Next Issue
Volume 8, March
Previous Issue
Volume 7, September

Cosmetics, Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 26 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessReview
Final Publication of the “Regulations on the Supervision and Administration of Cosmetics” and New Prospectives of Cosmetic Science in China
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 98; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics7040098 - 17 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1345
Abstract
In June 2020, the new “Regulations on the Supervision and Administration of Cosmetics” (CSAR) was finally issued and published in China. This is the first revision of the “Regulations on Hygiene Supervision of Cosmetics” (CHSR) since its publication in 1989. As the basic [...] Read more.
In June 2020, the new “Regulations on the Supervision and Administration of Cosmetics” (CSAR) was finally issued and published in China. This is the first revision of the “Regulations on Hygiene Supervision of Cosmetics” (CHSR) since its publication in 1989. As the basic and fundamental legislation for cosmetics, CSAR has a far-reaching impact on the whole industry and also reveals new trends in scientific research work. To provide an interpretation of this regulation and help enterprises and researchers better understand the new policies, in this study, the main contents of CSAR and its regulatory system were introduced, and the major changes and background considerations were summarized, especially in the definition and scope of cosmetics, classification and categorization, ingredient management, safety evaluation, efficacy substantiation and technical evaluation work. A brief review of technical progress worldwide and a comparison of regulatory requirements were provided where necessary. Finally, new prospects of cosmetic science in China were discussed. In conclusion, CSAR will initiate a renewed and integrated regulatory system for cosmetics. Advanced concepts of supervision, encouragement of innovation, utilization of technical approaches and emphasis on scientific investigations are reflected in the regulations, which will deeply influence the development of both cosmetic products and new ingredients. With all these new challenges and opportunities, everyone involved should get prepared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue “Exercise-Induced Facial Rejuvenation and Orofacial Strength and Function”
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 97; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics7040097 - 15 Dec 2020
Viewed by 703
Abstract
The desire to stay young and beautiful forever is a common aspiration for everyone [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Studies on an Innovative Bioactive Skin Soluble Beauty Mask Made by Combining Electrospinning and Dry Powder Impregnation
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 96; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics7040096 - 11 Dec 2020
Viewed by 938
Abstract
The world of cosmetics is now aiming at biobased materials which are skin-compatible and can be used to generate more sustainable beauty masks with enhanced bioactivity. This work presents, in this line of interest, the combination of two innovative technologies, namely electrospinning and [...] Read more.
The world of cosmetics is now aiming at biobased materials which are skin-compatible and can be used to generate more sustainable beauty masks with enhanced bioactivity. This work presents, in this line of interest, the combination of two innovative technologies, namely electrospinning and dry powder impregnation, to generate biobased skin soluble electrospun pullulan carriers dry impregnated with chitin nanofibrils-nanolignin-glycyrrethinic acid (CLA) complexes, as effective biobased and skin compatible beauty masks. The scalability of the pullulan electrospun carrier and bioactive complexes impregnation were optimized and the morphology evaluated. Subsequently, skin compatibility and mask effectiveness were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that cell viability was optimal for both impregnated and neat pullulan fibers. Additionally, the CLA impregnated pullulan fibers were able to upregulate the endogenous antimicrobial molecule HBD-2. Preliminary studies in vivo indicated that the beauty mask containing the CLA complexes significantly decreased area, length and depth of forehead and crow’s feet wrinkles, and significantly increased moisturizing levels in the skin. The developed beauty mask was also seen to increase skin firmness, while it did not show skin irritation after the test. The work demonstrates that the combination of these two technologies may open new alternatives to more sustainable bioactive cosmetic products for the skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin Nanofibrils and Nanolignin for Advanced Cosmeceuticals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Changes in Skin Elasticity and Firmness Caused by Cosmetic Formulas Elaborated with Essential Oils of Aristeguietia glutinosa (matico) and Ocotea quixos (ishpingo). A Statistical Analysis
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 95; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics7040095 - 10 Dec 2020
Viewed by 866
Abstract
External factors such as prolonged exposure to solar radiation and environmental pollution accelerate the aging process of the skin, and this process is a challenge for pharmacological science. To counteract the effects of skin photoaging, the cosmetic industry has introduced natural topical products [...] Read more.
External factors such as prolonged exposure to solar radiation and environmental pollution accelerate the aging process of the skin, and this process is a challenge for pharmacological science. To counteract the effects of skin photoaging, the cosmetic industry has introduced natural topical products that have proved to be effective in reducing signs of age. In this sense, a statistical analysis was conducted on the changes in the properties of firmness and elasticity of the skin caused by cosmetic formulas (lotion and cream) elaborated with essential oils of Aristeguietia glutinosa (matico) and Ocotea quixos (ishpingo) in which the concentration of the oils in two cosmetic products (lotion and cream) varied to be tested in vivo, through the measurement of elasticity and firmness in three times T1 (0 day), T2 (28 days) and T3 (56 days), and in two age groups according to the Glogau scale (30 to 40 and 41 to 50 years). The results showed positive changes in the values of elasticity and firmness of the skin in the presentation of the lotion whose concentration was 20% Aristeguietia glutinosa (matico) and 80% Ocotea quixos (ishpingo), with a minimum application time of 28 days. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Melanogenesis Effect of 7-acetoxy-4-methylcoumarin in B16F10 Melanoma Cells
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 94; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics7040094 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 665
Abstract
The increased interest in anti-whitening dyes has enhanced the research interest to identify efficient melanogenic activators. Melanogenesis is the process of melanin production by melanocytes in the hair follicles and skin, which is mediated by several enzymes, such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), [...] Read more.
The increased interest in anti-whitening dyes has enhanced the research interest to identify efficient melanogenic activators. Melanogenesis is the process of melanin production by melanocytes in the hair follicles and skin, which is mediated by several enzymes, such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1, and TRP-2. This study investigated the melanogenesis-stimulating effect of 4-Methylumbelliferone (4MUMB) and its synthetic derivatives, 7-acetoxy-4-methylcoumarin (7A4MC) and 4-methylheriniarin (4MH) in B16F10 melanoma cells. The cytotoxicity of these compounds was investigated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, followed by the assessment of the melanin content and the intracellular TYR activity. Finally, the expression levels of the key enzymes involved in melanogenesis were investigated. 7A4MC increased melanin production in B16F10 cells relative to that by 4MUMB and 4MH treated cells in a dose-dependent manner without significant cytotoxicity. Concomitantly, 7A4MC significantly increased TYR activity and enhanced the expression of MITF, which significantly induced the expression of TRP-1, TRP-2, and TYR. Furthermore, 7A4MC stimulated melanogenesis via increased phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and reduced phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT). These results confirmed the melanogenesis-inducing effects of 7A4MC and indicated its potential use as an anti-hair bleaching agent in cosmetics industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aesthetic and Cosmetic Dermatology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Hidden Formaldehyde Content in Cosmeceuticals Containing Preservatives that Release Formaldehyde and Their Compliance Behaviors: Bridging the Gap between Compliance and Local Regulation
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 93; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics7040093 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1462
Abstract
Background: Many personal care products, and particularly cosmetic products, contain preservatives that release formaldehyde. These are potentially harmful to consumer health, especially considering that the levels of formaldehyde in some products are hidden and excessive. Objectives: To study the formaldehyde levels of preservatives [...] Read more.
Background: Many personal care products, and particularly cosmetic products, contain preservatives that release formaldehyde. These are potentially harmful to consumer health, especially considering that the levels of formaldehyde in some products are hidden and excessive. Objectives: To study the formaldehyde levels of preservatives in personal care products and cosmetics on the UAE market and determine the extent of compliance with health and safety requirements. Methods and Materials: Sixty-nine personal care and cosmetic product samples from the UAE market were collected and prepared to determine their formaldehyde content. According to the Second European Commission Directive 82/434/EEC of 2000 and as per the Gulf Technical Regulation, Safety Requirements of Cosmetics and Personal Care Products in GSO 1943:2016, quantitative analyses were performed to identify and quantify the content of formaldehyde as free formaldehyde. Results: With a maximum permissible limit of ≤0.2% w/w, the average formaldehyde content was found to be 0.083 with a 95% CI (0.039–0.13). Nine of the tested personal care and cosmetic products exceeded the recommended formaldehyde level, corresponding to 13% of all samples. None of these samples listed the free formaldehyde content or formaldehyde releaser. Conclusion: Applying good manufacturing practices (GMP), education, and regulatory control to improve the regulation and inspection of cosmetics containing formaldehyde releasers as preservatives, conducting research, and reporting the adverse side effects are highly recommended. There is an urgent need to monitor the incidence of skin sensitivity resulting from the use of cosmetics containing formaldehyde releasers as preservatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetovigilance: Public Health Perspective)
Open AccessArticle
An Investigation into Incidences of Microbial Contamination in Cosmeceuticals in the UAE: Imbalances between Preservation and Microbial Contamination
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 92; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics7040092 - 24 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1077
Abstract
In recent years, concern about certain personal care products and cosmetics suffering from microbial contamination has increased. In this research, we aimed to determine the types and incidence of the most common microorganisms found in unopened/unused personal care and cosmetic products in the [...] Read more.
In recent years, concern about certain personal care products and cosmetics suffering from microbial contamination has increased. In this research, we aimed to determine the types and incidence of the most common microorganisms found in unopened/unused personal care and cosmetic products in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) market. This research involved an analysis of 100 personal care products and cosmetics. For every product, microbial (Candida albicans, Staphylococcusaureus, aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Escherichia coli, yeast and mold, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) contamination was assessed, and levels were compared with the guidelines used in Europe. Of the total samples, 15% (95% CI: 0.79–22.1) were contaminated by aerobic mesophilic bacteria compared to the maximum microbial limit of 1000 CFU/g. In addition, 13% (95% CI: 0.63–19.7) of the samples were contaminated with yeast and mold compared to the maximum microbial limit of 1000 CFU/g. Of all samples, nine (9%) were contaminated with both aerobic mesophilic bacteria and yeast and mold. However, none of the tested samples were contaminated with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Manufacturers of cosmetics and personal care products should be developing and implementing best practices regarding quality control/quality assurance in partnership with government regulators. Additionally, there should be greater control of the quality and safety of this type of product regarding good manufacturing practice (GMP), regulation, research, education, and the reporting of adverse events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetovigilance: Public Health Perspective)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Trending Anti-Aging Peptides
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 91; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics7040091 - 14 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1513
Abstract
The development of synthetic peptides for skin care dates to the 1980s. The cosmetic industry periodically launches new peptides, as they are promising and appealing active ingredients in the growing and innovative cosmetics market. In this study, trends in the use of peptides [...] Read more.
The development of synthetic peptides for skin care dates to the 1980s. The cosmetic industry periodically launches new peptides, as they are promising and appealing active ingredients in the growing and innovative cosmetics market. In this study, trends in the use of peptides in anti-aging products were analyzed by comparing the composition of the products marketed in 2011 with products launched or reformulated in 2018. The scientific and marketing evidence for their application as active ingredients in anti-aging cosmetics was also compiled from products’ labels, suppliers’ technical data forms and online scientific databases. The use of peptides in anti-aging cosmetics increased by 7.2%, while the variety and the number of peptide combinations in products have increased by 88.5%. The most used peptides in antiaging cosmetic formulations are, in descending order, Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7, Palmitoyl Oligopeptide and Acetyl Hexapeptide-8. In 2011, the majority of peptides were obtained from synthesis, while in 2018, biotechnology processing was the dominant source. This study provides an overview of the market trends regarding the use of peptides in anti-aging products, providing meaningful data for scientists involved in the development of new peptides to identify opportunities for innovation in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Skin Brightening Efficacy of Exosomes Derived from Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem/Stromal Cells: A Prospective, Split-Face, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 90; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics7040090 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 912
Abstract
Studies have shown that stem cells and their derivatives, including conditioned media (CM), have inhibitory effects on skin pigmentation. However, evidence supporting the skin brightening effect of exosomes derived from stem cells is lacking. We studied the antipigmentation effect in vitro and skin [...] Read more.
Studies have shown that stem cells and their derivatives, including conditioned media (CM), have inhibitory effects on skin pigmentation. However, evidence supporting the skin brightening effect of exosomes derived from stem cells is lacking. We studied the antipigmentation effect in vitro and skin brightening efficacy in vivo of exosomes derived from human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (ASC-exosomes). Exosomes were isolated from the CM of ASCs using the tangential flow filtration method. ASC-exosomes reduced intracellular melanin levels in B16F10 melanoma cells regardless of the presence of the α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). The skin brightening efficacy of a cosmetic formulation containing ASC-exosomes was assessed in human volunteers with hyperpigmentation in a prospective, split-face, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study. The ASC-exosome-containing formulation statistically decreased the melanin contents compared to the placebo control. However, the melanin-reduction activity was limited and diminished along with time. A further improvement in efficient transdermal delivery of ASC-exosomes will be helpful for more profound efficacy. In summary, these results suggest that ASC-exosomes can be used as a cosmeceutical for skin brightening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Flavonoids Profile, Taxonomic Data, History of Cosmetic Uses, Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Aging Potential of Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 89; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics7040089 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 791
Abstract
Alpinia galanga is a well-known medicinal plant in Southeast Asia and has been used for a long time as food and medicine. A large number of flavonoid phytochemical compounds have been identified in various parts of this medicinal herb. Flavonoids are commonly known [...] Read more.
Alpinia galanga is a well-known medicinal plant in Southeast Asia and has been used for a long time as food and medicine. A large number of flavonoid phytochemical compounds have been identified in various parts of this medicinal herb. Flavonoids are commonly known as attractive compounds that can be applied to cosmetic or cosmeceutical product development because of their antioxidant, anti-aging and many other potential biological activities. This recent review aims to illustrate and update the taxonomic status as well as the species description that will be helpful for a rigorous identification and authenticate the raw material or living specimen from A. galanga. The flavonoid phytochemical compounds and the bioactivity of this medicinal plant are also provided. The future perspectives and research directions of A. galanga and its flavonoids are pointed out in this study as well. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
Citrate-Coated Platinum Nanoparticles Exhibit a Primary Particle-Size Dependent Effect on Stimulating Melanogenesis in Human Melanocytes
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 88; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics7040088 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 800
Abstract
Hypopigmentation disorders due to an underproduction of the pigment melanin by melanocytes cause uneven skin coloration, while in hair follicles they cause grey hair. There is a need for novel materials which can stimulate melanogenesis in the skin and hair for personal care [...] Read more.
Hypopigmentation disorders due to an underproduction of the pigment melanin by melanocytes cause uneven skin coloration, while in hair follicles they cause grey hair. There is a need for novel materials which can stimulate melanogenesis in the skin and hair for personal care use. While titanium dioxide, gold and silver nanoparticles have been extensively used for applications in cosmetic and personal-care products (PCP), the use of relatively inert platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) has remained underappreciated. PtNPs have been reported to be a mimetic of the enzyme catechol oxidase with small size PtNPs reported to exhibit a higher catechol oxidase activity in a cell-free system, but no testing has been conducted in melanocytes to date. Herein, we have investigated if PtNPs of two sizes (SPtNP: 5 nm; LPtNP: 50 nm) might have an effect on melanogenesis. To this end, we have used MNT-1 human melanoma cells and primary human melanocytes from moderately-pigmented skin (HEMn-MP). Both SPtNP and LPtNP were nontoxic over a concentration range 6.25–25 μg/mL, hence these concentrations were used in further experiments. Both PtNPs stimulated higher extracellular melanin levels than control; SPtNP at concentrations 12.5 and 25 μg/mL significantly stimulated higher levels of extracellular melanin as compared to similar concentrations of LPtNP in MNT-1 cells, in the absence of ROS generation. The effects of PtNPs on melanin secretion were reversible upon removal of PtNPs from the culture medium. The results of primary particle size-specific augmentation of extracellular melanin by SPtNPs were also validated in HEMn-MP cells. Our results thus provide a proof-of-principle that SPtNP might hold potential as a candidate for the treatment of white skin patches, for sunless skin-tanning and for use in anti-greying hair products in cosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Lecithins from Vegetable, Land, and Marine Animal Sources and Their Potential Applications for Cosmetic, Food, and Pharmaceutical Sectors
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 87; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics7040087 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 953
Abstract
The aim of this work was to review the reported information about the phospholipid composition of lecithins derived from several natural sources (lipids of plant, animal, and marine origin) and describe their main applications for the cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical sectors. This study [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to review the reported information about the phospholipid composition of lecithins derived from several natural sources (lipids of plant, animal, and marine origin) and describe their main applications for the cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical sectors. This study was carried out using specialized search engines and according to the following inclusion criteria: (i) documents published between 2005 and 2020, (ii) sources of lecithins, (iii) phospholipidic composition of lecithins, and (iv) uses and applications of lecithins. Nevertheless, this work is presented as a narrative review. Results of the review indicated that the most studied source of lecithin is soybean, followed by sunflower and egg yolk. Contrarily, only a few numbers of reports focused on lecithins derived from marine animals despite the relevance of this source in association with an even higher composition of phospholipids than in case of those derived from plant sources. Finally, the main applications of lecithins were found to be related to their nutritional aspects and ability as emulsion stabilizers and lipid component of liposomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
A Novel Method for the Evaluation of the Long-Term Stability of Cream Formulations Containing Natural Oils
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 86; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics7040086 - 08 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1016
Abstract
This aim of this study is to prepare four novel oil-in-water creams from 100% naturally sourced oil ingredients such as jojoba, baobab and coconut oil, and compare the effect of the oils on the physico-chemical properties of the creams and their short- and [...] Read more.
This aim of this study is to prepare four novel oil-in-water creams from 100% naturally sourced oil ingredients such as jojoba, baobab and coconut oil, and compare the effect of the oils on the physico-chemical properties of the creams and their short- and long-term stability. Four 100 g each oil-in-water active containing creams and their controls (without the active ingredient) were formulated and stored in eight separate glass jars. The short-term stability of the creams was assessed via phase separation resistance, pH, microscopic size analysis, globule size, zeta potential, conductivity and microbial challenge evaluation after 8, 14 and 28 days, under three different storage temperature conditions (4 °C, 25 °C and 40 °C) and at ambient relative humidity. Model creams IA, IB, IIA, and IIB containing 1:1 of jojoba and baobab oil mix, all had good shelf-life or stability at the end of the 28 days after storage at 4 °C, 25 °C and 40 °C, compared to models IIIA, IVA and pairs. The long-term stability of creams stored at 25 °C for 28 days, was subsequently assessed using the Dynamic Vapor Sorption system. Model creams IB, IIB, IA and IIA showed the lowest percentage moisture loss or change in mass during a period of desorption steps. Therefore, the creams containing a mixture of jojoba and baobab oils are capable of retaining moisture easily for an extended period of time when compared to the creams containing jojoba and coconut oil or baobab and coconut oil combinations, thus they were proven to be the best products in terms of stability and quality. The stability ranking of the creams using the novel DVS method was in congruence with the results from the short-term stability experiments. This novel DVS method can, therefore, be generically applied in the cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical industries for the evaluation of the long-term stability of semisolids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Lignin-Based Sunscreens—State-of-the-Art, Prospects and Challenges
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 85; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics7040085 - 06 Nov 2020
Viewed by 876
Abstract
This review covers the latest developments and challenges in the field of broad-spectrum sunscreens and how sunscreens based on lignin address their requirements in terms of sunlight protection, antioxidants, and preservatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignins as Natural Active Ingredients for Cosmetics)
Open AccessReview
Cosmetic Potential of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp: Botanical Data, Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry and Biological Activities
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 84; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics7040084 - 06 Nov 2020
Viewed by 725
Abstract
Cajanus cajan (aka pigeon pea) is a terrestrial medicinal plant native to Asian and African countries before being introduced to the American continent. This protein-rich legume species, belonging to the Fabaceae family, has been traditionally used to cure various ailments in many traditional [...] Read more.
Cajanus cajan (aka pigeon pea) is a terrestrial medicinal plant native to Asian and African countries before being introduced to the American continent. This protein-rich legume species, belonging to the Fabaceae family, has been traditionally used to cure various ailments in many traditional medicines. Recent works have highlighted it as a rich source of a wide array of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds. The major biological activities that are currently reported on are mainly focused on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities which are relevant for the cosmetic field. For example, hydroalcoholic extract from C. cajan has been highlighted as a particularly effective antioxidant in various scavenging assays for both reactive oxygen or nitrogen species. One of its constituents, cyanidin-3-monoglucoside, has been reported to suppress inflammatory cytokine production (e.g., TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in murine RAW264.7 macrophages). The present review provides an overview on the flavonoids and phenolics from C. cajan as well as their biological activities that can be applied for cosmetic applications. In addition, the botanical data including taxonomic description, flowering season, distribution, synonyms and traditional uses are illustrated, so as to provide an overview of pigeon pea’s cosmetic/cosmeceutical potentials. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Characterization, Stability Assessment, Antioxidant Evaluation and Cell Proliferation Activity of Virgin Coconut Oil-based Nanostructured Lipid Carrier Loaded with Ficus deltoidea Extract
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 83; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics7040083 - 02 Nov 2020
Viewed by 823
Abstract
In this study, the Ficus deltoidea extract loaded nanostructured lipid carrier was prepared by using the melt emulsification homogenization method. Virgin coconut oil is used as liquid lipid, while glyceryl monostearate is the solid lipid. Particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, drug loading [...] Read more.
In this study, the Ficus deltoidea extract loaded nanostructured lipid carrier was prepared by using the melt emulsification homogenization method. Virgin coconut oil is used as liquid lipid, while glyceryl monostearate is the solid lipid. Particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, drug loading and morphology of the obtained nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) were measured. The size of the nanostructured lipid carrier incorporated with Ficus deltoidea (FDNLC) is 158.0 ± 1.3 nm, with a polydispersity index of 0.15 ± 0.02. The zeta potential obtained is −42.3 ± 1.5 mV. The encapsulation efficiency and active ingredient loading capacity for FDNLC is 87.4% ± 1.3% and 8.5% ± 1.2%, respectively. The shape of FDNLC is almost spherical and the stability assessment showed that the obtained formulation is at least stable for 40 days. When compared with the positive controls, which are Trolox and ascorbic acid, FDNLC shows the highest antioxidant value. Cell proliferation activity study indicates that FDNLC is not toxic to cells, and FDNLC could potentially treat damage by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Tissue Factors in Rosacea: A Pilot study
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 82; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics7040082 - 30 Oct 2020
Viewed by 815
Abstract
Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease mainly affecting the facial skin. Our aim was to determine the appearance of pro- and anti- inflammatory cytokines in rosacea-affected facial tissue. Materials and Methods: Rosacea tissue were obtained from eight patients (aged 35 to 50 [...] Read more.
Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease mainly affecting the facial skin. Our aim was to determine the appearance of pro- and anti- inflammatory cytokines in rosacea-affected facial tissue. Materials and Methods: Rosacea tissue were obtained from eight patients (aged 35 to 50 years). The control group (CG) included four facial skin samples (49 to 70 years). Routine staining and immunohistochemistry for IL-1, IL-10, LL-37, HBD-2, and HBD-4 proceeded. Results: Inflammation was observed in all the rosacea samples. A statistically significant difference was seen between epithelial HBD-2 positive cells in comparison to the control. There was a strong positive correlation between HBD-4 in the epithelium and HBD-4 in the connective tissue, IL-10 in the epithelium and IL-1 in the connective tissue, and IL-1 in the epithelium and IL-10 in the connective tissue. Conclusion: Increased levels of IL-10 and decreased levels of IL-1 show the balance between anti- and pro-inflammatory tissue responses. A significant amount of HBD-2 in the epithelium proves its important role in the local immune response of rosacea-affected tissue. The last effect seems to be intensified by the elevated level of LL-37 in the epithelium. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Bioglea as a Source of Bioactive Ingredients: Chemical and Biological Evaluation
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 81; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics7040081 - 27 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 678
Abstract
This study focused on bioglea in thermal material sampled at Saturnia spa (Tuscany, Italy). Bioglea is the term used to define the thermal plankton consisting of biogenic substances that have been investigated little from the chemical and biological points of view. Bioglea is [...] Read more.
This study focused on bioglea in thermal material sampled at Saturnia spa (Tuscany, Italy). Bioglea is the term used to define the thermal plankton consisting of biogenic substances that have been investigated little from the chemical and biological points of view. Bioglea is mainly formed of cyanobacteria, particularly from the Oscillatoriales subsection, and it seems to have an important role in the maturation of thermal mud for the development of organic matter. This cyanobacteria-dominated community develops in a large outdoor pool at the spa, where the spring water is collected, over the sediments, with matter floating at the surface. Throughout the year, the cyanobacterial species of bioglea were the same, but their relative abundance changed significantly. For chemical characterization an extractive method and several analytical techniques (HPLC, GC-MS, SPME) were used. We also studied the radical scavenging activity using in vitro tests (DPPH, ORAC, ABTS). We found various groups of compounds: saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, hydroxyl acids, alcohols, phenols, amino acids. Many of the compounds have already been identified in the mud, particularly the lipid component. SPME indicated several hydrocarbons (C11–C17) and long-chain alcohols (C12–C16). The qualitative composition of volatile substances identified in bioglea was very similar to that of the mud previously analysed. These results contribute to our knowledge on thermal photosynthetic community and its possible exploitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Retinol Has a Skin Dehydrating Effect That Can Be Improved by a Mixture of Water-Soluble Polysaccharides
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 80; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics7040080 - 27 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 871
Abstract
It is common that retinoids used in skincare can cause skin dryness, irritation and redness which is a complaint for the use of these molecules in skincare formulations. Objective: to investigate the influence of a mixture of polysaccharides to improve retinol-based formulations in [...] Read more.
It is common that retinoids used in skincare can cause skin dryness, irritation and redness which is a complaint for the use of these molecules in skincare formulations. Objective: to investigate the influence of a mixture of polysaccharides to improve retinol-based formulations in a 12-day inner volar forearm study. Methods: in total, 22 inner volar forearms were treated over a 12-day topical application of a Placebo formulation containing 0.5% retinol verses a formulation containing 0.5% retinol and 3.0% of a complex of polysaccharides. Application occurred 2X/day in the morning and evening. Skin testing included barrier disruption, erythema, and skin hydration. After a 3-day regression of treatment, skin hydration was measured again. Results: the 0.5% retinol Placebo formulation showed a significant impact on skin dehydration compared to untreated control or polysaccharide-treated areas. The formulation containing retinol and 3.0% of the polysaccharides, maintained skin hydration levels comparable to the untreated control. Neither formulation had a statistically significant impact on skin erythema or barrier disruption. After the 3-day regression, the polysaccharide mixture continued to demonstrate significant moisturization benefits superior to the untreated and active-treated sites. Conclusions: a mixture of polysaccharides was able to mitigate the short-term skin drying effects of retinol and continued to moisturize the skin after a 3-Day regression. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
A New Benchmark to Determine What Healthy Western Skin Looks Like in Terms of Biodiversity Using Standardised Methodology
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 79; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics7040079 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 874
Abstract
A significant loss of microbial biodiversity on the skin has been linked to an increased prevalence of skin problems in the western world. The primary objective of this study was to obtain a benchmark value for the microbial diversity found on healthy western [...] Read more.
A significant loss of microbial biodiversity on the skin has been linked to an increased prevalence of skin problems in the western world. The primary objective of this study was to obtain a benchmark value for the microbial diversity found on healthy western skin, using the Chao1 index. This benchmark was used to update our 2017 skin health measuring mechanism in line with standardised methodology. It used 50 human participants from Graz in Austria and at a read depth of 6600 sequences, we found the average Chao1 diversity to be ~180, with upper and lower quartiles of ~208 and ~150, respectively. Previous work with a larger sample size was unsatisfactory to use as a benchmark because different diversity indices and evaluation methodologies were used. The Medical University of Graz used the most recent version of the Chao1 index to obtain diversity results. Because of this study, we can transfer other benchmarks of skin microbiome diversity to the methodology used in this work from our 2017 study, such as “unhealthy western skin” and “caveman/perfect skin”. This could aid with the diagnostic assessment of susceptibility to cutaneous conditions or diseases and treatment. We also investigated the effect of sex and age, which are two known skin microbiome affecting factors. Although no statistical significance is seen for sex- and age-related changes in diversity, there appear to be changes related to both. Our preliminary results (10 in each of the five age groups) show adults aged 28–37 have the highest average diversity, and adults aged 48–57 have the lowest average diversity. In future work, this could be improved by obtaining benchmark diversity values from a larger sample size for any age, sex, body site, and area of residence, to which subjects can be compared. These improvements could help to investigate the ultimate question regarding which environmental factors in the western world are the main cause of the huge rise in skin problems. This could lead to future restrictions of certain synthetic chemicals or products found to be particularly harmful to the skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A New Ex Vivo Model to Evaluate the Hair Protective Effect of a Biomimetic Exopolysaccharide against Water Pollution
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 78; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics7040078 - 04 Oct 2020
Viewed by 806
Abstract
As an external appendage, hair is exposed to multiple stresses of different origins such as particles and gases in air, or heavy metals and chemicals in water. So far, little research has addressed the impact of water pollution on hair. The present study [...] Read more.
As an external appendage, hair is exposed to multiple stresses of different origins such as particles and gases in air, or heavy metals and chemicals in water. So far, little research has addressed the impact of water pollution on hair. The present study describes a new ex vivo model that allowed us to document the adverse effects of water pollutants on the structure of hair proteins, as well as the protective potential of active cosmetic ingredients derived from a biomimetic exopolysaccharide (EPS). The impact of water pollution was evaluated on hair from a Caucasian donor repeatedly immersed in heavy metal-containing water. Heavy metal retention in and on hair was then quantified using Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry (ICP/MS). The adverse effects of heavy metals on the internal structure of hair and its prevention by the EPS were assessed through measurement of keratin birefringence. Notably, the method allows the monitoring of the organization of keratin fibers and therefore the initial change on it in order to modulate the global damage in the hair. Results revealed an increasing amount of lead, cadmium and copper, following multiple exposures to polluted water. In parallel, the structure of keratin was also altered with exposures. However, heavy metal-induced keratin fiber damage could be prevented in the presence of the tested EPS, avoiding more drastic hair problems, such as lack of shine, or decrease in strength, due to damage accumulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Rosemary): An Ancient Plant with Uses in Personal Healthcare and Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 77; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics7040077 - 03 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1388
Abstract
This work is a bibliographical review of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) that focuses on the application of derivatives of this plant for cosmetic products, an application which has been recognized and valued since Ancient Egyptian times. Rosemary is a plant of Mediterranean [...] Read more.
This work is a bibliographical review of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) that focuses on the application of derivatives of this plant for cosmetic products, an application which has been recognized and valued since Ancient Egyptian times. Rosemary is a plant of Mediterranean origin that has been distributed throughout different areas of the world. It has many medicinal properties, and its extracts have been used (mainly orally) in folk medicine. It belongs to the Labiatae family, which contains several genera—such as Salvia, Lavandula, and Thymus—that are commonly used in cosmetics, due to their high prevalence of antioxidant molecules. Rosemary is a perennial shrub that grows in the wild or is cultivated. It has glandular hairs that emit fragrant volatile essential oils (mainly monoterpenes) in response to drought conditions in the Mediterranean climate. It also contains diterpenes such as carnosic acid and other polyphenolic molecules. Herein, the botanical and ecological characteristics of the plant are discussed, as well as the main bioactive compounds found in its volatile essential oil and in leaf extracts. Afterward, we review the applications of rosemary in cosmetics, considering its preservative power, the kinds of products in which it is used, and its toxicological safety, as well as its current uses or future applications in topical preparations, according to recent and ongoing studies. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Skin Protective Activity of LactoSporin-the Extracellular Metabolite from Bacillus Coagulans MTCC 5856
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 76; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics7040076 - 27 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1393
Abstract
Background: Probiotics and their products are increasingly used in skincare in recent years. Postbiotics are defined as any substance derived through the metabolic activity of a probiotic microorganism, which exerts a direct or indirect beneficial effect on the host. The extracellular metabolites of [...] Read more.
Background: Probiotics and their products are increasingly used in skincare in recent years. Postbiotics are defined as any substance derived through the metabolic activity of a probiotic microorganism, which exerts a direct or indirect beneficial effect on the host. The extracellular metabolites of probiotic bacteria have antimicrobial activities, protect against acne, and improve skin condition. We studied skin protective activities of the extracellular metabolite (LactoSporin) of a spore-forming probiotic Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856 in vitro. Methods: LactoSporin was evaluated for antioxidant activity by free radical scavenging activity and reactive oxygen quenching activity in human dermal fibroblast cells. Protection of fibroblasts from UV-induced apoptosis and cell death was studied by flow cytometry and neutral red uptake assays. Enzyme inhibition assays were carried out for collagenase, Elastase, and Hyaluronidase. Gene expression studies were carried out using polymerase chain reaction. Results: LactoSporin showed antioxidant activity and was found to protect skin cells from UV-induced apoptosis and cell death. LactoSporin inhibited collagenase, elastase, and hyaluronidase activity and upregulated the expression of hyaluronan synthase, transforming growth factor and epidermal growth factor, which are associated with extracellular matrix integrity. Conclusions: These results suggest LactoSporin is a skin protective postbiotic with wide application in cosmetic formulations. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Applications of Natural, Semi-Synthetic, and Synthetic Polymers in Cosmetic Formulations
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 75; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics7040075 - 25 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1390
Abstract
Cosmetics composed of synthetic and/or semi-synthetic polymers, associated or not with natural polymers, exhibit a dashing design, with thermal and chemo-sensitive properties. Cosmetic polymers are also used for the preparation of nanoparticles for the delivery of, e.g., fragrances, with the purpose to modify [...] Read more.
Cosmetics composed of synthetic and/or semi-synthetic polymers, associated or not with natural polymers, exhibit a dashing design, with thermal and chemo-sensitive properties. Cosmetic polymers are also used for the preparation of nanoparticles for the delivery of, e.g., fragrances, with the purpose to modify their release profile and also reducing the risk of evaporation. Besides, other cosmetically active nutrients, dermal permeation enhancers, have also been loaded into nanoparticles to improve their bioactivities on the skin. The use of natural polymers in cosmetic formulations is of particular relevance because of their biocompatible, safe, and eco-friendly character. These formulations are highly attractive and marketable to consumers, and are suitable for a plethora of applications, including make-up, skin, and hair care, and as modifiers and stabilizers. In this review, natural synthetic, semi-synthetic, and synthetic polymers are discussed considering their properties for cosmetic applications. Their uses in conventional and novel formulations are also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Monitoring of Natural Pigments in Henna and Jagua Tattoos for Fake Detection
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 74; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics7040074 - 24 Sep 2020
Viewed by 928
Abstract
Temporary tattoos are a popular alternative to permanent ones. Some of them use natural pigments such as lawsone in the famous henna tattoos. Recently, jagua tattoos, whose main ingredients are genipin and geniposide, have emerged as an interesting option. This study was conducted [...] Read more.
Temporary tattoos are a popular alternative to permanent ones. Some of them use natural pigments such as lawsone in the famous henna tattoos. Recently, jagua tattoos, whose main ingredients are genipin and geniposide, have emerged as an interesting option. This study was conducted to identify the presence and concentration of henna and jagua active ingredients (lawsone; genipin and geniposide, respectively) in commercial tattoo samples. Since natural pigments are often mixed with additives such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in the case of henna, PPD has been included in the study. Green and simple extraction methods based on vortex or ultrasound-assisted techniques have been tested. To determine the compounds of interest liquid chromatography (LC) with diode-array detection (DAD) has been applied; and PPD absence was confirmed by LC-QTOF (quadrupole-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry). This work demonstrated that only one out of 14 henna samples analyzed contained lawsone. For jaguas, genipin was found in all samples, while geniposide only in two. Therefore, quality control analysis on these semi-permanent tattoos is considered necessary to detect these ingredients in commercial mixtures, as well as to uncover possible fraud in products sold as natural henna. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Addition of PVA/PG to Oil-in-Water Nanoemulsion Kojic Monooleate Formulation on Droplet Size: Three-Factors Response Surface Optimization and Characterization
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 73; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics7040073 - 23 Sep 2020
Viewed by 897
Abstract
An oil in water (O/W) nanoemulsion formulation containing kojic monooleate (KMO) in thin film system was developed. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize and analyzed the effect of three variables, namely concentration of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) (20–30% w/w), [...] Read more.
An oil in water (O/W) nanoemulsion formulation containing kojic monooleate (KMO) in thin film system was developed. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize and analyzed the effect of three variables, namely concentration of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) (20–30% w/w), concentration of propylene glycol (PG) (1–10% w/w), and shear rate of high shear homogenizer (3000–9000 rpm) on droplet size as a response, while other compositions remained constant such as KMO (10.0% w/w), Tween 80 (3.19% w/w), castor oil (3.74% w/w), xanthan gum (0.70% w/w), and germall plus (0.7% w/w, PG (and) diazolidinyl urea (and) iodopropynyl butylcarbamate). The optimized KMO nanoemulsion formulation with desirable criteria was PVA (27.61% w/w) and PG (1.05% w/w), and shear rate (8656.17 rpm) with a predicted droplet size (110.21 nm) and actual droplet size (105.93 nm) with a residual standard error (RSE) of less than 2.0% was obtained. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the fitness of the quadratic polynomial fit the experimental data with a F-value of 65.30, p–value of p < 0.0001, and a non-significant lack-of-fit. The optimized KMO formulation shows the desired criteria of the thin film system and the physicochemical properties (Zeta potential −37.37 mV, PDI 0.13, pH 4.74) and stability at four different conditions indicate its suitability for cosmeceutical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop