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Cosmetics, Volume 8, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 25 articles

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Review
Hair Transplantation Surgery Versus Other Modalities of Treatment in Androgenetic Alopecia: A Narrative Review
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 25; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics8010025 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1057
Abstract
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of baldness and its incidence has increased over the past few years with an earlier age of onset being widely reported all over the world. Although it is reported more often in men, it affects [...] Read more.
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of baldness and its incidence has increased over the past few years with an earlier age of onset being widely reported all over the world. Although it is reported more often in men, it affects women as well. With the growing cosmetic concern of patients, emphasis has shifted from the more traditional treatment options such as finasteride and minoxidil to surgical options such as hair transplantation. This review briefly highlights all of the treatment options available for AGA so far. A special focus is on current data available on hair transplantation surgeries and the various methods, merits and demerits and limitations of surgery. The literature research considered published journal articles (scientific reviews) from 1990 to date. Studies were identified by searching electronic databases (MEDLINE and PubMed) and the reference lists of respective articles. Only articles available in English were considered for this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aesthetic and Cosmetic Dermatology)
Article
Biocomposite Materials Based on Chitosan and Lignin: Preparation and Characterization
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 24; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics8010024 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 972
Abstract
In this study, bioactive composite systems based on natural polymers (chitosan and lignin) were prepared in this study. The structural, mechanical, and morphological properties of chitosan-based materials containing various amounts of lignin filler were investigated. The infra-red IR spectroscopy data confirmed the formation [...] Read more.
In this study, bioactive composite systems based on natural polymers (chitosan and lignin) were prepared in this study. The structural, mechanical, and morphological properties of chitosan-based materials containing various amounts of lignin filler were investigated. The infra-red IR spectroscopy data confirmed the formation of chemical bonds between the components of the obtained composites. The mechanical properties of film samples were studied in air and in physiological solution. It was demonstrated that the breaking elongation values of the obtained film samples in the wet state were higher (150–160%) than the corresponding (average) value of a pure chitosan film (100%). The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy data demonstrated that the introduction of lignin had caused significant changes in the surface morphology of films. The appearance of a strongly pronounced texture and porosity facilitated cell proliferation on the surface of composites, i.e., the bioactivity of film samples was enhanced with an increasing lignin content in the chitosan matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin Nanofibrils and Nanolignin for Advanced Cosmeceuticals)
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Article
In Vitro Cultured Melissa officinalis Cells as Effective Ingredient to Protect Skin against Oxidative Stress, Blue Light, and Infrared Irradiations Damages
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 23; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics8010023 - 15 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1247
Abstract
Skin is being increasingly exposed to artificial blue light due to the extensive use of electronic devices, which can induce cell oxidative stress, causing signs of early photo aging. The Melissa officinalis phytocomplex is a new standardized cosmetic ingredient obtained by an in [...] Read more.
Skin is being increasingly exposed to artificial blue light due to the extensive use of electronic devices, which can induce cell oxidative stress, causing signs of early photo aging. The Melissa officinalis phytocomplex is a new standardized cosmetic ingredient obtained by an in vitro plant cell culture with a high content of rosmarinic acid. In this study, we examine the activity of the Melissa officinalis phytocomplex to protect skin against blue light and infrared damages, evaluating the ROS (Radical Oxygen Species) level in keratinocyte cell line from human skin (HaCaT) and Nrf2 (Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2), elastin, and MMP1 (Matrix Metalloproteinase 1) immunostaining in living human skin explants ex vivo. This phytocomplex demonstrates antioxidant activity by reducing ROS production and thus the oxidant damage of the skin caused by UV and blue light exposure. In addition, it inhibits blue light-induced Nrf2 transcriptional activity, IR-induced elastin alteration, and IR-induced MMP-1 release. This Melissa officinalis phytocomplex is a new innovative active ingredient for cosmetic products that is able to protect skin against light and screen exposure damages and oxidative stress. Full article
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Communication
Anti-Melanogenic Effects of Paederia foetida L. Extract via MAPK Signaling-Mediated MITF Downregulation
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 22; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics8010022 - 15 Mar 2021
Viewed by 958
Abstract
In this study, in order to explore the anti-melanogenic effect of PFE (Paederia foetida L. extract) and suggest its availability, B16F10 cells, which are murine melanoma cells, were stimulated with alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) to conduct an in vitro experiment. Treatment with PFE [...] Read more.
In this study, in order to explore the anti-melanogenic effect of PFE (Paederia foetida L. extract) and suggest its availability, B16F10 cells, which are murine melanoma cells, were stimulated with alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) to conduct an in vitro experiment. Treatment with PFE in B16F10 cells with activated melanogenesis due to stimulants showed that PFE significantly inhibits melanin content as well as intracellular tyrosinase activity within a range that does not cause cytotoxicity. In addition, Western blot assay demonstrated that PFE strongly inhibited the protein expression of not only tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1, -2, and tyrosinase, but also microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Moreover, mechanism studies have shown that PFE processing inhibited the activation of melanin production by regulating the phosphorylation of each mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family in the MAPK signaling pathway. To test the biocompatibility of PFE on human skin, a primary skin irritation test was performed. The results revealed that PFE did not have any side effects on human skin. These findings suggest that PFE holds great potential as a skin whitening agent and in the prevention of hyperpigmentation disorders. Full article
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Article
Fingerprint of Nature—Skin Penetration Analysis of a Stinging Nettle PlantCrystals Formulation
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 21; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics8010021 - 10 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1097
Abstract
Background: PlantCrystals are a new concept to produce plant-based formulations. Their principle is based on the diminution of parts of or whole plants. In this study, the effect of a surfactant on stinging nettle leaf PlantCrystals was investigated. Secondly, the contents of bulk [...] Read more.
Background: PlantCrystals are a new concept to produce plant-based formulations. Their principle is based on the diminution of parts of or whole plants. In this study, the effect of a surfactant on stinging nettle leaf PlantCrystals was investigated. Secondly, the contents of bulk material and the PlantCrystals formulation were compared. In addition, for the very first time, the skin penetration of PlantCrystals was investigated. Methods: Stinging nettle leaves were milled with high-pressure homogenization. Sizes were analyzed via light microscopy and static light scattering. To investigate the effect of the milling, the flavonoid and total carotenoid content were determined, and the antioxidant capacity of the formulation was measured via total polyphenol content and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Finally, the impact on skin penetration was investigated. Results: Size analysis showed a stabilizing effect of the surfactant, and the chemical analysis revealed higher flavonoid and polyphenol contents for PlantCrystals. The penetration of the formulation into the stratum corneum was shown to be promising; PlantCrystals possessed a visually perceived higher fluorescence and homogeneity compared to the bulk material. Conclusion: The concept of PlantCrystals improved the availability of valuable constituents and the penetration efficacy. The utilization of the natural chlorophyll fluorescence for skin penetration analysis of plant-based formulations proved itself highly effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Review
Smart and Sustainable Hair Products Based on Chitin-Derived Compounds
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics8010020 - 09 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1224
Abstract
According to previous research studies, consumers worldwide are searching for new natural-oriented hair products that are both skin and environmentally friendly. Worldwide waste and air pollution, with the consequent environmental disasters, represent the greatest risk to human health and economy, further increased by [...] Read more.
According to previous research studies, consumers worldwide are searching for new natural-oriented hair products that are both skin and environmentally friendly. Worldwide waste and air pollution, with the consequent environmental disasters, represent the greatest risk to human health and economy, further increased by the COVID-19 pandemic. Among others, non-biodegradable molecules are present in hair products (fossil-based additives, surfactants, etc.) and macromolecules (plastics). Plastics waste is considered the most serious problem, representing a forecast amount of 460 million tons per year by 2030, 12% of which is reused or recycled. Most plastics consumed, therefore, go to landfills and incineration, also if their recycling is considered an important driver of industrial profitability. Thus, the use of biopolymers represents an interesting alternative to produce biodegradable goods and tissues. After an introduction to the worldwide waste problem and the hair structure, the present review proposes the possibility to make biodegradable tissues that, realized by chitin nanofibrils and nano-lignin as natural polymers, may be used to produce an innovative and smart cosmetic hairline. Chitin-derived compounds are considered interesting polymers to produce non-woven tissues able to repair the hair damages provoked by the aggressiveness of both the environment and some aggressive cosmetic treatments, such as setting, bleaching, permanent waving, and oxidative coloring. The possible activity, that positively charged polymers such as chitin could have, has been speculated, interfering with the constitution and organization of the hair fibrils’ structure, which is negatively charged. The possibility of selecting biopolymers for their packaging is also discussed. Moreover, the use of these biopolymers, obtained from forestry-agro-food waste, may be of help to safeguard the further consumption of natural raw materials, necessary for future generations, also maintaining the earth’s biodiversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin Nanofibrils and Nanolignin for Advanced Cosmeceuticals)
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Article
Intention to Purchase Halal Cosmetics: Do Males and Females Differ? A Multigroup Analysis
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 19; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics8010019 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1310
Abstract
As Muslims bound to Islamic teachings, the attitude of young millennials preferring non-halal international cosmetics is trivial. Despite the acceptance of halal food, literature on the acceptance of halal cosmetics remains scarce. The intention to purchase halal cosmetics is crucial for the [...] Read more.
As Muslims bound to Islamic teachings, the attitude of young millennials preferring non-halal international cosmetics is trivial. Despite the acceptance of halal food, literature on the acceptance of halal cosmetics remains scarce. The intention to purchase halal cosmetics is crucial for the sustainability of halal cosmetics manufacturers. The authors used the theory of planned behavior to identify factors influencing the purchase intention of halal cosmetics among Muslim millennials. Since cosmetics are not exclusively used by females, as males are starting to use them in their daily lives, gender was incorporated into the framework to assess its moderating effect on the relationship. Furthermore, brand image was included in the theory of planned behavior. Data were collected from three universities in Malaysia. A total of 501 responses were analyzed with smart partial least squares to run a multigroup analysis. The analysis revealed that subjective norms have a stronger effect on females, and perceived behavioral control has a greater effect on males. Although attitude and brand image have a positive effect on the intention to purchase halal cosmetics, gender has no effect. The findings are essential for halal cosmetics manufacturers to craft a marketing strategy aimed at Muslim millennials in Malaysia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Article
Performance and Tolerability of a New Topical Dexpanthenol-Containing Emollient Line in Subjects with Dry Skin: Results from Three Randomized Studies
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics8010018 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1257
Abstract
Three studies were conducted with three new dexpanthenol-containing emollients containing increasing lipid contents (Emollients 1–3) to assess their performances in healthy adults with dry skin. All three studies (N = 42 each) followed virtually the same design. A single skin application of the [...] Read more.
Three studies were conducted with three new dexpanthenol-containing emollients containing increasing lipid contents (Emollients 1–3) to assess their performances in healthy adults with dry skin. All three studies (N = 42 each) followed virtually the same design. A single skin application of the study product was performed followed by once-daily usage. Skin hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin biomechanical properties, and lipid content of the stratum corneum (SC) were regularly assessed over the 28-day study period; a subset (N = 22) underwent a sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) challenge prior to product application. All three emollients were well tolerated and showed good performances with only minor differences in instrumental measurements. After single and prolonged once-daily applications of Emollients 1–3 to dry skin and dry SLS-damaged skin, skin hydration significantly increased from baseline (BL) (by 38.1–72.4% in unchallenged skin, p < 0.001 for all three). This was paralleled by significant increases in skin elasticity parameters. Usage of Emollients 1 and 3 caused increases from BL in SC cholesterol (by 9.8–12.5%, p < 0.05 for both) and SC free fatty acid levels (by 3.7–26.3%, p < 0.05 for both) at the end of the study. No sustained effects on TEWL were recorded. Our findings support the once-daily use of all three emollients in adults with dry skin. Full article
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Article
Electrochemical Behaviour of Real-Time Sensor for Determination Mercury in Cosmetic Products Based on PANI/MWCNTs/AuNPs/ITO
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics8010017 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1606
Abstract
Mercury is a common ingredient found in skin lightening soaps, creams, and makeup-cleansing products. It may cause skin rashes, skin discolouration, and scarring, as well as a reduction in the skin’s resistance to bacterial and fungal infections. By looking at this scenario, developing [...] Read more.
Mercury is a common ingredient found in skin lightening soaps, creams, and makeup-cleansing products. It may cause skin rashes, skin discolouration, and scarring, as well as a reduction in the skin’s resistance to bacterial and fungal infections. By looking at this scenario, developing a sensor that involved a simple procedure and fasts for real-time detection without affecting mercury sensitivity is urgently needed. For that reason, a fast and sensitive electrochemical method was developed to determine mercury in cosmetic products with the composition of polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotubes/gold nanoparticles/indium tin oxide sheet using methylene blue as a redox indicator. The significantly enhanced electrochemical performance was observed using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). In order to detect mercury qualitatively and quantitatively, deposition potential and deposition time were respectively optimised to be 0.10 V and 70 s. The modified sensor was revealed a wide detection range of mercury from 0.01 to 10.00 ppm with a limit of detection of 0.08 ppm. The modified sensor towards mercury with a correlation coefficient (r2) was of 0.9948. Multiple cycling, reproducibility, and consistency of different modified sensors were investigated to verify the modified sensor’s performance. The developed sensing platform was highly selective toward mercury among the pool of possible interferents, and the stability of the developed sensor was ensured for at least 21 days after 10 repeated uses. The proposed method is a fast and simple procedure technique for analysing the mercury levels in cosmetic products. Full article
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Article
Nitric Oxide Generating Formulation as an Innovative Approach to Topical Skin Care: An Open-Label Pilot Study
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics8010016 - 16 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1279
Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO) plays multiple roles in both normal and abnormal skin processes. Its deranging disbalance is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple dermatologic diseases such as acne vulgaris, pointing towards beneficial therapeutic directions. A novel NO-producing gel-formulation was tested beneficial in the [...] Read more.
Nitric oxide (NO) plays multiple roles in both normal and abnormal skin processes. Its deranging disbalance is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple dermatologic diseases such as acne vulgaris, pointing towards beneficial therapeutic directions. A novel NO-producing gel-formulation was tested beneficial in the treatment of acne vulgaris in an open-label pilot study using clinical evaluation scores. It showed a decrease of comedones and inflammatory pustulae and reduced the Global Acne Grading System score by 50% within eight weeks. In addition, we demonstrate a potential use as cosmetic agent where NO therapy leads to an increase of skin integrity and a reduction of skin ageing processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Article
Inhibitory Effect and Mechanism of Scutellarein on Melanogenesis
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics8010015 - 15 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1300
Abstract
Fairer skin is preferred in many Asian countries and there is a high demand for skin whitening and lightening products. However, in recent years, problems related to the safety of using whitening agents have emerged. This study demonstrates that plant-derived scutellarein effectively inhibits [...] Read more.
Fairer skin is preferred in many Asian countries and there is a high demand for skin whitening and lightening products. However, in recent years, problems related to the safety of using whitening agents have emerged. This study demonstrates that plant-derived scutellarein effectively inhibits melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells. However, baicalein, which is similar to scutellarein in its chemical structure, does not show any inhibitory effect on melanogenesis. Cellular tyrosinase activity is decreased by scutellarein in a dose-dependent manner. No cytotoxicity is observed at the effective concentration range. Additionally, both the protein and mRNA levels of tyrosinase are significantly decreased by scutellarein. Further, the risk of leukoderma development also is determined by evaluating the production of free hydroxyl radicals (˙OH); scutellarein treatment does not induce ˙OH production. Scutellarein shows no risk of causing leukoderma. Our results suggest that scutellarein or plant extracts containing high concentrations of scutellarein have the potential to inhibit melanin production and serve as cosmetic skin-lightening agents. Full article
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Review
Sensitive Skins May Be Neuropathic Disorders: Lessons from Studies on Skin and Other Organs
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics8010014 - 09 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1049
Abstract
Sensitive skin can be considered a neuropathic disorder. Sensory disorders and the decrease in intra-epidermal nerve ending density are strong arguments for small-fiber neuropathies. Sensitive skin is frequently associated with irritable bowel syndrome or sensitive eyes, which are also considered neuropathic disorders. Consequently, [...] Read more.
Sensitive skin can be considered a neuropathic disorder. Sensory disorders and the decrease in intra-epidermal nerve ending density are strong arguments for small-fiber neuropathies. Sensitive skin is frequently associated with irritable bowel syndrome or sensitive eyes, which are also considered neuropathic disorders. Consequently, in vitro co-cultures of skin and neurons are adequate models for sensitive skin. Full article
Article
In Vitro Hair Dermal Papilla Cells Induction by Fagraea berteroana, a Tree of the Marquesan Cosmetopoeia (French Polynesia)
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics8010013 - 04 Feb 2021
Viewed by 930
Abstract
Fagraea berteroana is a tree used in traditional medicine in various islands of the South Pacific. Here, we studied its hair growth-inducing properties as suggested by one of its Marquesan ethno-uses in haircare. The ethyl acetate extract of the fruits of F. berteroana [...] Read more.
Fagraea berteroana is a tree used in traditional medicine in various islands of the South Pacific. Here, we studied its hair growth-inducing properties as suggested by one of its Marquesan ethno-uses in haircare. The ethyl acetate extract of the fruits of F. berteroana (FEAE) and four resulting fractions (FEAE-F0, FEAE-F1, FEAE-F2, and FEAE-F3) were tested on hair follicle dermal papilla cells to determine their cell proliferative activity. Furthermore, RT-qPCR analysis enabled gene modulation analysis, while immunostaining of the β-catenin protein was used to follow protein regulation. We found that the plant extracts induced a controlled, dose-dependent cell proliferation. FEAE-F0 simultaneously down-regulated Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP2) mRNA expression and upregulated Cyclin-D1 (CCND1) gene expression, which suggests an involvement in the regulation of the Wnt and Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFβ) pathways that control the hair cycle. FEAE-F0 exhibited a 1.34-fold increase of nuclear β-catenin protein. This is indicative of an active hair growth state. Thus, we conclude that FEAE-F0 could be an innovative candidate in hair care, which opens interesting leads to promote the Marquesan cosmetopoeia. Full article
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Review
A Cosmetic Perspective on the Antioxidant Flavonoids from Nymphaea lotus L.
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics8010012 - 30 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1548
Abstract
Nymphaea lotus L. or water lily is a well-known traditional medicinal plant in Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, India, Sri Lanka, China, Nepal, Egypt and many African countries. This species has been reported as a promising flavonoid-rich raw material that can be used as an [...] Read more.
Nymphaea lotus L. or water lily is a well-known traditional medicinal plant in Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, India, Sri Lanka, China, Nepal, Egypt and many African countries. This species has been reported as a promising flavonoid-rich raw material that can be used as an active ingredient for the development of cosmetic/cosmeceutical products. This review aims to illustrate the cosmetic potential of this species by providing botanical information, traditional uses, flavonoid accumulation, biological activities and future research challenges in the production of N. lotus extracts for cosmetic applications. Full article
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Cosmetics in 2020
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics8010011 - 25 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1177
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Cosmetics maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Article
Dereplication of Natural Extracts Diluted in Propylene Glycol, 1,3-Propanediol and Glycerin. Comparison of Leontopodium alpinum Cass. (Edelweiss) Extracts as a Case Study
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics8010010 - 23 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1462
Abstract
Many natural extracts used as cosmetic ingredients are available as solutions prepared in high-boiling-point solvents, called carrier solvents, such as propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol), propanediol (1,3-propanediol) and glycerin. The upstream chemical profiling of these extracts represents a major asset for the cosmetic industry, because [...] Read more.
Many natural extracts used as cosmetic ingredients are available as solutions prepared in high-boiling-point solvents, called carrier solvents, such as propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol), propanediol (1,3-propanediol) and glycerin. The upstream chemical profiling of these extracts represents a major asset for the cosmetic industry, because it accelerates product development. A new workflow for the rapid characterization of the main metabolites present in natural extracts diluted in propylene glycol and 1,3-propanediol is presented here as an extension of previous works on glycerin-containing extracts. This method is an optimized version of a well-established dereplication procedure and consists of a fractionation by centrifugal partition chromatography followed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and dedicated data processing. The concentration by evaporation under reduced pressure was considered as a pertinent preliminary step, particularly adapted to the analysis of highly diluted extracts. A dried hydro-ethanolic extract of Leontopodium alpinum Cass. was prepared at laboratory scale and used for method validation. Three solutions at 5% wt. of dry extract were prepared with propylene glycol/water (1:1), 1,3-propanediol/water (1:1) and glycerin/water (1:1) as carrier solvents. The dereplication workflow was applied to the three resulting L. alpinum extracts. Each study led to the quick identification of 26 metabolites including five flavonoids (luteolin and its derivatives), five hydroxycinnamic acids (among which are leontopodic acids), sugars and organic acids. Full article
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Article
Iron Gall Ink Revisited: A Surfactant-Free Emulsion Technology for Black Hair-Dyeing Formulation
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics8010009 - 22 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1645
Abstract
Inspired by the redox reactions in the preparation of the iron gall ink that has been used in Europe since the Middle Ages, we developed a technology for forming the oil-in-water emulsions, without any surfactants and emulsifiers, by homogenizing a mixture of tannic [...] Read more.
Inspired by the redox reactions in the preparation of the iron gall ink that has been used in Europe since the Middle Ages, we developed a technology for forming the oil-in-water emulsions, without any surfactants and emulsifiers, by homogenizing a mixture of tannic acid, gallic acid, Fe(D-gluconate)2, and natural oil, which are all approved as cosmetic ingredients. Various plant-derived oils, such as argan oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, grape seed oil, hemp seed oil, peppermint oil, rosemary oil, and ylang-ylang oil, were used as an oil phase for the emulsion formation, and all the fabricated emulsions exhibited the capability of black hair-dyeing. This surfactant-free emulsion technology for combining the hair-dyeing capability of Fe3+–tannin complex with the hair-fortifying property of natural oil would have great impact on the hair-cosmetic industry. Full article
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Review
Seaweeds Compounds: An Ecosustainable Source of Cosmetic Ingredients?
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics8010008 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2717
Abstract
Seaweed-based cosmetics are being gradually used by consumers as a substitute of synthetic equivalent products. These seaweed-based products normally contain purified compounds or extracts with several compounds. Several seaweeds’ molecules already demonstrated a high potential as a cosmetic active ingredient (such as, mycosporine-like [...] Read more.
Seaweed-based cosmetics are being gradually used by consumers as a substitute of synthetic equivalent products. These seaweed-based products normally contain purified compounds or extracts with several compounds. Several seaweeds’ molecules already demonstrated a high potential as a cosmetic active ingredient (such as, mycosporine-like amino acids, fucoidan, pigments, phenolic compounds) or as a key element for the products consistency (agar, alginate, carrageenan). Moreover, seaweeds’ compounds present important qualities for cosmetic application, such as low cytotoxicity and low allergens content. However, seaweeds’ biochemical profile can be variable, and the extraction methods can cause the loss of some of the biomolecules. This review gives a general look at the seaweed cosmetics benefits and its current application in the cosmetic industry. Moreover, it focuses on the ecological and sustainable scope of seaweed exploitation to guarantee a safe source of ingredients for the cosmetic industry and consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
Review
Spirulina for Skin Care: A Bright Blue Future
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics8010007 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 3158
Abstract
Spirulina stands out as a sustainable bioactive microalga with health-promoting properties, and an important active ingredient of natural cosmetics products. Currently, Spirulina has been incorporated in topical skin-care formulations, such as a moisturizing, antiwrinkles, antiaging and antiacne agent. Furthermore, this microalga is used [...] Read more.
Spirulina stands out as a sustainable bioactive microalga with health-promoting properties, and an important active ingredient of natural cosmetics products. Currently, Spirulina has been incorporated in topical skin-care formulations, such as a moisturizing, antiwrinkles, antiaging and antiacne agent. Furthermore, this microalga is used by cosmetic formulators to promote healthy sunscreen protection, to treat skin pigmentation disorders and to heal wounds. Most of commercial cosmetics claim a large range of Spirulina properties, including antioxidant, revitalizing, remineralizing, moisturizing, protecting alongside cleansing and shining action, both for hair and for skin. In this review, recent cosmetic applications of Spirulina are revised, by highlighting its ability in improving skin appearance and health. Additionally, the analysis of the Spirulina cosmetic benchmark is discussed. Looking at the current emergence of the beauty industry, many Spirulina extracts and dry powder/flakes, both the starting ingredient and final Spirulina-based cosmetic products, are available on the market. In this industrial field, Spirulina—mainly Spirulina platensis and Spirulina maxima—is used either as a powder, like in the case of cheaper products, or as a phycocyanin-rich blue extract, particularly in the luxury market. It is likely that, in the coming years, diversity, quality and topical applications of Spirulina will rapidly increase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Article
Effect of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS) Applied as a Patch on Human Skin Physiology and Its Microbiota
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics8010006 - 06 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1628
Abstract
In this study, we assessed the change in skin microbiota composition, relative abundance, and diversity with skin physiology disruption induced by SLS patch. Healthy women declaring to have a reactive skin were submitted to a 0.5% aqueous sodium lauryl sulfate solution application under [...] Read more.
In this study, we assessed the change in skin microbiota composition, relative abundance, and diversity with skin physiology disruption induced by SLS patch. Healthy women declaring to have a reactive skin were submitted to a 0.5% aqueous sodium lauryl sulfate solution application under occlusive patch condition for 24 h. Skin properties were characterized by tewametry, corneometry, and colorimetry and bacterial diversity was assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Analysis before and one day after SLS patch removal revealed an increase of skin redness and a decrease of stratum corneum hydration and skin barrier function. The relative abundance of taxa containing potential pathogens increase (Firmicutes: Staphylococcaceae; Proteobacteria: Enterobacteriaceae, Pantoea) while some of the most occurring Actinobacteria with valuable skin protection and repair capacities decreased (Micrococcus, Kocuria, and Corynebacterium). We observed an impaired skin barrier function and dehydration induced by SLS patch disturb the subtle balance of skin microbiota towards skin bacterial community dysbiosis. This study provides new insights on the skin bacterial composition and skin physiology simultaneously impaired by a SLS patch. Full article
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Article
4′,7-Isoflavandiol (Equol) Enhances Human Dermal Fibroblast Renewal and Has Effects Similar to 17β-Estradiol in Stimulating Collagen and Elastin Expression. Cell Cycle and RT-PCR Analysis without Phenol Red
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics8010005 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1079
Abstract
Polyphenols have general health benefits including anti-photoaging influences to counter the negative effects of ultra-violet (UV) rays from solar light (via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress (OS)), which leads to the stimulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that break [...] Read more.
Polyphenols have general health benefits including anti-photoaging influences to counter the negative effects of ultra-violet (UV) rays from solar light (via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress (OS)), which leads to the stimulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that break down collagen and elastin. The changes in elastin and collagen represent major factors in dermal aging along with a decrease in skin fibroblast number and function. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of a polyphenolic molecule, 4′,7-Isoflavandiol (Equol) at 10 nM on: (1) fibroblast number and function via cell cycle testing (including apoptosis) and collagen protein expression (types I and III) using long-term (eight-week) 3D human fibroblast cultures by intracellular fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis, and (2) quantifying elastin gene expression levels in short-term (four day) cultures using human monolayer fibroblasts by RT-PCR. In both in vitro testing methods, the presence of phenol red (tissue culture indicator) interfered with the parameter results. Therefore, all experiments were performed without phenol red. Using FACS analysis in the long-term 3D cultures exposure to 10 nM of equol for four days significantly increased the percentage of cycling fibroblasts (rejuvenation) above vehicle control (dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)) or 17β-estradiol levels, while apoptosis was not altered by any treatment. In addition, in the long-term cultures, collagen levels were significantly increased in the equol and 17β-estradiol treatments above vehicle control values. In short-term cultures, 10 nM of equol or 17β-estradiol significantly increased elastin gene expression levels above vehicle control values. In summary: (a) phenol red may interfere with tissue culture parameter results and (b) the polyphenolic equol compound, derived from plants, may provide protection against photoaging in cosmetic formulations by stimulating collagen, elastin, and enhancing fibroblast renewal. Full article
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Brief Report
Comparative Study of Curcumin and Its Hydrogenated Metabolites, Tetrahydrocurcumin, Hexahydrocurcumin, and Octahydrocurcumin, on Melanogenesis in B16F10 and MNT-1 Cells
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics8010004 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1409
Abstract
Curcumin, a bioactive from Curcuma longa, has been shown to possess anti-melanogenic activity previously; however, the effects of its hydrogenated metabolites (HMs)—Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), Hexahydrocurcumin (HHC), and Octahydrocurcumin (OHC)—on melanogenesis have not been sufficiently explored. We have studied and compared three HMs (THC, [...] Read more.
Curcumin, a bioactive from Curcuma longa, has been shown to possess anti-melanogenic activity previously; however, the effects of its hydrogenated metabolites (HMs)—Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), Hexahydrocurcumin (HHC), and Octahydrocurcumin (OHC)—on melanogenesis have not been sufficiently explored. We have studied and compared three HMs (THC, HHC, and OHC) with the parent compound, curcumin (PC), on melanin synthesis in B16F10 mouse and MNT-1 human melanoma cells. Our results demonstrated that all the HMs were nontoxic over the concentration range 5–40 µM, while PC was nontoxic at 5 µM but induced toxicity at 20 and 40 µM in B16F10 cells. All three HMs enhanced melanin synthesis, while PC (5 µM) inhibited it. THC (40 µM) significantly stimulated melanin synthesis to a greater degree than HHC and OHC in both B16F10 and MNT-1 cells; the order of melanogenesis stimulation was THC = OHC > HHC in B16F10 mouse cells, while it was THC > HHC > OHC in MNT-1 cells. HMs stimulated melanogenesis by pathways not involving tyrosinase, as neither the intracellular tyrosinase activity nor the protein levels of tyrosinase were affected. In addition, mushroom tyrosinase activity, using L-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) as the substrate, showed no direct effects of HMs. In summary, our results demonstrate that the HMs enhanced melanogenesis, which establishes that the hydrogenation of the heptadiene moiety of curcumin leads to a loss of its anti-melanogenic activity and instead results in the stimulation of melanogenesis. This stimulation is not further enhanced upon hydrogenation of the β-diketone, which was noted in MNT-1 cells, although the correlation to the number of keto groups differed in B16F10 cells where HHC was the weakest stimulator of melanogenesis. Collectively, THC with both keto groups intact is the best stimulator. Moreover, our results also validate that the electrophilicity of curcumin is necessary for its anti-melanogenic activity, as the non-electrophilic HMs did not inhibit melanogenesis. Furthermore, our results suggest that THC might hold promise as a stimulator of melanogenesis for treatment of hypopigmentation disorders and anti-graying therapies. Future studies to probe the molecular signaling mechanisms and test whether the pro-melanogenic activity of HMs is retained in primary human melanocytes are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Article
Rheological Investigation of Thermoresponsive Alginate-Methylcellulose Gels for Epidermal Growth Factor Formulation
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics8010003 - 30 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1259
Abstract
Epidermal growth factors (EGF) serve as promising candidates for skin regeneration and rejuvenation products, but their instability hinders them from widespread use. Protective immobilization and directed release can be achieved through implementing a hydrogel delivery system. Alginate and methylcellulose are both natural polymers [...] Read more.
Epidermal growth factors (EGF) serve as promising candidates for skin regeneration and rejuvenation products, but their instability hinders them from widespread use. Protective immobilization and directed release can be achieved through implementing a hydrogel delivery system. Alginate and methylcellulose are both natural polymers offering biocompatibility and environmental sensitivity. This blended gel system was investigated rheologically to understand its performance in topical applications. Alginate and methylcellulose were found to form a synergistic gel system that resulted in superior viscosity and thermoresponsiveness compared to the individual components. Increasing methylcellulose concentration directly enhanced gel elasticity, and higher viscosities provided better thermal protection of EGF. The addition of EGF at 3.33 mg/mL resulted in a decrease of viscosity but an increase in viscoelastic modulus. EGF concentration also played a large role in shear viscosity and thermoresponsiveness of the ternary system. An alginate-methylcellulose system presents promising rheological tunability, which may provide EGF thermal protection in a topical delivery format. Full article
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Article
Moringa oleifera Seed Oil Formulation Physical Stability and Chemical Constituents for Enhancing Skin Hydration and Antioxidant Activity
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics8010002 - 25 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1845
Abstract
Moringa oleifera seed oil has been recognized for its benefits in relation to the skin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of moringa seed oil, to formulate a moringa seed oil cream, and to determine [...] Read more.
Moringa oleifera seed oil has been recognized for its benefits in relation to the skin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of moringa seed oil, to formulate a moringa seed oil cream, and to determine the efficacy of moringa seed oil cream in vivo. The chemical components of moringa seed oil were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. The antioxidant activity of the oil was determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging assay. An oil-in-water cream containing moringa seed oil was developed and characterized for antioxidant activity. The moringa seed oil cream was further subjected to the accelerated stability test of heating–cooling cycles for six cycles and stored isothermally at 4, 30, and 45 °C for 28 days. The efficacy of moringa seed oil cream was investigated in 32 participants by measuring their skin hydration, erythema, melanin values, and visco-elasticity. The results showed that moringa seed oil contained α-tocopherol, plant sterols, and fatty acids. The oil had antioxidant activity with a 50% of initial concentration (IC50) value of 121.9 mg/mL. The stability study indicated that the pH, viscosity, and rheological behavior of the cream containing moringa seed oil were not significantly changed after storage at 4, 30, and 45 °C for 28 days and six heating–cooling cycles. The moringa seed oil cream exhibited in vitro antioxidant activity and increased the in vivo skin hydration level compared with the cream base. There was no report of skin irritation from moringa seed oil cream application, suggesting that the moringa seed oil cream developed in this study was appropriate for pharmaceutical and cosmetic uses. A M. oleifera seed oil cream was successfully developed. The moringa seed oil cream possessed antioxidant activity, enhanced the skin hydration level, and reduced skin erythema, but did not affect the melanin content and skin visco-elasticity. The moringa seed oil cream did not induce skin irritation and, thus, was safe to use. Full article
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Article
Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Emulsification of Emollient Nanoemulsions of Seed Oil of Passiflora edulis var. edulis
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics8010001 - 23 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1353
Abstract
Passiflora edulis var. edulis is a plant of commercial interest because of it fruits. The seeds, a by-product in the food industry, can be a source of oil for cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The aims of this work were to optimize the [...] Read more.
Passiflora edulis var. edulis is a plant of commercial interest because of it fruits. The seeds, a by-product in the food industry, can be a source of oil for cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The aims of this work were to optimize the ultrasonic-assisted emulsification conditions for o/w nanoemulsions and to evaluate the emollient activity of the seed oil. The optimum emulsification conditions were established, using the response surface methodology with a Box-Behnken design (BBD). The emollient activity of seed oil of P. edulis var. edulis was evaluated with healthy volunteers using a cutometer for skin moisture and viscoelasticity measurements. The optimal formulation variables (85.34 W of ultrasonic power, 5.96 irradiation time, 70.65% water and a 5:4 oil:surfactant ratio), resulted in considerable improvement in the properties of the ultrasonically formulated nanoemulsions. Finally, the seed oil of P. edulis var. edulis and the nanoemulsion generated by ultrasound presented emollient activity. Full article
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