. The immersion/de-immersion texture analysis allowed us to measure the mechanical properties of firmness, adhesiveness, and stringiness. A double-blind sensory test assessed the products’ application and sensory characteristics. The results revealed that rheology and texture analysis are complementary and correlated techniques, useful for predicting cosmetics’ sensory characteristics. While perfect replication of the original formulas might not be achievable, this protocol can aid formulators in selecting new eco-friendly ingredients ensuring the products’ desired application and sensory properties without compromising consumer experience. Full article
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22 pages, 3252 KiB  
Article
Formulation and Characterization of Non-Toxic, Antimicrobial, and Alcohol-Free Hand Sanitizer Nanoemulgel Based on Lemon Peel Extract
by Faten Mohamed Ibrahim, Eman Samy Shalaby, Mohamed Azab El-Liethy, Sherif Abd-Elmaksoud, Reda Sayed Mohammed, Said I. Shalaby, Cristina V. Rodrigues, Manuela Pintado and El Sayed El Habbasha
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020059 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1460
Abstract
Recently, hand sanitization has gained attention for preventing disease transmission. Many on-the-market convenient dermal sanitizers contain alcohol, which can be detrimental to the skin. Therefore, three nanoemulgel formulations (LN-F1, LN-F2, LN-F3) incorporating lemon peel extract (LE), and with various increasing concentrations of xanthan [...] Read more.
Recently, hand sanitization has gained attention for preventing disease transmission. Many on-the-market convenient dermal sanitizers contain alcohol, which can be detrimental to the skin. Therefore, three nanoemulgel formulations (LN-F1, LN-F2, LN-F3) incorporating lemon peel extract (LE), and with various increasing concentrations of xanthan gum as a gelling agent and stabilizer, were developed and characterized as a novel alternative. All formulations showed non-Newtonian shear-thinning flow behavior, particle size values below 200 nm, and increasing zeta potential with higher xanthan gum concentrations. All nanoemulgel formulations exhibited greater in vitro phenolic compound release than free LE. LN-F2 (1.0% LE, 20.0% mineral oil, 20.0% Span 80, 4.0% Cremophor RH 40, 4.0% PEG 400, 0.5% xanthan gum, 50.5% dH2O) was selected as the optimal formulation due to improved characteristics. LE and LN-F2 potential cytotoxicity was assessed on MA-104, showing no significant cellular morphological alterations up to 10 mg/mL for both samples. LN-F2 showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. Typhimurium, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, and C. albicans, as well as antiviral activity against phiX 174, but no effect against rotavirus (SA-11). In vivo, LN-F2 presented a removal capacity of 83% to 100% for bacteria and 89% to 100% for fungi. These findings suggest that the formulated nanoemulgel holds potential as a safe and effective antiseptic, providing a viable alternative to commercial alcohol-based formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Plant-Based Molecules and Materials in Cosmetics)
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20 pages, 2295 KiB  
Article
Development of a Ready-to-Use Oxyresveratrol-Enriched Extract from Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb. Using Greener Solvents and Deep Eutectic Solvents for a Whitening Agent
by Krittanon Saesue, Pornnapa Thanomrak, Wipawan Prompan, Warakhim Punan, Nantaka Khorana, Wasinee Juprasert, Tammanoon Rungsang, Pattravee Thong-on and Jukkarin Srivilai
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 58; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020058 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1423
Abstract
Oxyresveratrol (ORV) is naturally found in Artocapus lakoocha Roxb. (AL), similar to resveratrol. This AL extract has demonstrated considerable importance in dietary supplements and cosmetics for its anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant properties. There is a great demand for ORV in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical [...] Read more.
Oxyresveratrol (ORV) is naturally found in Artocapus lakoocha Roxb. (AL), similar to resveratrol. This AL extract has demonstrated considerable importance in dietary supplements and cosmetics for its anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant properties. There is a great demand for ORV in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Traditionally, harsh solvents have been used to extract ORV from AL. This study aims to address this issue by introducing green technology with a ready-to-use extract for the enrichment of ORV extraction from AL using deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Thirty-three DESs were synthesized and characterized. The extraction efficiency of these DESs was evaluated by ORV content (g ORV/kg dried plant) and compared with the conventional solvents, analyzed by validated HPLC. Notably, two synthesized DESs, namely choline chloride/citric acid/water (2:1:3) (DES10) and choline chloride/xylose (1:1) (DES17), showed higher ORV content than the conventional solvents and were therefore selected for optimization of extraction conditions using Box–Behnken designs, considering three variable levels: time, temperature, and water as co-solvents. Interestingly, the biological activities of ORV-enriched extracts from DES10 and DES17 were evaluated, and the results showed that they were 74-fold and 252-fold more potent than kojic acid in terms of tyrosinase inhibitory activity. DES17 was 17-fold more potent antioxidants than ascorbic acid. The morphology of AL powder before and after extraction with DESs under SEM suggested that DESs have the same mechanism as classical organic solvents. These ORV-enriched extracts can be directly incorporated into cosmetic formulations and production scales without the need to prepare a stock solution and are therefore referred to as ready-to-use extracts. This study successfully pioneered the use of DESs for environmentally friendly and highly efficient ORV extraction from AL to produce ready-to-use extracts and applications for the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Sources for Cosmetic Ingredients: Challenges and Innovations)
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16 pages, 2621 KiB  
Article
Nanoemulsions Containing Passiflora quadrangularis L. Fruit Extracts for Cosmetic Application and Skin Efficacy Study
by Nareekan Yanasan, Worrapon Wangkananon, Surapol Natakankitkul and Kanokwan Kiattisin
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 57; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020057 - 4 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1482
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the anti-collagenase, anti-elastase, and anti-hyaluronidase activities of Passiflora quadrangularis fruit extracts (epicarp, mesocarp, endocarp, and seed), develop stable nanoemulsions, and evaluate the efficacy of the nanoemulsions containing extracts in human volunteers. The results indicated that the epicarp and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the anti-collagenase, anti-elastase, and anti-hyaluronidase activities of Passiflora quadrangularis fruit extracts (epicarp, mesocarp, endocarp, and seed), develop stable nanoemulsions, and evaluate the efficacy of the nanoemulsions containing extracts in human volunteers. The results indicated that the epicarp and seed extracts exhibited collagenase, elastase, and hyaluronidase inhibition effects. Gallic acid was identified in the extracts, with the highest concentration found in the endocarp extract (1449.35 mg gallic acid/g extract) followed by the seed extract (839.63 mg gallic acid/g extract). The endocarp and seed extracts demonstrated good stability at different temperatures. Consequently, these extracts were selected for incorporation into nanoemulsions due to their high yield, excellent anti-tyrosinase and anti-aging activity, and good stability, making them suitable for cosmetic products. The nanoemulsions were prepared using the ultrasonication method, resulting in a particle size of 133.1 ± 0.8 nm, a polydispersity index of 0.33 ± 0.03, and a zeta potential of −61.8 ± 0.6 mV, indicating good stability. The nano-serum containing extracts was non-irritating and safe for the skin. Skin evaluation among human volunteers after 60 days of application revealed improvements in skin hydration and reduction in wrinkles. In conclusion, nanoemulsions containing P. quadrangularis fruit extracts have the potential to be effective cosmetic products. Full article
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11 pages, 2661 KiB  
Article
Permanent Makeup (PMU) Removal with Plant Origin Extracts
by Eleni Andreou, Efstathios Rallis, Sophia Hatziantoniou and Vasiliki Kefala
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 56; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020056 - 3 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1782
Abstract
Permanent makeup (PMU) is a popular application for the correction of face and body imperfections. It can be applied over the facial area to correct the shape and color of eyebrows, to the eyelids to create permanent eyeliner shapes, and the lips to [...] Read more.
Permanent makeup (PMU) is a popular application for the correction of face and body imperfections. It can be applied over the facial area to correct the shape and color of eyebrows, to the eyelids to create permanent eyeliner shapes, and the lips to create permanent lipliner and lip shading features. Furthermore, its “medical” use on the scalp and men’s facial hair area to camouflage hair follicles and to cover hairless areas makes it popular for hair transplants. No matter how useful these procedures are, there are always mistakes and the factor of bad application which raises the number of patients who want to “remove” it or “correct” it on their face or body. In order to find a non-laser solution for PMU removal, we investigated the decolorization capacity of common plants and plant origin extracts on mouse models. Two methods were used for PMU decolorization. The first one included the use of traditional tattooing with needles combined with plant origin extracts applied over the tattooed area. The second one included the use of electroporation technology application with the combination of plant origin materials to remove the PMU colorants over the tattooed area. In both cases, the permanent makeup colorants for eyebrows, eyeliners, and lipliners were applied in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Medical and Cosmetic Dermatology)
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13 pages, 268 KiB  
Review
Wigs and Alopecia Areata: Psychosocial Impact and Economic Considerations
by Ashling Courtney and John C. Su
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 55; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020055 - 3 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1416
Abstract
Alopecia areata (AA) presents a challenging and unpredictable condition associated with substantial psychosocial and financial burdens. A chronic, relapsing form of non-scarring hair loss, it affects approximately 0.1–0.2% of the population worldwide with a lifetime risk of 1.0% to 2.1%. The psychosocial implications [...] Read more.
Alopecia areata (AA) presents a challenging and unpredictable condition associated with substantial psychosocial and financial burdens. A chronic, relapsing form of non-scarring hair loss, it affects approximately 0.1–0.2% of the population worldwide with a lifetime risk of 1.0% to 2.1%. The psychosocial implications of AA, including its association with depression, anxiety, social phobia, employment disruption, and relationship challenges are well described. Significant economic costs of AA include those of healthcare, lost income, transportation, psychotherapy, and cosmetic accessories (wigs and hairpieces). However, wigs and hairpieces can contribute to enhanced self-esteem, confidence, and overall quality of life (QOL) in AA patients; these positive outcomes correlating with satisfaction in appearance. This article explores the role of wigs in addressing the aesthetic and emotional impact of AA, emphasizing their importance as potential coping mechanisms for individuals facing hair loss whilst also acknowledging possible barriers to their use. Different types of wigs and hairpieces, their respective advantages and disadvantages, and methods of attachment are thoroughly discussed, providing a comprehensive overview for both patients and healthcare professionals. Considering the economic impact of AA, this article explores the cost of wigs in Australia and available financial assistance programs. Wigs can play a pivotal role in rapidly addressing the multifaceted challenges posed by AA, offering time for psychosocial adaptation and delayed response to medical therapies. This review aims to provide valuable insights to inform evidence-based, practical, and personalized counselling of patients with AA and enable shared decision making about the utility of wigs and other cosmetic interventions for hair loss. Further research is warranted to explore differences in the optimal utilization of wigs between diverse sub-populations with AA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Medical and Cosmetic Dermatology)
12 pages, 294 KiB  
Review
Current Knowledge and Regulatory Framework on the Use of Hyaluronic Acid for Aesthetic Injectable Skin Rejuvenation Treatments
by Jenny Allen and Kalliopi Dodou
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 54; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020054 - 3 Apr 2024
Viewed by 2271
Abstract
Dermal injections of hyaluronic acid gel for aesthetic skin rejuvenation are becoming increasingly popular nowadays. Although these products are classified as medical devices, the regulations on their administration by licensed practitioners are still weak, whereas their manufacturers increasingly highlight and advertise the cellular [...] Read more.
Dermal injections of hyaluronic acid gel for aesthetic skin rejuvenation are becoming increasingly popular nowadays. Although these products are classified as medical devices, the regulations on their administration by licensed practitioners are still weak, whereas their manufacturers increasingly highlight and advertise the cellular effects that underpin the efficacy of these injections. In this review, we discuss all current knowledge on the mode of action of dermally injected hyaluronic acid and the potential toxicological implications, especially from crosslinked gels, in conjunction with the current global regulations. We also highlight the urgent need for further research to elucidate the therapeutic implications and underscore the imperative need for robust regulatory frameworks to safeguard public health. We conclude that dermal injections of hyaluronic acid have several therapeutic implications that warrant further research and that strict regulations must be applied to their manufacture/quality control and the required qualifications of licensed aesthetic injectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment for Anti-aging and Rejuvenation)
14 pages, 3130 KiB  
Article
Unlocking the Potential: A Comprehensive Analysis of the Technological Properties and Consumer Perception of Shampoo Enriched with Patchouli Extract and Allantoin
by Ugnė Žlabienė, Erlita Bartkutė and Jurga Bernatonienė
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 53; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020053 - 2 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1423
Abstract
Amidst a growing shift towards eco-friendly choices in personal care products, the challenge of formulating herbal shampoos with efficacy comparable to synthetic counterparts persists. This study investigates the potential of incorporating patchouli extract and allantoin as additives in anti-dandruff shampoo formulations, assessing their [...] Read more.
Amidst a growing shift towards eco-friendly choices in personal care products, the challenge of formulating herbal shampoos with efficacy comparable to synthetic counterparts persists. This study investigates the potential of incorporating patchouli extract and allantoin as additives in anti-dandruff shampoo formulations, assessing their impact on the technological properties of the product. With limited research on their efficacy, our investigation contributes valuable insights to the development of effective and consumer-friendly shampoos targeting dandruff concerns. Physicochemical characteristics (pH, surface tension, texture) were evaluated, alongside specific quality assessments such as wetting time, dirt dispersion, foaming, and cleaning action, in in vivo consumer research. Shampoo formulations incorporating 0.5% Patchoul’Up™ and 1% allantoin exhibited acceptable properties. However, the addition of plant-derived ingredients resulted in a beneficial decrease in surface tension (5.87%). Nevertheless, a decrease in cohesiveness (18%) over a 5-month period resulted in rheological changes, indicating potential instability (p < 0.05). While the consumer evaluation aligns with laboratory findings, continuous research is essential to ensure stability and validate the anti-dandruff potential of the formulation, both in vitro and in vivo. This involves expanding the number of volunteers, with a specific focus on individuals experiencing dandruff concerns, to assess the shampoo’s efficacy and impact on diverse user experiences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Plant-Based Molecules and Materials in Cosmetics)
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20 pages, 4651 KiB  
Article
A Sustainable Multistage Process for Immobilizing Bioactive Compounds on Layered Double Hydroxides
by Serena Coiai, Elisa Passaglia, Alice Telleschi, Werner Oberhauser, Maria-Beatrice Coltelli and Francesca Cicogna
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 52; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020052 - 2 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1291
Abstract
Hybrid systems with antioxidant properties have been developed by integrating bioactive compounds derived from plant resources with layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Anion exchange has been used to substitute intercalated nitrate anions in Mg-Al LDH with carboxylate anions derived from trans-ferulic acid, rosmarinic acid, [...] Read more.
Hybrid systems with antioxidant properties have been developed by integrating bioactive compounds derived from plant resources with layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Anion exchange has been used to substitute intercalated nitrate anions in Mg-Al LDH with carboxylate anions derived from trans-ferulic acid, rosmarinic acid, and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid. These organic compounds are known for their powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties and are highly suitable for cosmetics, biomedicine, and food packaging. To enhance sustainability, a multistage procedure has been developed with the aim of recovering unexchanged carboxylate anions from residual reaction water, ensuring an environmentally friendly and easily scalable preparation process. The process, adapted for each of the three molecules, allows the production of a consistently high-quality hybrid product containing an organic fraction ranging from 10 to 48% by weight, depending on the specific molecule used. The immobilization of organic compounds has occurred either within the layers of LDH through intercalation or on the external surface through adsorption. Good antioxidant capacity has been exhibited by these powdered hybrid systems, as assessed through both the DPPH and linoleic acid/β-carotene tests. Sustainable production practices are enabled by this innovative approach, which also opens avenues for the development of advanced materials for diverse applications across various industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Cosmetic Sciences: Sustainability in Materials and Processes)
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29 pages, 1254 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Microneedling-Assisted Cosmetic Applications
by Rania Hamed, Baraah Jehad Abu Nahia, Ahlam Zaid Alkilani, Yasmeen Al-Adhami and Rana Obaidat
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 51; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020051 - 2 Apr 2024
Viewed by 2817
Abstract
Microneedling, also known as percutaneous collagen induction, using microneedling devices and fabricated microneedle patches, has been widely employed in cosmetic applications for acne scar treatment, skin care, hair loss, melasma, skin rejuvenation, and skin cancer. The micro-channels formed by microneedling through the stratum [...] Read more.
Microneedling, also known as percutaneous collagen induction, using microneedling devices and fabricated microneedle patches, has been widely employed in cosmetic applications for acne scar treatment, skin care, hair loss, melasma, skin rejuvenation, and skin cancer. The micro-channels formed by microneedling through the stratum corneum facilitate the delivery of cosmetic agents and stimulate collagen and elastin production by inducing the wound-healing cascade, keeping the skin shiny and wrinkle-free. Several cosmetic agents, such as ascorbic acid, hyaluronic acid, retinoids, niacinamide, and peptides, have been delivered by microneedling. This review aims to highlight the use of microneedling devices and fabricated microneedle patches in facilitating the delivery of cosmetic agents through the skin layers. Moreover, the differences between the microneedling devices, commonly used alone or in combinational treatments with topical formulations, are explored. Furthermore, the safety of microneedling in terms of skin irritation, pain sensation, skin or systemic infection, and chemical and biological materials used in the fabrication of microneedles is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Cosmetics—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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10 pages, 4094 KiB  
Case Report
Histological, Clinical Assessment, and Treatment of a Permanent Filler Complication in the Upper Lip: A Case Report with 16-Year Follow-Up
by Samuel Fiuza, Tiago Marques, Irving Padin, Maria Teresa Carvalho, Nelio Veiga, Juliana Campos Hasse Fernandes, Gustavo Vicentis Oliveira Fernandes and Patrícia Couto
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 50; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020050 - 1 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1433
Abstract
There is a considerable increase in the use of substances and medical procedures aimed at changing the esthetics of the face, particularly the appearance of the lips. Permanent fillers such as polydimethylsiloxane, also called liquid silicone, are widely used, but their application for [...] Read more.
There is a considerable increase in the use of substances and medical procedures aimed at changing the esthetics of the face, particularly the appearance of the lips. Permanent fillers such as polydimethylsiloxane, also called liquid silicone, are widely used, but their application for facial esthetics is currently obsolete. Silicone belongs to this polymer family; its viscosity is determined by its degree of polymerization. Liquid injectable silicone is odorless, colorless, non-volatile, and oily to the touch. The substance is not altered by storage at room temperature and is not carcinogenic or teratogenic. However, the long-term complications remain a reality, as they can occur decades after the application. Thus, the goal of this case report was to present a complication after 16 years of treatment using liquid silicone. This case report involved a 52-year-old male with a complication of bilateral permanent filler in the upper lip performed 16 years ago, its surgical removal, and histological analysis. The patient had the first appointment at the University Dental Clinic—Universidade Católica Portuguesa (Viseu, Portugal) in April 2022, dissatisfied with his upper lip’s esthetic appearance and shape. He was not a smoker or diabetic but had hypertension and hypercholesterolemia and was medicated with Losartan, Hydrochlorothiazide, and Pitavastatin. No relevant findings were observed in the extraoral examination; he had bruxism and a good periodontal condition. The patient had an asymptomatic bilateral mass, hard to palpation, located on the upper lip due to permanent lip filling performed to increase its volume in 2006 associated with non-related generalized granules of Fordyce. The treatment options presented just observation or complete material removal in two surgical steps, which was the patient’s choice. Then, the first surgical procedure was performed under local anesthesia on the right side of the lip, one carpule of Lidocaine 2% with adrenaline 1:100,000, with a chalazion clamp, a diode laser for hemorrhagic control, and a simple suture. In this procedure, three fragments were biopsied: a cuboid measuring 1 × 1 × 0.8 cm and an irregular one consisting of two fragments that at one end of the piece were in continuity with each other, one measuring 1.6 × 0.5 × 0.4 cm and the other 2.5 × 0.6 × 0.5 cm. A similar macroscopic appearance in all the material, white in color, irregular surface, elastic, white section surface, or slightly fasciculate. The patient was medicated with Tylenol 500 mg thrice a day for two days. With 20-day intervals, the sutures from the first surgery were removed, as well as the foreign body from the upper lip on the left side, following the same surgical technique and medication. Histologically, it was possible to identify a chronic inflammatory, lymphoplasmacytic, and granulomatous reaction, with foreign body giant cells’ reaction, in relation to non-polarizable exogenous material due to the reaction to silicone. The most common complications are granulomas’ appearance and material displacement. The case report shows these granulomas are characterized as chronic low-caliber inflammation around the silicone. They have an unknown etiology but are probably multifactorial, from continuous trauma, friction or irritation, iatrogenic factors, infection, immunological mechanisms, and genetic and molecular variations, and can be highly related to the impurity of the injected material. This case brings the opportunity for health professionals to increase awareness of the long-term adverse effects of the silicone material used to fill the lip in order to make its application more predictable and conscious. Full article
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15 pages, 1529 KiB  
Review
Advancements in Regenerative Medicine for Aesthetic Dermatology: A Comprehensive Review and Future Trends
by Federica Trovato, Stefano Ceccarelli, Simone Michelini, Giordano Vespasiani, Stefania Guida, Hassan Ibrahim Galadari, Steven Paul Nisticò, Laura Colonna and Giovanni Pellacani
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 49; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020049 - 31 Mar 2024
Viewed by 2810
Abstract
The growing interest in maintaining a youthful appearance has encouraged an accelerated development of innovative, minimally invasive aesthetic treatments for facial rejuvenation and regeneration. The close correlation between tissue repair, regeneration, and aging has paved the way for the application of regenerative medicine [...] Read more.
The growing interest in maintaining a youthful appearance has encouraged an accelerated development of innovative, minimally invasive aesthetic treatments for facial rejuvenation and regeneration. The close correlation between tissue repair, regeneration, and aging has paved the way for the application of regenerative medicine principles in cosmetic dermatology. The theoretical substrates of regenerative medicine applications in dermo-aesthetics are plentiful. However, regenerative dermatology is an emerging field and needs more data and in vivo trials to reach a consensus on the standardization of methods. In this review, we summarize the principles of regenerative medicine and techniques as they apply to cosmetic dermatology, suggesting unexplored fields and future directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Medical and Cosmetic Dermatology)
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21 pages, 1291 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Review of Essential Oil–Nanotechnology Synergy for Advanced Dermocosmetic Delivery
by Redouane Achagar, Zouhair Ait-Touchente, Rafika El Ati, Khalid Boujdi, Abderrahmane Thoume, Achraf Abdou and Rachid Touzani
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 48; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020048 - 27 Mar 2024
Viewed by 2767
Abstract
This review investigates the convergence of nanotechnology and essential oils in advanced dermocosmetic delivery. It outlines the pivotal role of inorganic and polymeric nanoparticles, such as titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, and gold nanocarriers, in cosmeceutical applications, facilitating slow release, deeper skin penetration, and [...] Read more.
This review investigates the convergence of nanotechnology and essential oils in advanced dermocosmetic delivery. It outlines the pivotal role of inorganic and polymeric nanoparticles, such as titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, and gold nanocarriers, in cosmeceutical applications, facilitating slow release, deeper skin penetration, and increased retention of active compounds. Essential oils, renowned for therapeutic benefits, face translation challenges due to volatility and low water solubility. This review explores the potential use of plant nanovesicles as carriers, emphasizing safety, stability, and scalability, offering a sustainable and cost-effective industrial application. Nanomaterial integration in consumer products, particularly cosmetics, is prevalent, with nanocarriers enhancing the permeation of bioactive compounds into deeper skin layers. The review emphasizes recent nanotechnological advancements, covering nanoparticle penetration, experimental models, and therapeutic applications in dermatology, ranging from non-invasive vaccination to transdermal drug delivery. Additionally, the review delves into nanomaterials’ role in addressing skin aging, focusing on tissue regeneration. Nanomaterials loaded with cosmeceuticals, such as phytochemicals and vitamins, are explored as promising solutions to mitigate signs of aging, including wrinkles and dry skin, providing innovative approaches to skin rejuvenation. Overall, the review offers a comprehensive synthesis of essential oil–nanoparticle synergy, shedding light on the current landscape and future potential of advanced dermocosmetic delivery systems. Full article
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21 pages, 2225 KiB  
Review
Innovative Strategies for Photoallergy Assessment: Breaking Free from Animal Models in Cosmetic Ingredient Development
by Adriana Solange Maddaleno, Maria Pilar Vinardell and Montserrat Mitjans
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 47; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020047 - 25 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1684
Abstract
Photoallergy, a unique form of skin sensitization induced by specific compounds under ultraviolet irradiation, has traditionally been investigated using animals. However, the prohibition of animal testing for the assessment of cosmetic ingredients in Europe and other countries underscores the necessity for in vitro [...] Read more.
Photoallergy, a unique form of skin sensitization induced by specific compounds under ultraviolet irradiation, has traditionally been investigated using animals. However, the prohibition of animal testing for the assessment of cosmetic ingredients in Europe and other countries underscores the necessity for in vitro or in silico alternative methods. Currently, there are no validated methods for assessing photoallergy or photosensitization, presenting a significant challenge in the development of new cosmetic ingredients. This review examines the landscape of alternative methods for detecting photosensitization, emphasizing recent publications, and considering the underlying principles of the different proposed assays. Full article
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13 pages, 4592 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Investigation of the Cytotoxic and Antiproliferative Effects of Haberlea rhodopensis Total Extract: A Comparative Study
by Martina I. Peeva, Maya G. Georgieva, Aneliya A. Balacheva, Atanas Pavlov and Nikolay T. Tzvetkov
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 46; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020046 - 21 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1662
Abstract
Haberlea rhodopensis Friv., known also as Rhodope silivryak and the Orpheus flower, is a Balkan endemic “resurrecting” plant belonging to the Gesneriaceae family. In folk medicine, the leaves of Haberlea rhodopensis Friv. were widely used to treat wounds and some infectious diseases of [...] Read more.
Haberlea rhodopensis Friv., known also as Rhodope silivryak and the Orpheus flower, is a Balkan endemic “resurrecting” plant belonging to the Gesneriaceae family. In folk medicine, the leaves of Haberlea rhodopensis Friv. were widely used to treat wounds and some infectious diseases of stock such as foot-and-mouth disease and hoof rot, while the herb of Haberlea rhodopensis Friv. is still used to cleanse the stomach, liver, kidneys, and blood vessels. Because of the content of myconoside, during the last decade, Haberlea rhodopensis Friv. extracts have been recognized as valuable cosmetic ingredients. In the present study, we aim to (i) evaluate the cytotoxic and antiproliferative activity of two herb extracts of Haberlea rhodopensis Friv. that are commercially used for the preparation of cosmetic ingredients on different cancer cells, with one normal cell line used as a reference, and (ii) compare the investigated effects with those observed for the reference anticancer, non-selective compound doxorubicin. Herein, we observed a decrease in the inhibitory activity of both extracts compared to those of doxorubicin against all tested cell lines. However, the myconoside-enriched Haberlea rhodopensis Friv. plant Extract 2 (designated also as M2) showed increased inhibitory activity (cytotoxicity and antiproliferative effects) compared to the Haberlea rhodopensis Friv. plant Extract 1 (designated also as E1). Moreover, the Haberlea rhodopensis Friv. plant Extract 2 showed a significant increase in cytotoxicity (at 24 h) and antiproliferative activity (at 48 and 72 h post-treatment) at its highest-tested concentration of 100 µg/mL compared to Haberlea rhodopensis Friv. plant Extract 1. Full article
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12 pages, 1336 KiB  
Article
Anti-Aging Properties of Cannabis sativa Leaf Extract against UVA Irradiation
by Kunlathida Luangpraditkun, Preeyanuch Pimjuk, Preeyawass Phimnuan, Wisanee Wisanwattana, Chothip Wisespongpand, Neti Waranuch and Jarupa Viyoch
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 45; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020045 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 2727
Abstract
Hemp extract has garnered interest as a potential cosmeceutical agent with multifunctional activities, particularly in protecting against UV-induced skin cell aberrations and restoring aged skin cells. The ethanolic extract of Cannabis sativa leaves was prepared into an aqueous solution (CLES) to investigate its [...] Read more.
Hemp extract has garnered interest as a potential cosmeceutical agent with multifunctional activities, particularly in protecting against UV-induced skin cell aberrations and restoring aged skin cells. The ethanolic extract of Cannabis sativa leaves was prepared into an aqueous solution (CLES) to investigate its anti-photoaging ability. HPLC analysis revealed that the CLES contained 1.64 ± 0.01% w/w of cannabidiol and 0.11% w/w of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Additionally, the total phenolic content was found to be 4.08 ± 0.30 mg gallic acid equivalent per g of solution using the Folin–Ciocalteu method. The CLES exhibited potent scavenging activity using a DPPH assay, with an EC50 value of 277.9 ± 2.41 μg/mL, comparable to L-ascorbic acid, with 2.19 ± 0.28 μg/mL. The anti-photoaging potential of the CLES was evaluated using UVA-irradiated and in vitro-aged fibroblasts as a model. Pre-treatment with 20 μg/mL CLES for 24 h significantly alleviated the reduction in type I procollagen and suppressed the overproduction of MMP-1 and IL-6 induced by UVA. Moreover, the percentage of senescence-associated β-galactosidase-expressing cells decreased significantly to 11.9 ± 0.5% in the aged cells treated with CLES compared with untreated cells (18.8 ± 3.8%). These results strongly indicate the cosmeceutical potential of the CLES as an effective active agent for the anti-photoaging prevention and/or treatment. Full article
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24 pages, 4223 KiB  
Article
Topical Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Agonist Induces Molecular Alterations Enhancing Barrier Function and Water-Holding Capacity of the Human Stratum Corneum In Vivo
by Maxim E. Darvin, Andrew Salazar, Johannes Schleusener, Jürgen Lademann and Jörg von Hagen
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 44; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020044 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1587
Abstract
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ligands modulate a variety of skin functions but are rarely used in cosmetics. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled, in vivo study was to determine the effect of a topically applied 0.1% PPAR ligand on the composition and [...] Read more.
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ligands modulate a variety of skin functions but are rarely used in cosmetics. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled, in vivo study was to determine the effect of a topically applied 0.1% PPAR ligand on the composition and physiological parameters of the stratum corneum (SC). By comparing verum and placebo groups post-treatment, we demonstrate (via lipidomic analysis of tape strips) an unstatistically significant trend toward an increase in long-chain triacylglycerols (C50–C56) and medium- and long-chain ceramides (C42–C50) at the superficial SC. By comparing treated and untreated skin using confocal Raman microspectroscopy, we found that the changes in lipid composition in the verum group led to a significant increase in the number of trans conformers and orthorhombic organisation of lipids at the exemplary SC depth. An increase in unfolded states in the secondary and tertiary keratin structures results in an increased ability to bind water. The concentrations of tightly and strongly bound water increase, while weakly bound and unbound water decrease in the entire SC, indicating a transformation of water mobility to a state of increased hydrogen bonding. Thus, the topical PPAR ligands improve the water-holding capacity and the barrier function of the SC. Full article
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9 pages, 2439 KiB  
Communication
Inhibitory Effect of 2-Aza-8-oxohypoxanthine on Tyrosinase Activity and Melanin Production
by Hisae Aoshima, Ruka Mizuno, Yuho Iwatsu, Shiori Onishi, Sayuri Hyodo, Rinta Ibuki, Hirokazu Kawagishi and Yasukazu Saitoh
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 43; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020043 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1718
Abstract
A fairy chemical, 2-aza-8-oxohypoxanthine, has exhibited broad effects on skin barrier function, leading to its launch as a cosmetic ingredient. A clinical trial on a lotion containing 0.1% 2-aza-8-oxohypoxanthine demonstrated the ability of this chemical to increase skin lightness based on the analysis [...] Read more.
A fairy chemical, 2-aza-8-oxohypoxanthine, has exhibited broad effects on skin barrier function, leading to its launch as a cosmetic ingredient. A clinical trial on a lotion containing 0.1% 2-aza-8-oxohypoxanthine demonstrated the ability of this chemical to increase skin lightness based on the analysis of L* values. In the present study, to elucidate the mechanism underlying the increase in skin lightness, we aimed to investigate the effect of 2-aza-8-oxohypoxanthine on murine melanoma cell lines, focusing on its influence on tyrosinase activity and melanin production. Our findings revealed that the addition of 2-aza-8-oxohypoxanthine inhibited tyrosinase activity by 13% compared with the untreated control. Similarly, melanin production was suppressed by 36% compared with the control. These results strongly suggest that the inhibition of tyrosinase effectively suppressed melanin production. Thus, 2-aza-8-oxohypoxanthine acts by inhibiting tyrosinase and melanin production to promote skin lightening. This study provides novel insights into the skin-lightening mechanism of 2-aza-8-oxohypoxanthine, demonstrating its ability to inhibit melanin production through the suppression of pro-inflammatory factors, thereby highlighting its potential as an effective cosmetic ingredient for lightening skin tone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Substances and Bioavailability in Cosmetics)
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24 pages, 4585 KiB  
Review
What Are the Factors That Enable Thread Lifting to Last Longer?
by Gi-Woong Hong, Hyewon Hu, Soo-Yeon Park, Jovian Wan and Kyu-Ho Yi
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 42; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020042 - 12 Mar 2024
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2146
Abstract
Thread-lifting traditionally addressed aging-related skin laxity by leveraging precise thread placement and traction. However, recent advancements, notably cog threads, expanded its application to younger patients seeking facial contour refinement. These newer threads effectively lift sagging areas and refine facial contours, broadening the procedure’s [...] Read more.
Thread-lifting traditionally addressed aging-related skin laxity by leveraging precise thread placement and traction. However, recent advancements, notably cog threads, expanded its application to younger patients seeking facial contour refinement. These newer threads effectively lift sagging areas and refine facial contours, broadening the procedure’s appeal. Challenges arise in selecting threads due to variable physician preferences and patient needs. Clear indications for thread efficacy are vital for credibility and tailored selection. Thread choice depends on tissue laxity, necessitating lighter threads for minimal laxity and stronger ones for significant sagging. However, no single thread universally suits all cases. Combining different threads is favored for optimal outcomes and minimizing side effects. Excessive traction post-procedure may lead to prolonged discomfort and skin irregularities. Post-procedural tension adjustments through massage remain debated, potentially conflicting with minimally invasive principles. Understanding thread characteristics guides tailored selection, considering patient conditions and procedural goals. This comprehensive understanding extends beyond specific products, aiming for optimal outcomes in thread-lifting procedures. Key factors influencing outcomes encompass thread materials, thickness, cog shapes, insertion depth, lifting vectors, and absorbable thread expiration dates. Full article
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22 pages, 3909 KiB  
Article
Olive Leaves and Citrus Peels: From Waste to Potential Resource for Cosmetic Products
by Nicola d’Avanzo, Antonia Mancuso, Rosario Mare, Antonio Silletta, Samantha Maurotti, Ortensia Ilaria Parisi, Maria Chiara Cristiano and Donatella Paolino
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 41; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020041 - 8 Mar 2024
Viewed by 2184
Abstract
Resource depletion and food waste accumulation represent a tremendous socio-economic and environmental problem. One promising strategy involves the use of byproducts derived from food waste as ingredients for cosmetic products. The aim of this work is to propose clementine peels and olive leaf [...] Read more.
Resource depletion and food waste accumulation represent a tremendous socio-economic and environmental problem. One promising strategy involves the use of byproducts derived from food waste as ingredients for cosmetic products. The aim of this work is to propose clementine peels and olive leaf extracts as value-added bioproducts for a cosmetic cream. Extracts were obtained by super critical extraction showing an antioxidant activity of ca. 25%. No cytotoxic effects of the extracts were recorded on keratinocyte cells up to a concentration of 4% v/v ratio within 24 h. The incorporation of clementine peels and olive leaf extracts into creams did not compromise their stability, as demonstrated by Turbiscan analyses at room and extreme (40 °C) storage conditions. The safety profiles of the final cosmetic formulations were further in vivo demonstrated on human volunteers. We analyzed the trans-epidermal water loss and variation of the skin’s erythematous index, which showed profiles that almost overlapped with the negative control. Moreover, rheological analysis of the resulting creams evidences their suitable spreadability with similar pseudoplastic profiles, although a slight reduction of viscosity was recorded by improving the extracts’ concentrations. The proposed approach highlights the advantage of combining byproduct resources and supercritical fluid extraction to obtain a safe and eco-friendly face cream. Full article
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23 pages, 6859 KiB  
Article
Formulation and Characterization of Niacinamide and Collagen Emulsion and Its Investigation as a Potential Cosmeceutical Product
by Elena Dănilă, Durmuș Alpaslan Kaya, Valentina Anuța, Lăcrămioara Popa, Alina Elena Coman, Ciprian Chelaru, Rodica Roxana Constantinescu, Cristina Dinu-Pîrvu, Mădălina Georgiana Albu Kaya and Mihaela Violeta Ghica
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 40; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020040 - 8 Mar 2024
Viewed by 2211
Abstract
Cosmeceuticals are one of the fast-growing areas of the natural personal care industry. Cosmeceuticals are cosmetic products with medicinal or drug-like benefits that can affect the biological functioning of the skin depending on the ingredients in the composition. The development of one formulation [...] Read more.
Cosmeceuticals are one of the fast-growing areas of the natural personal care industry. Cosmeceuticals are cosmetic products with medicinal or drug-like benefits that can affect the biological functioning of the skin depending on the ingredients in the composition. The development of one formulation acting on the dermis and stimulating the collagen production is very important for the hydration of the skin. The association of collagen with other ingredients can have a positive effect on increasing the natural production of collagen in the skin. An example of such an ingredient is niacinamide, which, having a recognized nutritional value, has been quite recently studied. Considering these aspects, this study focused on developing oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, based on natural ingredients (vegetable oils, floral waters, and essential oils) and hydrolyzed collagen and niacinamide as active ingredients, and on evaluating the stability, pH, optical, superficial, rheological and textural properties, as well as microbiological tests of the emulsions, in order to investigate their potential as a cosmeceutical product. All the obtained emulsions proved to be stable at variable temperatures and had a pH value compatible with natural pH of the skin, allowing their safe application. Over goniometric analysis, a partial wetting and a hydrophilic character of the emulsions were emphasized. Following the rheological analyses, all dermatocosmetic emulsions exhibited non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior and a thixotropic character, these properties being very important for their production process and their application on the skin surface to generate an optimal therapeutic effect. The textural characteristics recorded for all emulsions indicated adequate spreadability at the application site. All tested samples respected the Pharmacopoeia limits of microbiological contamination. All prepared emulsions have good stability, are safe for the skin and have appropriate physicochemical and microbiological characteristics; therefore, they can be used as a cosmeceutical product. Full article
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17 pages, 4704 KiB  
Article
A Hylocereus undatus Extract Enhances Skin Microbiota Balance and Delivers In-Vivo Improvements in Skin Health and Beauty
by Fabien Havas, Shlomo Krispin, Moshe Cohen and Joan Attia-Vigneau
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 39; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020039 - 7 Mar 2024
Viewed by 2073
Abstract
Skin microbiota, and its diversity and balance, play a key role in skin health and beauty, influencing skin moisture, barrier function, and radiance. A healthy skin microbiota limits the growth of detrimental species, protecting the skin from pathologies. Prebiotics can support beneficial populations [...] Read more.
Skin microbiota, and its diversity and balance, play a key role in skin health and beauty, influencing skin moisture, barrier function, and radiance. A healthy skin microbiota limits the growth of detrimental species, protecting the skin from pathologies. Prebiotics can support beneficial populations in outcompeting detrimental ones. Dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus) contains prebiotic polysaccharides effective on gut bacteria. Its extract was tested in vitro, in a coculture model including representative beneficial and detrimental species, and in double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Effects on the skin microbiota were measured via 16S rDNA sequencing, and skin health and beauty benefits were evaluated through image analysis, TEWL measurement, and chromametry. Doppler flowmetry measured skin resilience. The extract supported S. epidermidis and S. hominis (beneficial species), while limiting S. aureus and C. acnes (representing pathogens) in vitro. Clinical results demonstrated its beneficial effects on skin microbiota diversity, especially in older volunteers (Faith’s index up to +20% vs. placebo). Improvements were shown in skin sensitivity and resilience (by ca. 30% vs. placebo), skin redness (reflecting inflammation status), pigmentation and radiance (+11% ITA), barrier function (−13% TEWL), and wrinkling. This demonstrates this extract’s positive effects on the beauty, health, and microbiota balance of the skin. Full article
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17 pages, 4233 KiB  
Article
Patchouli Alcohol: A Potent Tyrosinase Inhibitor Derived from Patchouli Essential Oil with Potential in the Development of a Skin-Lightening Agent
by K. J. Senthil Kumar, M. Gokila Vani, Muthusamy Chinnasamy, Wan-Teng Lin and Sheng-Yang Wang
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 38; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020038 - 5 Mar 2024
Viewed by 2566
Abstract
The inhibitory effects of Pogostemon cablin essential oil (patchouli essential oil, PEO) and its primary bioactive compound, patchouli alcohol (PA), on tyrosinase and melanin were investigated in vitro and ex vivo. Treatment with PEO and PA significantly, as well as dose-dependently, reduced forskolin [...] Read more.
The inhibitory effects of Pogostemon cablin essential oil (patchouli essential oil, PEO) and its primary bioactive compound, patchouli alcohol (PA), on tyrosinase and melanin were investigated in vitro and ex vivo. Treatment with PEO and PA significantly, as well as dose-dependently, reduced forskolin (FRK)-induced melanin biosynthesis, cellular tyrosinase activity, and tyrosinase (TYR) protein expression. However, the transcriptional levels of TYR and tyrosinase-related proteins (TRP-1 and TRP-2) remained unaffected. These results suggest that PEO and PA may directly interrupt tyrosinase enzyme activity, leading to a reduction in melanin biosynthesis. Further experiments supported this notion, revealing that both PEO and PA significantly and dose-dependently inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity in both the monophenolase and diphenolase phases. Additionally, an in silico molecular docking analysis was performed, utilizing a homology model of human tyrosinase. In conclusion, these findings strongly suggest that patchouli essential oil and its primary bioactive component, patchouli alcohol, hold promise as potential treatments for hyperpigmentary skin conditions and in the development of cosmetic products designed to lighten the skin. Full article
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21 pages, 1253 KiB  
Review
Promising Functions of Novel Vitamin D Derivatives as Cosmetics: A New Fountain of Youth in Skin Aging and Skin Protection
by Zorica Janjetovic and Andrzej T. Slominski
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 37; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020037 - 1 Mar 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3294
Abstract
Vitamin D is a natural photoproduct that has many beneficial effects on different organs, including skin. Active forms of vitamin D and its derivatives exert biological effects on skin cells, thus maintaining skin homeostasis. In keratinocytes, they inhibit proliferation and stimulate differentiation, have [...] Read more.
Vitamin D is a natural photoproduct that has many beneficial effects on different organs, including skin. Active forms of vitamin D and its derivatives exert biological effects on skin cells, thus maintaining skin homeostasis. In keratinocytes, they inhibit proliferation and stimulate differentiation, have anti-inflammatory properties, act as antioxidants, inhibit DNA damage and stimulate DNA repair after ultraviolet (UV) exposure. In melanocytes, they also inhibit cell proliferation, inhibit apoptosis and act as antioxidants. In fibroblasts, they inhibit cell proliferation, affect fibrotic processes and collagen production, and promote wound healing and regeneration. On the other hand, skin cells have the ability to activate vitamin D directly. These activities, along with the projected topical application of vitamin D derivatives, are promising for skin care and photo protection and can be used in the prevention or possible reversal of skin aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment for Anti-aging and Rejuvenation)
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13 pages, 1052 KiB  
Article
In and out Beauty and Sensitive Skin, a Psychophysiological Exploration: Myth or Reality?
by Leila Falcao, Rachida Nachat-Kappes and Edith Filaire
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 36; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020036 - 1 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1939
Abstract
Knowing that biomolecules, such as β-amyrin and α-amyrin, have some pharmacological effects, the aim of this study was directed towards exploring the protective effect of Tomato Peel and Seed Extract (TPSE) for its soothing function but also for its capacity to modulate the [...] Read more.
Knowing that biomolecules, such as β-amyrin and α-amyrin, have some pharmacological effects, the aim of this study was directed towards exploring the protective effect of Tomato Peel and Seed Extract (TPSE) for its soothing function but also for its capacity to modulate the adrenal axis, which is involved in stress response. Ex vivo tests were carried out on skin explants to evaluate the effectiveness of TPSE formulated at 0.5% on Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) and IL-10 release, Kappa Opioid Receptor (KOR), and Caspase 14 expression. An in vivo study combined a clinical evaluation of skin homogeneity and psychological parameters as well as an analysis of salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations. All measurements were carried out at the beginning and after 28 days of applying a TPSE face cream. TPSE regulated not only the release of CGRP, IL-10, and the expression of Caspase 14, reflecting anti-neurogenic and anti-inflammatory properties, but also modulated KORs. Twenty-eight days of TPSE application induced a significant decrease in intensity and extent erythrosis, a lower output of salivary cortisol, and a significant increase in pleasant emotions when compared to placebo. These results provide encouragement to continue exploring the impact of cosmetic ingredients on psychophysiological parameters to improve skin health and well-being. Full article
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13 pages, 2129 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Teneligliptin and Retagliptin on the Clearance of Melanosome by Melanophagy in B16F1 Cells
by Seong Hyun Kim, Ji-Eun Bae, Na Yeon Park, Joon Bum Kim, Yong Hwan Kim, So Hyun Kim, Gyeong Seok Oh, Hee Won Wang, Jeong Ho Chang and Dong-Hyung Cho
Cosmetics 2024, 11(2), 35; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics11020035 - 1 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1795
Abstract
A specialized membrane-bound organelle, named the melanosome, is central to the storage and transport of melanin as well as melanin synthesis in melanocytes. Although previous studies have linked melanosomal degradation to autophagy, the precise mechanisms remain elusive. Autophagy, a complex catabolic process involving [...] Read more.
A specialized membrane-bound organelle, named the melanosome, is central to the storage and transport of melanin as well as melanin synthesis in melanocytes. Although previous studies have linked melanosomal degradation to autophagy, the precise mechanisms remain elusive. Autophagy, a complex catabolic process involving autophagosomes and lysosomes, plays a vital role in cellular constituent degradation. In this study, the role of autophagy in melanosomal degradation was explored, employing a cell-based screening system designed to unveil key pathway regulators. We identified specific dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, such as teneligliptin hydrobromide and retagliptin phosphate, as novel agents inducing melanophagy through a comprehensive screening of a ubiquitination-related chemical library. We found that treatment with teneligliptin hydrobromide or retagliptin phosphate not only diminishes melanin content elevated by alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) but also triggers autophagy activation within B16F1 cells. In addition, the targeted inhibition of unc-51-like kinase (ULK1) significantly attenuated both the anti-pigmentation effects and autophagy induced by teneligliptin hydrobromide and retagliptin phosphate in α-MSH-treated cells. Collectively, our data demonstrate a new frontier in understanding melanosomal degradation, identifying teneligliptin hydrobromide and retagliptin phosphate as promising inducers of melanophagy via autophagy activation. This study contributes essential insights into cellular degradation mechanisms and offers potential therapeutic avenues in the regulation of pigmentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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