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J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex., Volume 6, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 106 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Relationship between Entry Grades and Attrition Trends in the Context of Higher Education: Implication for Open Innovation of Education Policy
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 199; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040199 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 509
Abstract
Student retention has emerged as a significant and expensive challenge for higher education institutes worldwide. Although several studies have been conducted on increasing student numbers and diversity in higher education institutes, studies on the relationship between student retention and entry grades are limited, [...] Read more.
Student retention has emerged as a significant and expensive challenge for higher education institutes worldwide. Although several studies have been conducted on increasing student numbers and diversity in higher education institutes, studies on the relationship between student retention and entry grades are limited, particularly in the UK. The aim of this paper was to examine the relationship between entry grades and student attrition in the context of higher education in the UK. A quantitative methodology was used in this study, wherein data were derived from secondary sources, including University and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) tariff points and full- and part-time undergraduate student enrolment between 2012 and 2017. The data were extracted and analyzed using Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) performance indicators. The findings indicate that there exists a clear association between entry grades and student retention for part-time students, which may aid policy makers, academics, university staff, and higher education stakeholders to develop appropriate strategies to address attrition levels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Validation of Real Case Solving (RCS) Methodology as an Efficient Engineering Learning Tool
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 198; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040198 - 19 Dec 2020
Viewed by 500
Abstract
In recent times, new learning methodologies known as student-based methodologies have been introduced to simplify the learning process for the students and facilitate the acquisition of skills for them. Among them, problem based learning (PBL) and project-based learning (PjBL) are widely used methods [...] Read more.
In recent times, new learning methodologies known as student-based methodologies have been introduced to simplify the learning process for the students and facilitate the acquisition of skills for them. Among them, problem based learning (PBL) and project-based learning (PjBL) are widely used methods in the world of education. Real case solving (RCS) is a variant of the PBL where students solve real cases through the application of the PBL methodology. RCS seems to be a relevant approach for educators, but it has an apparently limited implementation degree at the academic level. This article presents the successful implementation of four different RCS approaches in the lecturing process in five different classes in the engineering degree of University of Deusto. The initiative has been analyzed both quantitative and qualitatively; the overall performance and success rate of the students were compared with the ones acquired from conventional teaching methods. The results were found to be promising, demonstrating a significantly better performance than the traditional teaching methodologies. The successful results encouraged the university to continue working further in this direction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cryptocurrency Market Analysis from the Open Innovation Perspective
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 197; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040197 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 719
Abstract
The paper focuses on the analysis of the cryptocurrency open innovation market to predict sustainable growth in the future. The nature of cryptocurrencies ‘development leads to the rapid increase in their popularity and spread of trading at this new market. The high volatility [...] Read more.
The paper focuses on the analysis of the cryptocurrency open innovation market to predict sustainable growth in the future. The nature of cryptocurrencies ‘development leads to the rapid increase in their popularity and spread of trading at this new market. The high volatility of these assets is encouraging to understand and predict their price in ever changing market environment. The paper proposed the pool complexity approach to choose optimal technology using social activity in the internet, trading parameters, technical indicators and other cryptocurrency data. According to the results of the analysis, the most effective and promising cryptocurrency is EOS cryptocurrency, which has the lowest complexity and commission level among the analyzed digital currencies and allows you to implement third-party applications in the system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Financial Open Innovations for Sustainable Economic Growth)
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Open AccessArticle
Organizational and Environmental Factors with the Mediating Role of E-Commerce and SME Performance
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 196; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040196 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 873
Abstract
The study investigates the mediating role of e-commerce through organizational and environmental factors with small and medium enterprises (SMEs) performance. The study follows a cross-sectional survey method approach. The study’s theoretical foundation is based on the resource-based view (RBV) and diffusion of innovation [...] Read more.
The study investigates the mediating role of e-commerce through organizational and environmental factors with small and medium enterprises (SMEs) performance. The study follows a cross-sectional survey method approach. The study’s theoretical foundation is based on the resource-based view (RBV) and diffusion of innovation (DOI) theory. The current research identifies four manufacturing SMEs’ strata based on participation in the country’s exports using a stratified proportional random sampling technique. The research questionnaires were distributed among 700 top and middle-level managers of manufacturing SMEs. The data were analyzed by applying partial least square structural equational modeling (PLS-SEM) to examine the relationship between the exogenous, mediator, and endogenous variables. The finding reveals that top management support and competitive pressure have a significant positive impact on the use of e-commerce direct and mediation. At the same time, the adoption cost and government support have an insignificant impact on e-commerce usage. This study results can be used to enhance the use of e-commerce in Pakistan’s manufacturing SMEs to improve the country’s overall exports. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Open Innovation in Micro, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises)
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Open AccessArticle
Environmental Innovation, Open Innovation Dynamics and Competitive Advantage of Medium and Large-Sized Firms
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 195; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040195 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 493
Abstract
The present research investigates the contribution of environmental innovation to firms’ competitive advantage through the case of medium and large-sized firms operating in Greece. Due to the growing trend of environmental innovation in Greece and a consequent increase in the research interest, this [...] Read more.
The present research investigates the contribution of environmental innovation to firms’ competitive advantage through the case of medium and large-sized firms operating in Greece. Due to the growing trend of environmental innovation in Greece and a consequent increase in the research interest, this paper fills the existing gap in the relevant literature as there is not enough evidence concerning Greek firms’ environmental innovation practices. To meet the research goal, a questionnaire was distributed to 892 medium and large-sized firms operating in Greece; 225 questionnaires were finally responded. The data is based on firms’ self-assessment concerning environmental innovation and competitive advantage and are analyzed using both descriptive and inductive statistics, including principal components analysis and multiple linear regression. The research results show that the examined firms implement environmental innovation practices at a moderate level. The most common practices of environmental innovation are the implementation of ISO 14001 management systems and the toxic substances usage reduction. The percentage of ISO 14001 implementation is increased compared to the previous years. Furthermore, the regression analysis revealed that the components concerning environmental process innovation and environmental product innovation have a positive impact on the examined firms’ competitive capability. The relationship between open innovation and environmental innovation and the contribution of open innovation dynamics are discussed as well. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Knowledge-Sharing Strategies in Distributed Collaborative Product Development
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 194; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040194 - 16 Dec 2020
Viewed by 415
Abstract
Knowledge-sharing strategies are used across the industry as open innovation and distributed collaboration are becoming more popular to achieve technological competencies, faster time-to-market, competitiveness and growth. Sharing of knowledge can provide benefits to manufacturing and new product development (NPD) companies in improving their [...] Read more.
Knowledge-sharing strategies are used across the industry as open innovation and distributed collaboration are becoming more popular to achieve technological competencies, faster time-to-market, competitiveness and growth. Sharing of knowledge can provide benefits to manufacturing and new product development (NPD) companies in improving their product quality and enhancing business potential. This paper examines the implementation of knowledge-sharing strategies in New Zealand aimed at bridging the physical locational issues to achieve collaborative benefits in NPD firms through an in-depth case study. The analysis of this only one, but interesting, case extends a holistic multi-mediation model by Pateli and Lioukas for the effect of functional involvement in a distributed collaborative product development environment. This study explores the external and internal knowledge transfer and how it affects early-stage, late-stage, and the overall product development process. Findings present a knowledge-sharing toolset that enhances innovation in all stages of product development overcoming the environmental factors to improve early and late-stage development through a two-way knowledge-transfer loop with distributed stakeholders. An encouraging management culture is found as key for transparent knowledge transfer across cross-functional teams. The organizational structure and management style play an important role for both external and internal distribution of knowledge. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Interfirm Partnerships and Organizational Innovation: Study of SMEs in the Automotive Sector
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 193; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040193 - 15 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 455
Abstract
This study aims to analyze the influence that interfirm partnership motives can have on the implementation of organizational innovation activities. To achieve this aim, a quantitative cross-sectional research design was adopted, surveying owners-managers of small and medium-sized enterprises in the automotive sector. Based [...] Read more.
This study aims to analyze the influence that interfirm partnership motives can have on the implementation of organizational innovation activities. To achieve this aim, a quantitative cross-sectional research design was adopted, surveying owners-managers of small and medium-sized enterprises in the automotive sector. Based on the empirical evidence, the study concludes that the motives for partnership formation are related to organizational innovation activities, but only partially. Of the four main factors for establishing interfirm partnerships (‘Efficiency’, ‘Innovation and learning’, ‘Market opportunities’, ‘Technology and competition’), only the motives associated with the latter were shown to have a positive and significant influence on organizational innovation. Implications for theory and practice are also presented. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Management of Competitiveness of Metropolis Public Transport in the COVID-19 Pandemic Based on Core Consumers’ Values
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 192; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040192 - 15 Dec 2020
Viewed by 425
Abstract
The aim of the paper focuses on generating insights into the competitiveness of public transport in Moscow City in relation to the use of personal cars, considering individual basic consumer values and environmental factors, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The research [...] Read more.
The aim of the paper focuses on generating insights into the competitiveness of public transport in Moscow City in relation to the use of personal cars, considering individual basic consumer values and environmental factors, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The research question in this study is: how can we assess the main indicators of public transport’s competitiveness, which can motivate personal car owners with specific basic values to change the transportation mode for personal mobility? This conceptual research model combines the content analysis of publications and large-scale online survey of Moscow City’s car owners—potential consumers of public transport services—on a representative quota sample of 1263 respondents. The methodology includes the axiological approach for the identification of the main factors of consumer behavior of personal car owners in the city with combinations of the modified Schwartz’s methodology of the basic individual values evaluations. Secondary data manifested the changes in the behavior of car owners due to the fact that they value metropolitan environmental degradation and changed their transportation preferences to public transport even during the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on the factor and cluster analysis of the value profile of the individuals, seven clusters of car owners were identified, and two large clusters were selected as target segments for public transport services. The conclusion was made that it is necessary to differentiate social and marketing programs to promote the competitiveness of public transport in the minds of consumers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Can Cognitive Capital Sustain Customer Satisfaction? The Mediating Effects of Employee Self-Efficacy
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 191; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040191 - 14 Dec 2020
Viewed by 415
Abstract
Despite the important role of cognitive capital as a facet of social capital, there is little empirical work examining the causal effect of cognitive capital dimensions on sustaining customer satisfaction. Thus, there is a need to investigate the relationship between these constructs via [...] Read more.
Despite the important role of cognitive capital as a facet of social capital, there is little empirical work examining the causal effect of cognitive capital dimensions on sustaining customer satisfaction. Thus, there is a need to investigate the relationship between these constructs via employee self-efficacy. Our proposed hypothetical framework is tested in the tourism industry sector employing a quantitative research method. Drawing from social capital and social cognitive theories, we generated items from a piloted questionnaire which was administered to 600 top and middle managers in hotels and travel agents using drop and collect methods. We test our hypothetical model using SEM techniques with 490 usable cases. The survey results indicate that cognitive capital dimensions have direct and indirect relationships with sustained customer satisfaction. In addition, employee self-efficacy mediates between exogenous constructs and the endogenous construct. Surprisingly, these two exogenous constructs: shared norms and shared values do directly influence shared goals and enhance employee self-efficacy. Additionally, shared goals enhance employee efficacy which subsequently leads to sustained customer satisfaction. These findings shed light on the impact of intra-firm social interactions on customer experience in hotels and travel agents. Managers should use cognitive capital to improve the level of service employee self-efficacy and subsequently sustain customer satisfaction. The paper outlines theoretical and managerial implications and addresses possible directions for further research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
How Big Data Analytics Boosts Organizational Performance: The Mediating Role of the Sustainable Product Development
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 190; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040190 - 13 Dec 2020
Viewed by 498
Abstract
Increasing haze pollution and its adverse effects on human health is pressuring academics and practitioners to search for different solutions for environmental sustainability around the world. Similar to other countries, Pakistan is also affected by air pollution, and smog has become a fifth [...] Read more.
Increasing haze pollution and its adverse effects on human health is pressuring academics and practitioners to search for different solutions for environmental sustainability around the world. Similar to other countries, Pakistan is also affected by air pollution, and smog has become a fifth season. In Pakistan, one of the main reasons of smog and air pollution is hazardous emissions from vehicles. As a result, the booming automobile industry of Pakistan is now affected by two major challenges: sustainable product development and organizational performance. To meet these challenges, the study has developed a conceptual model to find the effect of big data analytics on organizational performance by adopting a sustainable development program. For the elimination of standard method biases, the study has used a time lag approach to collect the data in three waves and receive 372 usable responses. The empirical results of PLS-SEM suggest that big data analytics have a positive effect on a sustainable product development and sustainable product development has a positive and significant impact on organizational performance. Moreover, mediation of a sustainable program development is also confirmed between big data analytics and organizational performance. The managerial and theoretical implications of these results are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data Research for Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Algorithmic Foundations of Economic and Mathematical Modeling of Network Logistics Processes
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 189; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040189 - 13 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 402
Abstract
Nowadays, digitizing the data stream is enabling the evolution of logistics processes. The data-driven network logistics processes are evaluated by leading economic indicators. The purpose of this study is to further develop the algorithmic foundations of economic and mathematical modeling of logistics networks [...] Read more.
Nowadays, digitizing the data stream is enabling the evolution of logistics processes. The data-driven network logistics processes are evaluated by leading economic indicators. The purpose of this study is to further develop the algorithmic foundations of economic and mathematical modeling of logistics networks based on advanced technologies that the digitalization process provides. Methods of mathematical modeling of flows of various resources in logistic networks, the structure of which is presented in the form of a graph, are used in the work. The economic benefit lies in the implementation of the planning concept based on leading indicators. As a result, using a set of formalisms, a mathematical model has been developed, which will make it possible to search for optimal solutions based on the criterion of economic efficiency. The results obtained will find application not only in transport problems. Network logistics includes the transportation of liquid and gaseous materials through pipelines, energy through electrical networks. A universal mathematical model will allow the results to be applied in many industries and economic activities when it is required to make economically sound decisions based on a stream of digital data coming in real time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Achieving Ambidexterity in Internationalization: Analysis of How SMEs Cope with Tensions between Organizational Agility–Efficiency
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 188; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040188 - 12 Dec 2020
Viewed by 470
Abstract
This study aims to examine how small and medium enterprises manage the tensions between organizational agility and efficiency. Organizational agility is a multidimensional concept where each of its components can interact differently with efficiency. The tensions between other capabilities have been explored in [...] Read more.
This study aims to examine how small and medium enterprises manage the tensions between organizational agility and efficiency. Organizational agility is a multidimensional concept where each of its components can interact differently with efficiency. The tensions between other capabilities have been explored in many previous studies, yet there is a lack of research exploring the roots of the tensions between organizational agility and efficiency, how the actors interpret these tensions and what dimensions of organizational agility are causing the tensions. A multiple case study research design with an inductive approach was used to explore how two SMEs manage the tensions between organizational agility and efficiency to serve customers from abroad. Despite the relationship between the agility and efficiency seeming contradictory, our analysis demonstrated that the interaction between the two concepts is complex, depending on the object of the tensions, the actors involved and the context. In fact, two actors at the same level of the organizational hierarchy can have identical perceptions about a tension, but they can arise from different logical reasoning. Moreover, due to the multidimensionality of organizational agility, a meta-capability of organizational agility is more likely to dominate the interaction with efficiency. This study contributes to the limited empirical evidence on how actors in SMEs perceive and manage the various tensions emerging from organizational agility and efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ambidextrous Open Innovation: Technology, Market and Complexity)
Open AccessArticle
Artificial Intelligence Technologies and Related Urban Planning and Development Concepts: How Are They Perceived and Utilized in Australia?
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 187; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040187 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1066
Abstract
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a powerful technology with an increasing popularity and applications in areas ranging from marketing to banking and finance, from agriculture to healthcare and security, from space exploration to robotics and transport, and from chatbots to artificial creativity and manufacturing. [...] Read more.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a powerful technology with an increasing popularity and applications in areas ranging from marketing to banking and finance, from agriculture to healthcare and security, from space exploration to robotics and transport, and from chatbots to artificial creativity and manufacturing. Although many of these areas closely relate to the urban context, there is limited understanding of the trending AI technologies and their application areas—or concepts—in the urban planning and development fields. Similarly, there is a knowledge gap in how the public perceives AI technologies, their application areas, and the AI-related policies and practices of our cities. This study aims to advance our understanding of the relationship between the key AI technologies (n = 15) and their key application areas (n = 16) in urban planning and development. To this end, this study examines public perceptions of how AI technologies and their application areas in urban planning and development are perceived and utilized in the testbed case study of Australian states and territories. The methodological approach of this study employs the social media analytics method, and conducts sentiment and content analyses of location-based Twitter messages (n = 11,236) from Australia. The results disclose that: (a) digital transformation, innovation, and sustainability are the most popular AI application areas in urban planning and development; (b) drones, automation, robotics, and big data are the most popular AI technologies utilized in urban planning and development, and; (c) achieving the digital transformation and sustainability of cities through the use of AI technologies—such as big data, automation and robotics—is the central community discussion topic. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Knowledge Sharing and Transfer in an Open Innovation Context: Mapping Scientific Evolution
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 186; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040186 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 493
Abstract
The essence of innovation lies in knowledge, which is why open innovation opens the door to knowledge transfer with agents outside the organization. In order to comprehend the joint scientific trajectory of these two areas of knowledge, the aim of this study is [...] Read more.
The essence of innovation lies in knowledge, which is why open innovation opens the door to knowledge transfer with agents outside the organization. In order to comprehend the joint scientific trajectory of these two areas of knowledge, the aim of this study is to identify and analyze the main indicators of scientific behavior involved in the research field related to the link between open innovation and knowledge transfer or knowledge sharing concepts through bibliometric and network analysis. The results show clear European leadership in scientific production developed in universities. In addition, the high quality of the main sources of diffusion infers publications of good scientific quality. The most recognized source of knowledge used in new research is directed towards university-company relationships in an open innovation environment. Network analysis related to keywords has allowed us to define the most interesting, relevant fields of research, highlighting the importance acquired by topics such as ‘communication’, ‘inter-organizational context’ and ‘education’, to better focus on future research of the scientific community. It can be concluded that the scientific development of both concepts is an active field in the academic community, and also, that new key terms appear, opening new paths of research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Productization of Industrial Side Streams into By-Products—Case: Fiber Sludge from Pulp and Paper Industry
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 185; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040185 - 10 Dec 2020
Viewed by 358
Abstract
The increasing pressure on natural resources and the climate has been noted by businesses and governments worldwide, who now face the difficult task of integrating paths of environmental sustainability and economic growth. One promising approach to sustainable development, reducing the pressure on natural [...] Read more.
The increasing pressure on natural resources and the climate has been noted by businesses and governments worldwide, who now face the difficult task of integrating paths of environmental sustainability and economic growth. One promising approach to sustainable development, reducing the pressure on natural resources and solving waste problems is circular economy. From different ways of implementing circular economy, this study focuses on the productization of industrial side streams, which carry a great deal of underutilized potential. In this article, the productization of pulp and paper industry side stream, fiber sludge, for commercial use as a dust-binding agent is studied via a descriptive, in-depth case study. Apart from inconsistent quality, fluctuating supply, cost of storage and logistics, what makes industrial side stream utilization challenging is the lack of knowledge that stakeholders have about side streams and their utilization and the lack of new value chain development for their commercial use. Therefore, it is essential for all parties involved to have a clearer vision of what is being sold for what purposes, through productization. This study found that the productization of side streams follows the same steps as the productization of any other traditional product, and the productized side streams can be added to the company’s product portfolio as by-products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Digitalization on the Formation of Human Capital at the Regional Level
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 184; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040184 - 06 Dec 2020
Viewed by 597
Abstract
Human capital becomes the most competitive and unique resource in the modern context of development of high-tech industries and formation of the digital economy. The ongoing digitalization processes have an impact on the formation and development of human capital. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Human capital becomes the most competitive and unique resource in the modern context of development of high-tech industries and formation of the digital economy. The ongoing digitalization processes have an impact on the formation and development of human capital. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of digitalization factors on human capital in the regions of the Russian Federation. Based on statistical data from the State statistics service of the Russian Federation, the authors collected data for calculating the Index of conditions for the formation and development of human capital (CFDHC Index) for 82 regions and 34 factors that characterize the development of digitalization in Russia for the period from 2014 to 2018. The authors construct a multivariate regression using the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation for describing the relationship between the Index and digitalization factors. With allowance for the individual effects of the regions of the Russian Federation, models with random and fixed effects were built. The results of the regression analysis confirmed the hypothesis that to form and develop human capital in the regions, measures should be taken aiming at developing digital infrastructure, reducing digital inequality, supporting higher education and research institutes, developing electronic services to provide public and municipal services. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Portugal’s Changing Defense Industry: Is the Triple Helix Model of Knowledge Society Replacing State Leadership Model?
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 183; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040183 - 06 Dec 2020
Viewed by 588
Abstract
The defense industry has unique features involving national sovereignty. Despite the characteristics that led to the separation of the military and civil spheres, since the 1990s, the number of dual-use projects has been growing. Taking into account that Portugal is a small European [...] Read more.
The defense industry has unique features involving national sovereignty. Despite the characteristics that led to the separation of the military and civil spheres, since the 1990s, the number of dual-use projects has been growing. Taking into account that Portugal is a small European country, this paper analyzes the relationships within the defense industry in order to determine how university–industry–government relationships (the Triple Helix) function in this specific industry. The analysis of 145 projects of the Portuguese Ministry of Defense led to the following conclusions: first, academia was represented in more than 90% of the projects, and 40% of those projects have a dual-use application; second, there is a predominance of knowledge production, dissemination and application, for which the university’s institutional sphere is essential and third, the Triple Helix system evolves into a network of relationships that involve projects with both civil and military applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Driven Innovation, Research Management and Policy Making)
Open AccessArticle
Satisfaction, HR, and Open Innovation in Tourism Sector
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040182 - 05 Dec 2020
Viewed by 484
Abstract
The aim of this research paper is to depict the level of satisfaction and importance of Full expressions Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises’ (MSMEs)’ human resources (HR) and the tourism sector community in East Java. The research was conducted on all aspects of [...] Read more.
The aim of this research paper is to depict the level of satisfaction and importance of Full expressions Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises’ (MSMEs)’ human resources (HR) and the tourism sector community in East Java. The research was conducted on all aspects of HR in tourism sector MSMEs, among foreign and domestic tourists in East Java. The research is a quantitative and descriptive one. Primary data are used. The population of the research is HR in tourism sector MSMEs as well as domestic and foreign tourists. The sampling technique used is purposive sampling. Ten cities of high tourism potential were chosen. Determination of the sample size used the minimum criteria of a structural model that is between 100 and 200 units. In total, 200 tourism sector MSMEs were determined from ten tourism cities in East Java. From every tourism sector MSMEs, four employees and three tourists were taken. As a result, the entire research consisted of 800 employees and 600 foreign and domestic tourists. Importance performance analysis (IPA) was utilized as an analysis tool in this paper. The result indicated that each tourism resort, being a sample, has different findings. Batu City demonstrates a lack of transglobal leadership (TL). Malang, Kediri, and Blitar City demonstrate organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Malang City lacks employment engagement (EE). Meanwhile, Pasuruan City and Blitar Regency are about human resources performance (HRP). For Pasuruan Regency, the variable of quality of work life (QWL) should be improved. For Sidoarjo Regency, sustainable tourism competitiveness (STC) should be paid attention. For Kediri City, the main variable that needs to be enriched is responsible marketing (RM). Overall, for the East Java region, the main variable that needs to be improved is RM. The findings obtained constitute a practical contribution for main tourism stakeholders to formulate relevant policies to cope with problems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Open Innovation Community for University–Industry Knowledge Transfer: A Colombian Case
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 181; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040181 - 05 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 543
Abstract
Academia–enterprise collaboration is understood as a determinant that improves innovation and competitiveness. The mechanisms by which this collaboration occurs have awakened increasing interest among academics, as well as in the business sector. This research aims to identify how open innovation communities can mediate [...] Read more.
Academia–enterprise collaboration is understood as a determinant that improves innovation and competitiveness. The mechanisms by which this collaboration occurs have awakened increasing interest among academics, as well as in the business sector. This research aims to identify how open innovation communities can mediate the academia-enterprise relationship, as well as the factors that are more affected by this mediation. Based on the literature, the article addresses the definition of open innovation communities (OICs), university–enterprise cooperation, knowledge transfer (KT), as well as an understanding of OICs as a mechanism for academia–enterprise transfer. An analysis of twelve OICs, conformed by professors, students, graduates, and experts from a Colombian higher education institution is performed. For the data analysis, a factor analysis involving structural equation modeling is carried out. Our results highlight the most important characteristics to take into account in the study of knowledge transfer when OICs are involved, and they also indicate the level of connection between these factors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Youths Interests in the Biosphere and Sensitivity to Nuclear Power Technology in the UAE: With Discussions on Open Innovation and Technological Convergence in Energy and Water Sectors
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 180; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040180 - 04 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 467
Abstract
Nuclear power technology (NPT) perception and acceptance have globally emerged as the most critical questions for the successful integration of NPT into any national energy mix. In its combination with seawater desalination, NPT provides a sustainable alternative for the security and economic efficiency [...] Read more.
Nuclear power technology (NPT) perception and acceptance have globally emerged as the most critical questions for the successful integration of NPT into any national energy mix. In its combination with seawater desalination, NPT provides a sustainable alternative for the security and economic efficiency of both energy and fresh water supply, the latter of which has been identified as “the bloodstream of the biosphere”. Integrating econometric analysis into energy research with social science ramifications, this paper relies on bivariate ordered probit regression to study the impact of youths’ interests in the biosphere on their awareness and optimism toward NPT in the UAE. The model is estimated using maximum likelihood methods, with the results showing each level increase in UAE youths’ biospheric interests, to increase their NPT awareness by 13.5%, while conjointly reducing their optimistic expectations toward the technology by 2.4%. In addition, awareness and expectations about NPT are found to vary heterogeneously across the seven Emirates of the country. Moreover, accounting for all relevant factors (including respondents’ biospheric interests), formed expectations about NPT are not significantly shaped by NPT awareness. Given that the first unit of the UAE’s nuclear power plant “Barakah” just became operational in August 2020, our results provide important insights for evidence-based policy making to sustain the nascent nuclear energy program in the long run. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Open Innovation Variables on the Competitive Edge of Small and Medium Enterprises
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 179; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040179 - 04 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 547
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to identify how open innovation variables influence the competitive capability of manufacturing small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in a regional territory in Southern Brazil. The research method is a survey of 67 SMEs in Southern Brazil that [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to identify how open innovation variables influence the competitive capability of manufacturing small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in a regional territory in Southern Brazil. The research method is a survey of 67 SMEs in Southern Brazil that provided data for an ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model encompassing seven innovation variables and five competitiveness constructs. The results indicate that most innovation initiatives have a low impact on creating a competitive edge in the surveyed companies. The most remarkable positive impacts are (i) technology trends influencing the shop floor productivity, (ii) flexibility influencing internal aspects, and (iii) customer satisfaction and innovative ideas and customized supplies influencing the market orientation. The study also reports that innovation processes are not safe from failures. Some ill-defined innovation initiatives may jeopardize the competitive edge. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Performance of Stock Portfolios: Evidence from Analysing Malaysia Case, and Implication for Open Innovation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 178; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040178 - 04 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 489
Abstract
This research examines the performance of the Islamic stock portfolio (ISP) and conventional stock portfolio (CSP) for the five industrial sectors and market in Malaysia. The capital asset pricing model statistics indicate that the ISP provides a higher return with a lower systematic [...] Read more.
This research examines the performance of the Islamic stock portfolio (ISP) and conventional stock portfolio (CSP) for the five industrial sectors and market in Malaysia. The capital asset pricing model statistics indicate that the ISP provides a higher return with a lower systematic risk compared to the CSP in different sectors; however, the ISP and CSP perform equally in the market. The non-parametric stochastic dominance approach reveals that the ISP is better than the CSP for portfolio return without considering the riskiness for all sectors except properties; further, the ISP outperforms the CSP under the market condition. Economic significance analysis identifies that the expected financial loss of the ISP is lower than that of the CSP in all sectors other than properties; the anticipated financial loss of the ISP is significantly less than that of the CSP in the market situation. The overall findings imply that the risk-sharing ISP is superior to the risk-bearing CSP for better returns at the sector as well as the market level. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Sharing Economy and Government
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 177; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040177 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 549
Abstract
We compared sharing economy development in 90 countries to demonstrate that higher qualities of government are associated with greater sharing economy growth. To explain this finding, we assumed that sharing economy benefits are enjoyed by the public, whereas its costs are chiefly borne [...] Read more.
We compared sharing economy development in 90 countries to demonstrate that higher qualities of government are associated with greater sharing economy growth. To explain this finding, we assumed that sharing economy benefits are enjoyed by the public, whereas its costs are chiefly borne by market incumbents. In considering these competing interests, policymakers tend to favor the latter as single-industry interests that can be more easily organized to influence policymaking. We then hypothesized that an electorally competitive, depoliticized, and effective government may tilt the balance against the entrenched market incumbents, leading to the growth of sharing economy industries. Overall, we found some support for this hypothesis. We especially found that electoral competitiveness strongly impacted sharing economy development and that this impact was significantly greater in a country with a depoliticized bureaucracy and effective government. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Multi-Actor Engagement
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 176; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040176 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 485
Abstract
This study aims to meet the theoretical needs in answering the problem of the role of the marketing function on the dynamic capability that involves the role of multi actors through engagement. In particular, the study discusses the capabilities of SMEs’ business strategy [...] Read more.
This study aims to meet the theoretical needs in answering the problem of the role of the marketing function on the dynamic capability that involves the role of multi actors through engagement. In particular, the study discusses the capabilities of SMEs’ business strategy in the offline to online market. The population of this research are owners, managers, and owners and managers of SMEs in Indonesia. The results of this study indicate that the integration of the supply chain into engagement can address the problem of the role of the marketing function that connects marketing and operations. Supply chain engagement is also able to moderate employee engagement to dynamic marketing engagement but not significantly moderate customer engagement. Meanwhile, the basis of integration as a dynamic capability in market knowledge has a significant effect on the multi-actor engagement consisting of customer engagement, employee engagement, and supply chain engagement. Summary statement of contribution: Our research builds on the three elements of multi-actor engagement that are significant against dynamic marketing engagement. The main finding of this research is that the concept of novelty can answer the proposition with the result that dynamic marketing engagement can improve business performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Open Innovation in Micro, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises)
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Open AccessArticle
A Field Study on the Impacts of Implementing Concepts and Elements of Industry 4.0 in the Biopharmaceutical Sector
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 175; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040175 - 03 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 507
Abstract
This study proposes a field study, based on a literature review, about the applications and impacts of Industry 4.0 (I4.0) in the biopharmaceutical sector. The world is facing a new industrial revolution and the central idea is the integration between the virtual and [...] Read more.
This study proposes a field study, based on a literature review, about the applications and impacts of Industry 4.0 (I4.0) in the biopharmaceutical sector. The world is facing a new industrial revolution and the central idea is the integration between the virtual and the real world through elements that will allow for a greater degree of automation and digitization of processes. The production of medicines via biological processes is a booming domain in the pharmaceutical sector, that involves extraordinary technological challenges. The fieldwork, carried out between August 2019 and February 2020, involved semi-structured interviews with managers of pharmaceutical companies and specialists in the I4.0 theme. The interviews allowed for the identification of trends and key benefits and barriers for implementing I4.0 in the biopharmaceutical sector. While the perceptions were considerably diversified, benefits in productivity, competitiveness and quality ranked among the most scored items. The main barriers, highlighted by the interviewees, refer to the need to break organizational cultural standards, the regulatory requirements, the lack of organizational strategies for implementation, and the lack of qualified professionals. This work offers a contribution to the biopharmaceutical sector and reinforces the imminent need for companies to adapt to this new reality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data Research for Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Civil Service, HR Potential, and Open Innovation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 174; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040174 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 349
Abstract
Countries strive to upgrade their civil service quality in many directions, thus responding to major contemporary challenges and following the trends of open innovation. The 2030 civil servant will require a wide set of soft and hard skills that are not common among [...] Read more.
Countries strive to upgrade their civil service quality in many directions, thus responding to major contemporary challenges and following the trends of open innovation. The 2030 civil servant will require a wide set of soft and hard skills that are not common among the today’s public administrators but are attributable to young people. The following questions then arise: Will the demand for qualified civil servants be reduced because of optimization of public administration processes? How significant is the demand for young people by the civil service? Is civil service attractive as a vector of career development among young people? The research objective is to provide quantity estimates of the Russian civil service’s hiring potential and to match that potential with young people’s attitude towards public administration employment. Using the panel regression, regions that can expand the civil service staff were identified and the necessary preconditions and policies to take use of this potential were indicated. The main conclusion is that governments should maintain incentives to join the civil service and improve the image of civil service among the youth to make it an attractive employer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Green Innovation between Green Market Orientation and Business Performance: Its Implication for Open Innovation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 173; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040173 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 484
Abstract
The focus of this research was to investigate the effect of green market orientation on business performance. For that purpose, this research tested that green market orientation has a direct effect on business performance, that green market orientation affects green innovation, and that [...] Read more.
The focus of this research was to investigate the effect of green market orientation on business performance. For that purpose, this research tested that green market orientation has a direct effect on business performance, that green market orientation affects green innovation, and that green innovation affects business performance. As a quantitative research, partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS–SEM) was used to test the hypotheses. Data were collected by using both online and offline questionnaires from owners/managers of the manufacturing micro, small- and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) in the East Java Province of Indonesia. A total of 175 respondents participated in this study. The results show that green market orientation has a positive and direct effect on business performance. The results empirically support the theory of sustainability and entrepreneurship in the research setting of Indonesian MSMEs. The results also imply that the owners/managers of MSMEs need to balance economic, environmental, and social issues in their business. In the era of sustainable development and environmental awareness, manufacturing MSMEs need to adopt a green market orientation and carry out green innovation in their business processes to obtain a better business performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Citizen Innovation: Exploring the Responsibility Governance and Cooperative Mode of a “Post-Schumpeter” Paradigm
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 172; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040172 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 455
Abstract
It has become a burgeoning trend for the innovation paradigm to shift from producer-dominant to non-producer centric. Based on a critical review of the non-producer innovation literature, we identified several limitations of existing non-producer innovation paradigms—grassroots innovation, free innovation, common innovation, and social [...] Read more.
It has become a burgeoning trend for the innovation paradigm to shift from producer-dominant to non-producer centric. Based on a critical review of the non-producer innovation literature, we identified several limitations of existing non-producer innovation paradigms—grassroots innovation, free innovation, common innovation, and social innovation—along two critical dimensions: responsibility governance of innovation outcomes and effective organizing form for collaborative innovation. To address the theoretical gaps in existing non-producer innovation research, we propose citizen innovation (CI) as a new integrated innovation paradigm to balance these two dimensions by focusing on citizens’ unique role as innovators. In the paper, we discuss CI’s theoretical framework from three aspects: (1) citizen participation in innovation; (2) open collaborative innovation as the organizing form; (3) the process and incentive mechanisms of citizen innovation. We also offer two real-world examples to support the main propositions and mechanisms of CI. To conclude, we reflect on the limitations of the current research and discuss future directions for CI research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ambidextrous Open Innovation: Technology, Market and Complexity)
Open AccessArticle
Improving Early Warning System Indicators for Crisis Manifestations in the Russian Economy
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 171; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040171 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 518
Abstract
The study is aimed at determining the oscillators of crisis manifestations when the Russian economy tries to make transition to the path for accelerating technological development and forming an innovative economy. Short-term cycles were determined in the development of the Russian economy from [...] Read more.
The study is aimed at determining the oscillators of crisis manifestations when the Russian economy tries to make transition to the path for accelerating technological development and forming an innovative economy. Short-term cycles were determined in the development of the Russian economy from 1995 to the first half of 2020 through the Fourier spectral analysis. Using the Granger test, causal relationships between the leading indicators of the economic crisis and the real GDP index in Russia were identified and substantiated. They reflect the influence of the key rate dynamics on the volume of lending, savings, investments, the yield on securities and the exchange rate; volumes of bank loans per the share of non-performing and bad loans and innovative development of the economy. Based on the constructed neural models of the oscillator influence on the level of real GDP in Russia, it was determined that the rapid growth of bank and mortgage lending, the devaluation of the ruble, a decreased volume of gross foreign investment and the level of innovative development predetermine crisis manifestations in the national economy. The lags of the influence of changes in the leading indicators of the economic crisis on the development of the economy were calculated. The results obtained can contribute to the effectiveness of the anti-crisis regulation strategy in Russia. They can serve as a basis for increasing the efficiency of long-term innovative development and creating appropriate conditions for increasing the scientific and technological potential of the country. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Corporate Governance, Shariah Governance, and Credit Rating: A Cross-Country Analysis from Asian Islamic Banks
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 170; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/joitmc6040170 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 595
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the association between corporate governance characteristics, shariah governance characteristics, and the credit rating of Asian Islamic banks. To do so, we collected data from 22 banks during the 2006–2018 period. In total, we observed 286 data points. Credit [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the association between corporate governance characteristics, shariah governance characteristics, and the credit rating of Asian Islamic banks. To do so, we collected data from 22 banks during the 2006–2018 period. In total, we observed 286 data points. Credit rating was measured through an adaption of the credit rating scale that measured the long term credit of Islamic banks on an ordinal scale. From these data, 19 scores (Aaa) were considered high credit ratings and 1 score (C) was considered a low credit rating. Descriptive statistics, correlations, and the ordered logit regression model were applied in a panel setting. We found that the board interlock, board independence, CEO duality, and board foreign directorship negatively affected credit ratings. We also found that the board size, board accounting, finance knowledge, presence of women on the board, shariah board size, presence of supervisory shariah board, the shariah board interlock, and presence of female shariah scholars all were positively associated with credit ratings. This study suggests that Islamic banks can access more funds with higher shariah compliance. As such, we concluded that evaluating organizations’ credit ratings must consider shariah governance attributes as determinants of the credit rating of Islamic banks. Full article
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