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Cosmetics, Volume 9, Issue 2 (April 2022) – 17 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Rhododendron ferrugineum (Alpine rose) is an emblematic medicinal plant of European mountains. The chemical profile of a cosmetic ingredient developed from this plant was investigated to understand the extract constituents that could mostly contribute to its senolytic activity. Despite the presence of the heavy solvent glycerol, 14 metabolites were identified using the dereplication method “CARAMEL”, which combines Centrifugal Partition Chromatography to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance data interpretation. Taxifolin, quercetin, naringenin, and catechin derivatives were identified as major constituents of the extract, followed by phloroacetophenones, phenolic acids, and lupeol. The senolytic activity of the extract was attributed to the abundant flavonoids having known pro-apoptotic properties. View this paper.
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Article
Age-Defying and Photoprotective Potential of Geranium/Calendula Essential Oil Encapsulated Vesicular Cream on Biochemical Parameters against UVB Radiation Induced Skin Aging in Rat
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 43; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics9020043 - 18 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1074
Abstract
UVB irradiation promotes the production of reactive oxygen species, which can lead to an increase in oxidative stress in the cell and the generation of toxic components, resulting in photoaging. Essential oils (EOs) are well-known in the cosmetics sector for their beneficial effects, [...] Read more.
UVB irradiation promotes the production of reactive oxygen species, which can lead to an increase in oxidative stress in the cell and the generation of toxic components, resulting in photoaging. Essential oils (EOs) are well-known in the cosmetics sector for their beneficial effects, as they have a wide range of biological activities. Considering this fact, the current study investigates the photoprotective potential of geranium essential oil (GEO)/calendula essential oil (CEO) encapsulated vesicular cream on the biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats exposed to UVB radiation. After 30 days of treatment with cream formulations and UVB irradiation, the skin tissue was assayed for several biochemical parameters and histopathology analysis. The results of biochemical study revealed that, in comparison to non-vesicular creams, vesicular cream formulations were able to protect the endogenous skin natural antioxidant system by maintaining superoxide dismutase, catalase, total protein, ascorbic acid, and hydroxyproline levels and by decreasing malondialdehyde levels in the skin after UVB exposure. Changes in various cellular structures along with the change in the epidermis and dermis of the skin after UVB exposure in the treated group were observed by a histopathology of skin tissue and compared to the non-treated group, which revealed the skin damaging effect of UVB radiation and the protective effect of vesicular creams. The results suggest that the GEO/CEO-encapsulated vesicular creams have the potential to protect the skin against harmful UVB radiation by maintaining the natural antioxidant defence mechanism of the skin. In conclusion, this research presents novel herbal cosmetic formulations with improved antioxidant capacity and photoprotective potential that may help to slow down the skin aging process. Full article
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Article
Skincare Device Product Design Based on Factor Analysis of Korean Anthropometric Data
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 42; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics9020042 - 12 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1100
Abstract
The “beauty device” market, which enables simple skincare for those with busy lives, is growing steadily as an increasing number of people are trying to take care of their skin at home to save time and money. As opposed to dermatologists and esthetics [...] Read more.
The “beauty device” market, which enables simple skincare for those with busy lives, is growing steadily as an increasing number of people are trying to take care of their skin at home to save time and money. As opposed to dermatologists and esthetics centers, which require regular visits, the fact that their skin can be easily managed in leisure hours at home attracts consumers who value convenience. Thus, various beauty-care devices that use light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been launched. However, in the case of skincare devices using LEDs, pressure is expected to be applied to one’s face. Therefore, there is a need to develop a design based on ergonomic measurements that can distribute the pressure evenly on the skin. This study analyzed data to create a design for certain skincare devices that can be worn as glasses, using a three-dimensional human-measurement database of South Korean women between 30 and 49 y, as they are the major consumers of such devices. Additionally, a product design was proposed after a review of preference surveys from consumer focus group interviews and through an analysis of the direction of the light beams from the source using three-dimensional scanning data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Study of P-Phenylenediamine (PPD) Concentrations after Hair Dye Mixing: A Call for Safety Reassessment
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 41; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics9020041 - 05 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1236
Abstract
Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is a chemical that is widely used in hair dyes. Multiple safety and regulatory agencies have categorized PPD as a potent sensitizer. In addition, PPD has carcinogenicity and genotoxicity attributes and, consequently, it is regulated at a maximal concentration of 2.0%. [...] Read more.
Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is a chemical that is widely used in hair dyes. Multiple safety and regulatory agencies have categorized PPD as a potent sensitizer. In addition, PPD has carcinogenicity and genotoxicity attributes and, consequently, it is regulated at a maximal concentration of 2.0%. The aim of this study was to test whether the limit for PPD is surplus, and hence whether the consumer may be exposed to unnecessarily PPD levels. Experimentally, the analysis of PPD was performed using HPLC, where method validation and an inter-laboratory comparison test (ILC) were conducted to evaluate method performance. Thirty-three commercial products were analyzed, and five products were chosen to study the unconsumed PPD. Successfully, the implemented method confirmed its suitability and validity for the determination of PPD. For ILC results, PPD levels were 0.97 ± 0.04% and 0.92 ± 0.02%, quantified by our laboratory and an accredited laboratory, respectively. For all products, the initial concentration (T0) of PPD was lower than the regulatory limit. After 45 min, the content of PPD significantly reduced compared to T0. One product showed unconsumed PPD to be as high as 96% following the recommended dyeing time. In conclusion, the existence of high levels of unreacted PPD increases the likelihood of allergic events and elevates the risk of PPD-related chemicals. Collaborative efforts between industries, regulatory bodies, and health-related decision makers are deemed necessary to establish safe concentrations for PPD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Strategy to Avoid Skin Sensitization: Application to Botanical Cosmetic Ingredients
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 40; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics9020040 - 05 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1225
Abstract
Assessment of skin sensitization potential is mandatory for ingredients dedicated to topical applications. A battery of in vitro tests covering the key steps of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization has been recommended to replace animal testing. However, despite international guidelines [...] Read more.
Assessment of skin sensitization potential is mandatory for ingredients dedicated to topical applications. A battery of in vitro tests covering the key steps of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization has been recommended to replace animal testing. However, despite international guidelines on in vitro methods, there is no universal approach defining their combination. The purpose of this work was to assess skin sensitization of botanical ingredients relying on a previously developed in vitro testing strategy. This tool focused on complex and poorly water-soluble substances, which were not already covered. Sixteen botanical extracts were tested in a sequential approach, starting with Sens-Is, supplemented by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in vitro methods when necessary. The results on the selected well-known botanical sensitizers complemented the relevance of the strategy. Testing on experimental botanicals could detect skin sensitizers. In addition, phytochemistry was a determining support to identify and remove the components at the origin of the effect. Altogether, these results enlarged the scope of the methodology to various ingredient categories and chemical natures, contributing to place on the market new ingredients, safe for workers and end-users. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Regulatory and Technological Aspects of Cosmetics)
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Article
Phytocosmetic Emulsion Containing Extract of Morus nigra L. (Moraceae): Development, Stability Study, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 39; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics9020039 - 31 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1348
Abstract
Morus nigra L. is a species popularly known in the Northeast of Brazil as “amora miúra”. This species is a source of flavonoids with antioxidant activity. Antioxidants play an important role in the preservation of cosmetic formulations, and they neutralize free radicals. The [...] Read more.
Morus nigra L. is a species popularly known in the Northeast of Brazil as “amora miúra”. This species is a source of flavonoids with antioxidant activity. Antioxidants play an important role in the preservation of cosmetic formulations, and they neutralize free radicals. The objective of this study was to develop a topical emulsion containing leaf extract of Morus nigra L., as well as to evaluate the stability, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the formulations. A crude hydroalcoholic (70%) extract of M. nigra leaves (MnCE) was submitted to high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC–DAD) analysis and incorporated into an anionic base emulsion. Antioxidant activity was evaluated according to the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method, and the stability of the formulation was assessed for 90 days, submitting the emulsion to storage at 4, 20, and 37 °C. Microdilution techniques evaluated the antibacterial activity and a challenge test assessed the microbiological stability. Analysis by HPLC–DAD identified the flavonoids rutin and isoquercetin in the M. nigra extract. The emulsion and plant extract presented antioxidant activity, and the stability of the emulsion was preserved in terms of pH value and viscosity—which did not show significant changes, except for the spreadability, which was affected by the temperature. The antioxidant activity did not change significantly, except for the sample under 4 °C, which showed a considerable decrease in activity. The crude hydroalcoholic extract and formulation showed antimicrobial activity and the emulsion was considered stable in terms of organoleptic, physicochemical, and microbiological properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Review
Skin Sensitization Testing: The Ascendancy of Non-Animal Methods
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 38; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics9020038 - 29 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1199
Abstract
A century ago, toxicology was an empirical science identifying substance hazards in surrogate mammalian models. Over several decades, these models improved, evolved to reduce animal usage, and recently have begun the process of dispensing with animals entirely. However, despite good hazard identification, the [...] Read more.
A century ago, toxicology was an empirical science identifying substance hazards in surrogate mammalian models. Over several decades, these models improved, evolved to reduce animal usage, and recently have begun the process of dispensing with animals entirely. However, despite good hazard identification, the translation of hazards into adequately assessed risks to human health often has presented challenges. Unfortunately, many skin sensitizers known to produce contact allergy in humans, despite being readily identified as such in the predictive assays, continue to cause this adverse health effect. Increasing the rigour of hazard identification is inappropriate. Regulatory action has only proven effective via complete bans of individual substances. Since the problem applies to a broad range of substances and industry categories, and since generic banning of skin sensitizers would be an economic catastrophe, the solution is surprisingly simple—they should be subject to rigorous safety assessment, with the risks thereby managed accordingly. The ascendancy of non-animal methods in skin sensitization is giving unparalleled opportunities in which toxicologists, risk assessors, and regulators can work in concert to achieve a better outcome for the protection of human health than has been delivered by the in vivo methods and associated regulations that they are replacing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Methods for Safety Assessment of Cosmetics)
Article
Deciphering the Phytochemical Profile of an Alpine Rose (Rhododendron ferrugineum L.) Leaf Extract for a Better Understanding of Its Senolytic and Skin-Rejuvenation Effects
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 37; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics9020037 - 24 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1495
Abstract
Rhododendron ferrugineum, commonly named Alpine rose, is an emblematic medicinal plant of European mountains. In this study, the chemical profile of a glycerol/water extract developed from this plant as a cosmetic ingredient is investigated to understand the extract constituent(s) that could mostly [...] Read more.
Rhododendron ferrugineum, commonly named Alpine rose, is an emblematic medicinal plant of European mountains. In this study, the chemical profile of a glycerol/water extract developed from this plant as a cosmetic ingredient is investigated to understand the extract constituent(s) that could mostly contribute to its senolytic activity and skin-rejuvenation effects. For this purpose, the dereplication method “CARAMEL”, which combines Centrifugal Partition Chromatography to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance data interpretation, was directly applied to the hydro-glycerinated extract, leading to the unambiguous identification of fourteen Alpine rose metabolites, despite the strong presence of the heavy solvent glycerol. Flavonoids derived from taxifolin, quercetin, and (+)-catechin were identified as significant constituents of the extract, followed by flavanones, orcinol derivatives, phloroacetophenone, and phenolic acids, as well as the pentacyclic triterpene lupeol. Given that senolytic molecules are known to selectively induce the death of senescent cells without affecting healthy proliferating cells, which can be achieved by the selective inhibition or downregulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein, and considering the well-recognized pro-apoptotic activity of hyperoside, taxifolin, naringenin and farrerol, the senolytic activity of the glycerol/water Alpine rose extract can be explained by the abundance of flavonoids present in the extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Effect of the Use of a Cream with Leucine and Lactic Acid Associated with Electrostimulation in Contouring and Facial Tonus: A Randomized Clinical Controlled Trial
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 36; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics9020036 - 24 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1378
Abstract
Evidence has supported the use of leucine as a promising agent for the maintenance of muscle tone. This study aimed to assess the combined effect of leucine and cream-based lactic acid (novel cosmetic product), associated with the use of surface electrical stimulation to [...] Read more.
Evidence has supported the use of leucine as a promising agent for the maintenance of muscle tone. This study aimed to assess the combined effect of leucine and cream-based lactic acid (novel cosmetic product), associated with the use of surface electrical stimulation to improve contour and facial tonus in women. A total of 23 women were randomly allocated into two groups: Experimental (EG)—use of the leucine-based cream and lactic acid + electrostimulation for facial toning (mean intensity 13 Hz and protocol in progression); and placebo (GP)—use of the placebo cream (without the addition of leucine and lactic acid) + stimulation with the same protocol as the EG. Each group used their cream daily and underwent the intervention protocol three x/week with stimulation for 40 min, for a total of 8 weeks. Three main outcomes were reported: angular variation of facial contour by means of photogrammetry, muscle tone through the electromyographic activity of the masseter and zygomatic muscles during rest and functional tasks of biting and smiling. A significant effect of the intervention and between the groups was obtained for the experimental group against the placebo group for facial contour and muscle tone. An increased muscular activity of the masseter (average 28%) when smiling, and a reduction of zygomatic activity (in average 41%) when biting were found. The use of cream containing leucine and lactic acid combined with electrostimulation contributes to the improvement of facial contour and muscle tone when biting and smiling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Clinical Evaluation of Indian Sandalwood Oil and Its Protective Effect on the Skin against the Detrimental Effect of Exposome
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 35; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics9020035 - 23 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1536
Abstract
The skin is constantly subject to external stressors (the exposome), including particulate matter and blue light. These can penetrate the deeper layers of the skin, inducing the release of free radicals and triggering an inflammatory cascade of events contributing to cutaneous aging and [...] Read more.
The skin is constantly subject to external stressors (the exposome), including particulate matter and blue light. These can penetrate the deeper layers of the skin, inducing the release of free radicals and triggering an inflammatory cascade of events contributing to cutaneous aging and exacerbating inflammatory skin conditions. This study demonstrates the clinical efficacy of Indian sandalwood oil of varying concentrations against oxidative stress induced by urban dust and blue light. Twenty-two healthy human subjects entered and completed the study of 11 days. Test products containing 0.1%, 1% and 10% of sandalwood oil, as well as a placebo and a comparator control (α-tocopherol), were applied on the different investigational zones of the upper back of each subject. Exposure ensued on day 7, using a controlled pollution exposure system (CPES) and blue light at a wavelength of 412 nm. Sebum was sampled on each investigational zone following the last exposure. The level of squalene monohydroperoxide (SQOOH) was the primary endpoint. A dose-dependent decrease in SQOOH on the zones treated with 10%, 1% and 0.1% of the sandalwood oil formulation compared to the untreated zones was observed. The zone treated with the 10% sandalwood-containing formula demonstrated the highest protective efficacy with the lowest amount of SQOOH. Increasing the concentration of the sandalwood oil increased its protective antioxidant activity. The results collected from this intraindividual comparative is the first clinical trial to suggest that sandalwood oil at a concentration between 1% and 10% protects the skin against the oxidative stress induced by urban dust and blue light exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Can Performance and Gentleness Be Reconciled? A Skin Care Approach for Sensitive Skin
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 34; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics9020034 - 22 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1635
Abstract
People with self-reported sensitive skin may reluctantly use performing anti-ageing skin care products as it could elicit skin discomfort. We thus aimed to design and test an anti-ageing skin care routine that is suitable for people reporting sensitive skin. Key principles for developing [...] Read more.
People with self-reported sensitive skin may reluctantly use performing anti-ageing skin care products as it could elicit skin discomfort. We thus aimed to design and test an anti-ageing skin care routine that is suitable for people reporting sensitive skin. Key principles for developing products for sensitive skin were applied and formulas were screened for their mildness in vitro using the Reconstructed Human Epidermis ET50 method. Anti-ageing efficacy and mildness was evaluated during a clinical study in China, with 33 female volunteers aged 40–65 years, with sensitive skin. The anti-ageing benefits were measured using Primos 3D, the cutometer and clinical evaluation. Hallmarks for sensitive skin such as skin hydration, skin barrier, skin redness and response to lactic acid were also measured. The ET50 method yielded values suggesting moderate to mild expected irritancy effect in vivo for most of them, and non-irritating effect for the serum. During the clinical study, no physical or functional signs of discomfort were reported with twice-daily usage of the routine. Instrumental evaluation of Wrinkle depth, skin elasticity/firmness, skin hydration, skin barrier and skin redness revealed improvement at 4 and 8 weeks. Clinical evaluation evidenced skin smoothness, skin suppleness and radiance improvements. The skin was less reactive to lactic acid stimuli, while the sensitive skin burden was lowered according to the dermatological quality of life index. Lastly, a separate investigation suggested the potential relief aspect of such routines to alleviate discomforts from mask wearing. With the right formulation design, the benefits of layering products from a routine can be made accessible to people with sensitive skin while simultaneously alleviating the burden of sensitive skin. Full article
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Article
Storage Effect on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Nephelium lappaceum L. Extract
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 33; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics9020033 - 18 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1178
Abstract
Preparation of potential antioxidant extracts with less process for storing in a long period is preferable. N. lappaceum rind, well known as a promising source of phenolic antioxidants agricultural residue, was employed to prepare crude extracts by different solvents. The phenolic content, flavonoid [...] Read more.
Preparation of potential antioxidant extracts with less process for storing in a long period is preferable. N. lappaceum rind, well known as a promising source of phenolic antioxidants agricultural residue, was employed to prepare crude extracts by different solvents. The phenolic content, flavonoid content, antioxidant, and anti-tyrosinase activities of the extracts were evaluated. The stability of the potential extract was then assessed for phenolic content and antioxidant activity under various storage conditions. The extractive yields of crude phenolic extract ranged from 16.61 to 28.78%. The ethanolic extract of N. lappaceum rind exhibited potential antioxidant activities and contained a high amount of phenolics and flavonoid contents. The extract remained with a high amount of the phenolic content (up to 88.79%) and retained its antioxidant property under various temperatures (4, 25, and 45 °C) after the first week of the storage period. The results suggest that phenolic content and antioxidant activity of N. lappaceum rind extract, as a nutraceutical or anti-aging ingredients in cosmetics, could be stored at a temperature from 4 °C to 45 °C with or without oxygen exposure at least for 16 weeks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
Article
Occurrence of Allergens in Cosmetics for Sensitive Skin
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics9020032 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1355
Abstract
Sensitive skin is characterized by symptoms such as stinging and tingling in response to stimuli that usually do not cause unpleasant sensations. Epidemiological studies show that individuals with sensitive skin are more prone to developing skin allergies, although the link between both conditions [...] Read more.
Sensitive skin is characterized by symptoms such as stinging and tingling in response to stimuli that usually do not cause unpleasant sensations. Epidemiological studies show that individuals with sensitive skin are more prone to developing skin allergies, although the link between both conditions is unknown. Aiming to evaluate the presence of allergens in facial-skin products for sensitive skin, a pool of 88 cosmetic products from international brands marketed in pharmacies and parapharmacies was analyzed. A list of allergens identified in product labels was compiled and grouped according to their function. Fragrances were the most common allergens, followed by skin-conditioning agents, surfactants, and preservatives. Fragrances presenting the highest use percentages were linalool, benzyl alcohol, geraniol, and citronellol. Overall, the majority of cosmetic formulations were absent of fragrance allergens, being present only in 7% of products. Other allergens were found in most products (95%). This finding should be interpreted with caution, since many of these compounds are rare sensitizers and studies demonstrating their risk for individuals with sensitive skin are lacking. With this study, useful information for health professionals is provided to support their advice and to help consumers choosing cosmetic products. Full article
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Review
Managing Skin Ageing as a Modifiable Disorder—The Clinical Application of Nourella® Dual Approach Comprising a Nano-Encapsulated Retinoid, Retilex-A® and a Skin Proteoglycan Replacement Therapy, Vercilex®
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics9020031 - 15 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1187
Abstract
Skin ageing is a progressive, but modifiable, multi-factorial disorder that involves all the skin’s tissues. Due to its wide range of physiological and psychosocial complications, skin ageing requires rigorous clinical attention. In this review, we aim to encourage clinicians to consider skin ageing [...] Read more.
Skin ageing is a progressive, but modifiable, multi-factorial disorder that involves all the skin’s tissues. Due to its wide range of physiological and psychosocial complications, skin ageing requires rigorous clinical attention. In this review, we aim to encourage clinicians to consider skin ageing as a disorder and suggest a novel, dual approach to its clinical treatment. Topical retinoids and per-oral proteoglycans are promising, non-invasive, therapeutic modalities. To overcome the low bioavailability of conventional free retinoids, Nourella® cream with Retilex-A® (Pharma Medico, Aarhus, Denmark) was developed using a proprietary nano-encapsulation technology. The nano-encapsulation is a sophisticated ‘permeation/penetration enhancer’ that optimises topical drug delivery by increasing the surface availability and net absorption ratio. Treatment adherence is also improved by minimising skin irritation. Interventional evidence suggests the greater efficacy of Retilex-A® in improving skin thickness and elasticity compared with conventional free forms. It is also reported that the rejuvenating efficacy of Retilex-A® and tretinoin are comparable. Another skin anti-ageing approach is proteoglycan replacement therapy (PRT) with Vercilex®. Vercilex® in Nourella® tablet form has the potential to ameliorate proteoglycan dysmetabolism in aged skin by activating skin cells and improving collagen/elastin turnover. Replicated clinical trials evidenced that PRT can significantly enhance the density, elasticity and thickness of both intrinsically aged and photoaged skin. Evidently, Vercilex® and Retilex-A® share a range of bioactivities that underlie their synergistic activity, as observed in a clinical trial. Dual therapy with Nourella® tablets and cream produced greater effects on skin characteristics than monotherapy with each of the two treatments. In conclusion, Nourella® cream and tablets are safe and effective treatments for skin ageing; however, combining the two in a ‘dual skin rejuvenation system’ significantly improves treatment outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Cosmetic Ingredients, Formulations and Devices)
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Article
Developing Eco-Friendly Skin Care Formulations with Microemulsions of Essential Oil
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics9020030 - 04 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1838
Abstract
With the rising public awareness of environmental issues, consumers are increasingly demanding skin care products that create less environmental impact but still provide the same or even greater efficacy. In the skin care arena, microemulsions have been receiving increased attention as the promising [...] Read more.
With the rising public awareness of environmental issues, consumers are increasingly demanding skin care products that create less environmental impact but still provide the same or even greater efficacy. In the skin care arena, microemulsions have been receiving increased attention as the promising delivery technology of skin care actives. Essential oils such as peppermint oil, lavender oil and eucalyptus oil are purported to have excellent antioxidant and antimicrobial properties that could be used as the eco-friendly alternatives for synthetic antioxidants and preservatives in the skin care formulations. This work therefore seeks to develop eco-friendly skin care formulations based on microemulsions of essential oil. Peppermint oil, lavender oil and eucalyptus oil were used as the oil phase to formulate naringin-loaded microemulsions, which demonstrated similar or better antioxidant and antimicrobial properties compared to the synthetic ones. When formulated into gel form, naringin-loaded microemulsion-gel formulations showed enhanced stability and release profile over their unformulated counterpart. Hence, microemulsions of essential oil developed in this work conferred a 4-fold benefits to the skin care formulations: (1) improved release (membrane permeation) of skin care active, (2) improved stability of skin care active, (3) as an eco-friendly alternative to synthetic antioxidant, and (4) a self-preserving system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Prospecting In Vitro Antioxidant and Photoprotective Properties of Rosmarinic Acid in a Sunscreen System Developed by QbD Containing Octyl p-Methoxycinnamate and Bemotrizinol
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics9020029 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1462
Abstract
Progressively growing diagnoses of skin cancer trigger public health concerns about excessive sun exposure, awareness of the deleterious effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the skin, and the proper use of sunscreens. Studies show that bioactive molecules, such as rosmarinic acid (RA), may [...] Read more.
Progressively growing diagnoses of skin cancer trigger public health concerns about excessive sun exposure, awareness of the deleterious effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the skin, and the proper use of sunscreens. Studies show that bioactive molecules, such as rosmarinic acid (RA), may potentiate the photoprotective and antioxidant activity of topical formulations. This research presents the application of the concepts of quality by design (QbD) to evaluate the critical parameters of quality and the development of an optimized cosmetic formulation with RA by means of an understanding of product design space. Samples were developed using design of experiments (DoE) and they were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity and photoprotective efficacy, as well as for photostability through artificial irradiation. We were able to achieve the RA performance regarding antioxidant and SPF properties through in vitro experiments. We obtained the equations for predicting the in vitro antioxidant activity and SPF. Considering our sunscreen system, developed with octyl p-methoxycinnamate and bemotrizinol, the presence of RA increased its antioxidant capacity; however, the in vitro SPF was reduced when both UV filters were used. The development of multifunctional sunscreens is of utmost importance; moreover, there is a need for the rational development of formulations that ensure representative statistical tests of the effects and interactions among the components of a formulation on the desired critical quality attributes, including efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Case Report
Managing Wound Healing with a High-Risk Patient: A Case Report
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics9020028 - 26 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1310
Abstract
Wound healing is a complex, multi-step process. This process begins immediately after skin damage. The outcome of wound healing depends on the quality of each stage of this process: a normal or pathological scar. Violation of wound healing entails a decrease in the [...] Read more.
Wound healing is a complex, multi-step process. This process begins immediately after skin damage. The outcome of wound healing depends on the quality of each stage of this process: a normal or pathological scar. Violation of wound healing entails a decrease in the function of scar tissue as well as aesthetic dissatisfaction with the patient. This problem is especially important in aesthetic surgery. Patients who have come for beauty feel frustration, obtaining pathological scars. We have been dealing with the problem of wound healing after plastic surgery for about 10 years. Our approach includes the assessment of the risk of pathological wound healing and the treatment of high-risk patients. The risk assessment includes historical data on wound healing, signs of connective tissue dysfunction (especially patients with connective tissue dysplasia), and genetic polymorphisms of genes responsible for the structure of the components of the extracellular matrix of the skin. In the future, patients with a high risk of pathological scarring can be prescribed treatment after surgery. This article presents a clinical case in which we demonstrate our approach. Full article
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Article
Trends in Cosmetics: Product Packaging at the Point of Sale
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 27; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cosmetics9020027 - 24 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1460
Abstract
Recently, there has been a proliferation of establishments where cosmetics products are packaged at the purchaser’s request, promoting the circular economy with the aim of reusing, recycling and reducing packaging. At the Spanish Agency of Medicines and Medical Devices (AEMPS, for its Spanish [...] Read more.
Recently, there has been a proliferation of establishments where cosmetics products are packaged at the purchaser’s request, promoting the circular economy with the aim of reusing, recycling and reducing packaging. At the Spanish Agency of Medicines and Medical Devices (AEMPS, for its Spanish acronym), we asked ourselves whether this was a legal and safe practice. In order to verify this, a bibliographic analysis of the applicable legislation and regulations was carried out, and the conclusion reached was that it is legal practice, but a series of guidelines are necessary for it to be carried out with guarantees. Consequently, an instruction was developed which provides recommendations to ensure that the packaging of cosmetic products at the point of sale is carried out under optimum conditions. This instruction is aimed at both responsible persons and the personnel who carry out product packaging at the point of sale. Full article
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