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Review

Abnormal Liver Biochemistry Tests and Acute Liver Injury in COVID-19 Patients: Current Evidence and Potential Pathogenesis

1
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Kingston 7, Jamaica
2
Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Education, The Mico University College, 1A Marescaux Road, Kingston 5, Jamaica
3
Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, The University of the West Indies, Kingston 7, Jamaica
4
School of Allied Health and Wellness, College of Health Sciences, University of Technology, Kingston 7, Jamaica
5
Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Kingston 7, Jamaica
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ian James Martins
Received: 23 May 2021 / Revised: 16 June 2021 / Accepted: 24 June 2021 / Published: 1 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 and Global Chronic Disease)
Globally, millions of persons have contracted the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) over the past several months, resulting in significant mortality. Health care systems are negatively impacted including the care of individuals with cancers and other chronic diseases such as chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There are various probable pathogenic mechanisms that have been presented to account for liver injury in COVID-19 patients such as hepatotoxicity cause by therapeutic drugs, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection of the bile duct cells and hepatocytes, hypoxia and systemic inflammatory response. Liver biochemistry tests such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are deranged in COVID-19 patients with liver injury. Hepatocellular damage results in the elevation of serum AST and ALT levels in early onset disease while a cholestatic pattern that develops as the disease progress causes higher levels of ALP, GGT, direct and total bilirubin. These liver biochemistry tests are prognostic markers of disease severity and should be carefully monitored in COVID-19 patients. We conducted a systematic review of abnormal liver biochemistry tests in COVID-19 and the possible pathogenesis involved. Significant findings regarding the severity, hepatocellular pattern, incidence and related clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients are highlighted. View Full-Text
Keywords: liver; biochemistry; tests; function; coronavirus; disease; injury; acute; infection; severity; mortality liver; biochemistry; tests; function; coronavirus; disease; injury; acute; infection; severity; mortality
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MDPI and ACS Style

McGrowder, D.A.; Miller, F.; Anderson Cross, M.; Anderson-Jackson, L.; Bryan, S.; Dilworth, L. Abnormal Liver Biochemistry Tests and Acute Liver Injury in COVID-19 Patients: Current Evidence and Potential Pathogenesis. Diseases 2021, 9, 50. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diseases9030050

AMA Style

McGrowder DA, Miller F, Anderson Cross M, Anderson-Jackson L, Bryan S, Dilworth L. Abnormal Liver Biochemistry Tests and Acute Liver Injury in COVID-19 Patients: Current Evidence and Potential Pathogenesis. Diseases. 2021; 9(3):50. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diseases9030050

Chicago/Turabian Style

McGrowder, Donovan A., Fabian Miller, Melisa Anderson Cross, Lennox Anderson-Jackson, Sophia Bryan, and Lowell Dilworth. 2021. "Abnormal Liver Biochemistry Tests and Acute Liver Injury in COVID-19 Patients: Current Evidence and Potential Pathogenesis" Diseases 9, no. 3: 50. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diseases9030050

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