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Diseases, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2014) – 3 articles , Pages 296-321

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Article
Impact of Aging on Liver Histological Findings of Autoimmune Liver Diseases
Diseases 2014, 2(4), 308-321; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diseases2040308 - 27 Nov 2014
Viewed by 2614
Abstract
Our aim is to investigate the recent liver biopsy findings of autoimmune liver diseases at a university hospital located in an urban area of Japan. The study included 259 patients (mean age 56.8 ± 12.5; male/female, 46/213) who underwent a liver biopsy for [...] Read more.
Our aim is to investigate the recent liver biopsy findings of autoimmune liver diseases at a university hospital located in an urban area of Japan. The study included 259 patients (mean age 56.8 ± 12.5; male/female, 46/213) who underwent a liver biopsy for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) or autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). We analyzed their liver biopsy findings according to age and gender. Among 127 PBC patients, Scheuer stages 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 42, 54, 18, and 13, respectively. Among 101 AIH patients, fibrosis stages F1, F2, F3, and F4 were 37, 32, 19, and 13, respectively, and inflammatory activity grades A1, A2, and A3 were 22, 25, and 54, respectively. Among PBC aged ≥65 years, Scheuer stages 1–3 and 4 patients were 27 and 6, respectively. The proportion of Scheuer stage 4 patients in PBC aged ≥65 years tended to be higher than that in PBC aged <65 years (p = 0.0659). Of interest, the proportion of AIH patients with moderate or severe activity (A2 or A3) in males was higher than in females (p = 0.0311). From the point of view of fibrosis stage or inflammatory activity grade of the liver, the proportion of AIH patients aged ≥65 years was similar to that aged <65 years. Although we identified six older cirrhotic patients with AIH, three of them were male. The progression of fibrosis and inflammatory activity of the liver should be noted when we treat older patients suffering from autoimmune liver diseases. Liver biopsy plays an important role in obtaining accurate information on autoimmune liver diseases in older patients. Full article
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Review
Helicobacter-pylori Negative Gastritis in Children—A New Clinical Enigma
Diseases 2014, 2(4), 301-307; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diseases2040301 - 27 Oct 2014
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Abstract
The decrease in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in children in the world gave rise to a new pathological finding termed as Hp-negative gastritis. Unfortunately, the term “Hp-negative gastritis” has not been identified as a pathological process and has the status [...] Read more.
The decrease in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in children in the world gave rise to a new pathological finding termed as Hp-negative gastritis. Unfortunately, the term “Hp-negative gastritis” has not been identified as a pathological process and has the status of a “second cousin”; in most publications it was never mentioned as a subject to be dealt with, but was “left over” data that was never the topic of the manuscripts’ discussions. Only recently has the topic captured the attention of the pathologists who described this phenomenon in adults, yet the pathological and/or clinical spectrum or significance of this phenomenon has not been adequately investigated. In the current manuscript we describe Hp-negative gastritis in children, summarize its clinical prevalence and touch upon the possible etiology, pathology, and/or therapeutic implication. Overall, this review has concluded that Hp-negative gastritis is a pathological phenomenon in children that needs further investigation, and to date, as the title suggests, is a new clinical enigma that needs to be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Helicobacter Pylori Infection)
Case Report
Facial and Ocular Features of Marfan Syndrome
Diseases 2014, 2(4), 296-300; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diseases2040296 - 17 Oct 2014
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2788
Abstract
Marfan syndrome is the most common inherited disorder of connective tissue affecting multiple organ systems. Identification of the facial, ocular and skeletal features should prompt referral for aortic imaging since sudden death by aortic dissection and rupture remains a major cause of death [...] Read more.
Marfan syndrome is the most common inherited disorder of connective tissue affecting multiple organ systems. Identification of the facial, ocular and skeletal features should prompt referral for aortic imaging since sudden death by aortic dissection and rupture remains a major cause of death in patients with unrecognized Marfan syndrome. Echocardiography is recommended as the initial imaging test, and once a dilated aortic root is identified magnetic resonance or computed tomography should be done to assess the entire aorta. Prophylactic aortic root replacement is safe and has been demonstrated to improve life expectancy in patients with Marfan syndrome. Medical therapy for Marfan syndrome includes the use of beta blockers in older children and adults with an enlarged aorta. Addition of angiotensin receptor antagonists has been shown to slow the progression of aortic root dilation compared to beta blockers alone. Lifelong and regular follow up in a center for specialized care is important for patients with Marfan syndrome. We present a case of a patient with clinical features of Marfan syndrome and discuss possible therapeutic interventions for her dilated aorta. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marfan Syndrome: Recognition, Diagnosis and Managements)
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