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Sci. Pharm., Volume 88, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 18 articles

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Article
BACE1 Inhibitor, Neuroprotective, and Neuritogenic Activities of Melatonin Derivatives
Sci. Pharm. 2020, 88(4), 58; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm88040058 - 04 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1350
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a common chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Melatonin (MLT) has been reported to be neuroprotective agent, and its modified structures exhibit potent antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities. Therefore, the activity of MLT and its derivatives against AD was investigated. Herein, the targeted [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a common chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Melatonin (MLT) has been reported to be neuroprotective agent, and its modified structures exhibit potent antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities. Therefore, the activity of MLT and its derivatives against AD was investigated. Herein, the targeted enzymes, such as β-secretase (BACE1) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), as well as the neuroprotective and neuritogenic effects on P19-derived neurons were evaluated. All the derivatives (15), including MLT, displayed potent inhibitory activity for BACE1, with inhibition values of more than 75% at 5 µM. A molecular docking study predicted that MLT, 5-MT, and 5 bound with BACE1 at catalytic amino acids Asp32 and the flap region, whereas 14 interacted with allosteric residue Thr232 and the flap region. The additional π-π interactions between 2, 3, and 5 with Tyr71 promoted ligand-enzyme binding. In addition, MLT, 1, 3, and 5 significantly protected neuron cells from oxidative stress by increasing the cell viability to 97.95, 74.29, 70.80, and 69.50% at 1 nM, respectively. Moreover, these derivatives significantly induced neurite outgrowth by increasing the neurite length and number. The derivatives 1, 3, and 5 should be thoroughly studied as potential AD treatment and neuroprotective agents. Full article
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Article
Novel Amino Acid Derivatives of Quinolines as Potential Antibacterial and Fluorophore Agents
Sci. Pharm. 2020, 88(4), 57; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm88040057 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1370
Abstract
A new series of amino acid derivatives of quinolines was synthesized through the hydrolysis of amino acid methyl esters of quinoline carboxamides with alkali hydroxide. The compounds were purified on silica gel by column chromatography and further characterized by TLC, NMR and ESI-TOF [...] Read more.
A new series of amino acid derivatives of quinolines was synthesized through the hydrolysis of amino acid methyl esters of quinoline carboxamides with alkali hydroxide. The compounds were purified on silica gel by column chromatography and further characterized by TLC, NMR and ESI-TOF mass spectrometry. All compounds were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against different bacterial strains using the microdilution method. Most of the synthesized amino acid-quinolines show more potent or equipotent inhibitory action against the tested bacteria than their correspond esters. In addition, many of them exhibit fluorescent properties and could possibly be utilized as fluorophores. Molecular docking and simulation studies of the compounds at putative bacterial target enzymes suggest that the antimicrobial potency of these synthesized analogues could be due to enzyme inhibition via their favorable binding at the fluoroquinolone binding site at the GyrA subunit of DNA gyrase and/or the ParC subunit of topoisomerase-IV. Full article
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Article
Anionic Polyelectrolyte Hydrogel as an Adjuvant for Vaccine Development
Sci. Pharm. 2020, 88(4), 56; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm88040056 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
Vaccination is one of the main methods for the specific prevention of infectious diseases. The disadvantage of vaccination is the use of pathogens (live or attenuated viruses and bacteria) that can lead to the development of a disease. Recombinant technologies are capable of [...] Read more.
Vaccination is one of the main methods for the specific prevention of infectious diseases. The disadvantage of vaccination is the use of pathogens (live or attenuated viruses and bacteria) that can lead to the development of a disease. Recombinant technologies are capable of producing specific DNA or protein molecules that possess antigenic properties and do not cause disease. However, individual antigen molecules are low-immunogenic, and therefore, require conjugation with a compound possessing stronger immunogenic properties. In this study, we examined the immunogenic properties of the new anionic copolymer consisting of glycidyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and acrylic acid, in mice. The experimental polymer induced a stronger immunogenic response than aluminum hydroxide. The histological studies have established that immunization both with aluminum hydroxide and the polymer studied does not cause damage to the liver, kidneys, or the spleen. No negative side effects were observed. It has been concluded that the new synthetic anionic polyelectrolyte hydrogel (PHG) has a potential as an adjuvant for vaccine development. Full article
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Review
The Potential Benefit of Beta-Blockers for the Management of COVID-19 Protocol Therapy-Induced QT Prolongation: A Literature Review
Sci. Pharm. 2020, 88(4), 55; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm88040055 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1759
Abstract
The World Health Organization (WHO) officially announced coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a pandemic in March 2020. Unfortunately, there are still no approved drugs for either the treatment or the prevention of COVID-19. Many studies have focused on repurposing established antimalarial therapies, especially [...] Read more.
The World Health Organization (WHO) officially announced coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a pandemic in March 2020. Unfortunately, there are still no approved drugs for either the treatment or the prevention of COVID-19. Many studies have focused on repurposing established antimalarial therapies, especially those that showed prior efficacy against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, against COVID-19 combined with azithromycin. These classes of drugs potentially induce prolongation of the QT interval, which might lead to lethal arrhythmia. Beta-blockers, as a β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) antagonist, can prevent an increase in the sympathetic tone, which is the most important arrhythmia trigger. In this literature review, we aimed to find the effect of administering azithromycin, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine on cardiac rhythm disorders and our findings show that bisoprolol, as a cardio-selective beta-blocker, is effective for the management of the QT (i.e., the start of the Q wave to the end of the T wave) interval prolongation in COVID-19 patients. Full article
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Article
Ligand-Based and Structured-Based In Silico Repurposing Approaches to Predict Inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro Protein
Sci. Pharm. 2020, 88(4), 54; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm88040054 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1629
Abstract
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a coronavirus that causes the pandemic Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). There is no current specific treatment for this new coronavirus. In this study, we employed a virtual screening repurposing strategy to search for potential SARS-CoV-2 [...] Read more.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a coronavirus that causes the pandemic Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). There is no current specific treatment for this new coronavirus. In this study, we employed a virtual screening repurposing strategy to search for potential SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors. The databases PDB, ChEMBL, BindingDB and DrugBank were queried with several filtering steps based on ligand-based and structure-based approaches. As a result, we obtained 58 molecules (37 from ChEMBL and 21 from DrugBank) that potentially inhibit SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. These molecules have on their chemical structure functional groups that favor stronger docking scores than the inhibitor N3. Several of these molecules are reported experimentally as SARS-CoV Mpro inhibitors. Hence, a combined virtual screening strategy allowed finding chemical compounds with a high potential for the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Full article
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Article
Development of Microemulsions Containing Glochidion wallichianum Leaf Extract and Potential for Transdermal and Topical Skin Delivery of Gallic Acid
Sci. Pharm. 2020, 88(4), 53; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm88040053 - 04 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1233
Abstract
Glochidion wallichianum (GW) is a good source of antioxidants, including gallic acid, promoting its development as a microemulsion. We constructed five pseudo-ternary phase diagrams comprising isopropyl myristate (IPM), water, and surfactant mixture (Smix)—i.e., Labrasol®:HCO-40® (1:1) with Transcutol® (1:1, 2:1, [...] Read more.
Glochidion wallichianum (GW) is a good source of antioxidants, including gallic acid, promoting its development as a microemulsion. We constructed five pseudo-ternary phase diagrams comprising isopropyl myristate (IPM), water, and surfactant mixture (Smix)—i.e., Labrasol®:HCO-40® (1:1) with Transcutol® (1:1, 2:1, 3:1), and Tween80:Span80 (3:2) with Transcutol® or propylene glycol:ethanol (1:1). Additionally, blank and GW extract-loaded microemulsions were prepared at an IPM:Water:Smix ratio of 10:30:60 (high water content) and 30:10:60 (high oil content) from each Smix. The physical characteristics, skin permeation, and disposition were evaluated. The formulations with high water content and conductivities provided higher gallic acid permeation and disposition than those with high oil content. The Smix of Labrasol®:HCO-40® (1:1) and Transcutol® (1:1) promoted the highest gallic acid permeation (enhancement ratio 1.78 ± 0.12) and was suitable for transdermal delivery. However, the 1% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose control gel, the microemulsion with Smix of Labrasol®:HCO-40® (1:1) with Transcutol® (2:1), and Smix of Tween80:Span80 (3:2) with propylene glycol:ethanol (1:1) could provide higher skin accumulation of gallic acid than that with other formulations. The microstructures, ratio of surfactant:cosurfactant, and compositions of microemulsions were found to affect the skin permeation and disposition of gallic acid and require optimization to act as transdermal or topical delivery carriers. Full article
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Article
Development and Characterization of Glimepiride Novel Solid Nanodispersion for Improving Its Oral Bioavailability
Sci. Pharm. 2020, 88(4), 52; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm88040052 - 02 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1266
Abstract
Glimepiride is an antidiabetic drug which is one of the third generation sulfonylureas. It belongs to class II, according to the BCS (Biopharmaceutical Classification System), which is characterized by low solubility and high permeability. The aim of this work was to formulate glimepiride [...] Read more.
Glimepiride is an antidiabetic drug which is one of the third generation sulfonylureas. It belongs to class II, according to the BCS (Biopharmaceutical Classification System), which is characterized by low solubility and high permeability. The aim of this work was to formulate glimepiride as solid dispersion using water-soluble carriers to enhance its aqueous solubility and thus enhance its bioavailability. Nine formulations of glimepiride solid dispersion were prepared by a solvent evaporation technique using three different carriers (mannitol, polyethylene glycol 6000, and β-cyclodextrin) with three different drug carrier ratio (1:1, 1:3, and 1:6). Formulation variables were optimized using 32 full factorial design. The prepared formulations were evaluated for production yield, drug content, micromeritic properties, thermal analysis, in-vitro release, and in-vivo hypoglycemic effect. All prepared formulations showed high production yield ranged from 98.4 ± 2.8 to 99.8 ± 2.2% and high drug content in the range of 97.2 ± 3.2 to 99.6 ± 2.1%. The micromeritic properties revealed that all prepared glimepiride formulations showed good flowability. The differential scanning calorimetry study revealed the presence of the drug in the more soluble amorphous form. In accordance with the results of in vitro release study, it was found that the solubility of glimepiride was increased by increasing the drug carrier ratio, compared with the pure form of the drug. It was found that F9 showed a high and rapid reduction in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, which indicated the success of a solid dispersion technique in improving the solubility and hence the bioavailability of glimepiride. Full article
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Article
The Relative Importance of the Small Intestine and the Liver in Phase II Metabolic Transformations and Elimination of p-Nitrophenol Administered in Different Doses in the Rat
Sci. Pharm. 2020, 88(4), 51; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm88040051 - 02 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1133
Abstract
Intestinal and hepatic function have been investigated in phase II metabolic reactions and elimination of p-nitrophenol (PNP) in the rat. A jejunal loop was cannulated and recirculated with isotonic solutions containing PNP in different concentrations (0, 20, 100, 500, 1000 µM). Samples [...] Read more.
Intestinal and hepatic function have been investigated in phase II metabolic reactions and elimination of p-nitrophenol (PNP) in the rat. A jejunal loop was cannulated and recirculated with isotonic solutions containing PNP in different concentrations (0, 20, 100, 500, 1000 µM). Samples were obtained from the perfusate at given intervals. To investigate the metabolic and excretory functions of the liver, the bile duct was cannulated, and the bile was collected. Metabolites of PNP were determined by validated HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography) methods. The results demonstrated the relative importance of the small intestine and the liver in phase II metabolic transformations and elimination of PNP. There were significant differences between the luminal and biliary appearances of p-nitrophenol-glucuronide (PNP-G) and p-nitrophenol–sulfate (PNP-S). The PNP-G appeared in the intestinal lumen at the lower PNP concentrations (20 µM and 100 µM) at higher rate than in the bile. No significant difference was found between the intestinal and the biliary excretion of PNP-G when PNP was administered at a concentration of 500 µM. However, a reverse ratio of these parameters was observed at the administration of 1000 µM PNP. The results indicated that both the small intestine and the liver might play an important role in phase II metabolic reactions and elimination of PNP. However, the relative importance of the small intestine and the liver can be dependent on the dose of drugs. Full article
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Article
Effect on Body Weight and Adipose Tissue by Cariprazine: A Head-to-Head Comparison Study to Olanzapine and Aripiprazole in Rats
Sci. Pharm. 2020, 88(4), 50; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm88040050 - 28 Oct 2020
Viewed by 1225
Abstract
Cariprazine (Car) is a recently approved second generation antipsychotic (SGA) with unique pharmacodynamic profile, being a partial agonist at both dopamine D2/3 receptor subtypes, with almost 10 times greater affinity towards D3. SGAs are known to increase body weight, alter [...] Read more.
Cariprazine (Car) is a recently approved second generation antipsychotic (SGA) with unique pharmacodynamic profile, being a partial agonist at both dopamine D2/3 receptor subtypes, with almost 10 times greater affinity towards D3. SGAs are known to increase body weight, alter serum lipids, and stimulate adipogenesis but so far, limited information about the adverse effects is available with this drug. In order to study this new SGA with such a unique mechanism of action, we compared Car to substances that are considered references and are well characterized: olanzapine (Ola) and aripiprazole (Ari). We studied the effects on body weight and also assessed the adipogenesis in rats. The drugs were self-administered in two different doses to female, adult, Wistar rats for six weeks. Weekly body weight change, vacuole size of adipocytes, Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein-1 (SREBP-1) and Uncoupling Protein-1 (UCP-1) expression were measured from the visceral adipose tissue (AT). The adipocyte’s vacuole size, and UCP-1 expression were increased while body weight gain was diminished by Car. by increasing UCP-1 might stimulate the thermogenesis, that could potentially explain the weight gain lowering effect through enhanced lipolysis. Full article
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Article
Anti-Proliferative and Genotoxic Activities of the Helichrysum petiolare Hilliard & B.L. Burtt
Sci. Pharm. 2020, 88(4), 49; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm88040049 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1228
Abstract
Helichrysum petiolare (Asteraceae family) is part of the Helichrysum genus which comprises of an estimated 600 species. Several parts of the plant have been used traditionally for the treatment of various ailments, such as cough, infection, asthma, chest problems, diabetes and wounds. Given [...] Read more.
Helichrysum petiolare (Asteraceae family) is part of the Helichrysum genus which comprises of an estimated 600 species. Several parts of the plant have been used traditionally for the treatment of various ailments, such as cough, infection, asthma, chest problems, diabetes and wounds. Given its various chemical constituents with anticancer properties, there has been no scientific evidence of its usage for the treatment of cancer. This study aims to investigate the anti-proliferative and genotoxic activities of H. petiolare methanol extract. The cytotoxic effect and cell cycle analysis of mouse melanoma cells (B16F10) and human melanoma cells (MeWo) were assessed using the ImageXpress Micro XLS Widefield High-Content Analysis System. The genotoxic potential of the extract towards Vero cells was also assessed using the micronucleus assay. The extract displayed cytotoxicity towards B16F10 and MeWo skin melanoma cells, thereby showing a dose-dependent decrease in cell density. This was preceded by cell cycle arrest in B16F10 cells at the S phase and MeWo cell arrest at the early M phase with a significant increase in apoptosis in both cells. Furthermore, the extract displayed genotoxic potential at the tested concentrations (12.5–200 μg/mL). Overall, the results revealed that H. petiolare extract may have the potential to eradicate skin cancer. Full article
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Article
Prevalence of Drug Interaction in Severely Obese Individuals and Associated Factors: Baseline Results from a Clinical Trial
Sci. Pharm. 2020, 88(4), 48; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm88040048 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 1180
Abstract
The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and is commonly associated with comorbidities. The use of several drugs is often necessary, which leads to Potential Drug Interactions (PDI) that may increase the morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of [...] Read more.
The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and is commonly associated with comorbidities. The use of several drugs is often necessary, which leads to Potential Drug Interactions (PDI) that may increase the morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of drug interaction and its association with socio-demographics, health status, and drug use in severely obese individuals. Baseline data from a randomized clinical trial registered at Clinicaltrial.gov (NCT02463435) were used. A total of 150 individuals aged 18–65 years with a body mass index of 35 kg/m2 were included. The outcome variable was the presence of PDI, and the explanatory variables were divided into the following four levels: socio-demographic, lifestyle, health, and medication use. The prevalence of PDI was 50% (n = 75) (95% CI 41–58). The variables associated with drug–drug interactions in the multiple analyses were arterial hypertension (PR 1.83, 95%, CI 1.10–3.04), polypharmacy (PR 3.12, 95%, CI 2.17–4.50), and diabetes mellitus (PR 0.60, 95%, CI 0.45–0.81). The risk factors for the occurrence of drug interaction were the presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and polypharmacy. Full article
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Article
Nephroprotective Effect of the Herbal Composition BNO 2103 in Rats with Renal Failure
Sci. Pharm. 2020, 88(4), 47; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm88040047 - 14 Oct 2020
Viewed by 1287
Abstract
(1) Background: this research aims at studying the nephroprotective properties of BNO 2103 in a model of chromate-induced renal failure in rats and at proving the possibility of using BNO 2103 in clinical practice for the complex treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD). [...] Read more.
(1) Background: this research aims at studying the nephroprotective properties of BNO 2103 in a model of chromate-induced renal failure in rats and at proving the possibility of using BNO 2103 in clinical practice for the complex treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD). (2) Methods: fifty rats divided into five groups were studied. The drugs BNO 2103, Prednisolone and Lespephril were administered within 20 days. The excretory function and the functional state of kidneys, blood biochemical parameters and indicators of nitrogen metabolism were determined. (3) Results: under the influence of BNO 2103, there was a significant improvement in renal excretory function, in nitrogen metabolism and blood biochemical parameters compared with the control pathology group. BNO 2103 also outperformed the comparators in most indicators. (4) Conclusions: BNO 2103 has demonstrated nephroprotective, hypoazotemic and diuretic effects; and can be used to implement to the combined therapy of CKD. Full article
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Article
Voltammetric Behaviour of Drug Molecules as a Predictor of Metabolic Liabilities
Sci. Pharm. 2020, 88(4), 46; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm88040046 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1537
Abstract
Electron transfer plays a vital role in drug metabolism and underlying toxicity mechanisms. Currently, pharmaceutical research relies on pharmacokinetics (PK) and absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and toxicity (ADMET) measurements to understand and predict drug reactions in the body. Metabolic stability (and toxicity) prediction [...] Read more.
Electron transfer plays a vital role in drug metabolism and underlying toxicity mechanisms. Currently, pharmaceutical research relies on pharmacokinetics (PK) and absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and toxicity (ADMET) measurements to understand and predict drug reactions in the body. Metabolic stability (and toxicity) prediction in the early phases of the drug discovery and development process is key in identifying a suitable lead compound for optimisation. Voltammetric methods have the potential to overcome the significant barrier of new drug failure rates, by giving insight into phase I metabolism events which can have a direct bearing on the stability and toxicity of the parent drug being dosed. Herein, we report for the first time a data-mining investigation into the voltammetric behaviour of reported drug molecules and their correlation with metabolic stability (indirectly measured via t½), as a potential predictor of drug stability/toxicity in vivo. We observed an inverse relationship between oxidation potential and drug stability. Furthermore, we selected and prepared short- (<10 min) and longer-circulation (>2 h) drug molecules to prospectively survey the relationship between oxidation potential and stability. Full article
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Article
Preventive Effect of a Polyphenol-Rich Extract from Geranium sanguineum L. on Hepatic Drug Metabolism in Influenza Infected Mice
Sci. Pharm. 2020, 88(4), 45; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm88040045 - 12 Oct 2020
Viewed by 1437
Abstract
The decreased hepatic drug metabolism (predominately first phase) is one of the essential reasons for numerous side effects and for increased drug toxicity during influenza virus infection (IVI). The present study aims to investigate some mechanisms of the preventive effect of a standardized [...] Read more.
The decreased hepatic drug metabolism (predominately first phase) is one of the essential reasons for numerous side effects and for increased drug toxicity during influenza virus infection (IVI). The present study aims to investigate some mechanisms of the preventive effect of a standardized polyphenol complex from the medicinal plant Geranium sanguineum L. (PPhC) (10 mg/kg nasally). A verified experimental model of IVI A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2) (4.5 lg LD50) in male ICR (Institute of Cancer Research, USA) mice was used. Changes in hepatic monooxygenase activities as well as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-cytochrome C reductase activity and cytochtome P450 content were studied on days 2, 6, 9, 21 of the infection together with thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the liver supernatant. Our data clearly demonstrates that IVI affects all components of the electronic chain of cytochrome P-450. N-demethylases and hydroxylases as well as the activity of cytochrome C reductase and cytochtome P-450 content were decreased in the course of the virus infection. This implies that free radicals play an important role not only in the pathogenesis of IVI, but also in the modulation of the hepatic monooxygenase activity. This is also consistent with the established polyphenol complex PPhC from the medicinal plant Geranium sanguineum L. preventive effect against increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)-levels. PPhC restored most of the monooxygenase activities that were inhibited in IVI animals, even over the control levels, probably via multiple mechanisms that may entail antioxidant activity and selective antiviral and protein-binding effects. In contrast to infected animals, in healthy mice, PPhC showed moderate reversible inhibitory effect on hepatic monooxygenase activities. Full article
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Article
Curcumin-Loaded Nanoemulsion for Better Cellular Permeation
Sci. Pharm. 2020, 88(4), 44; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm88040044 - 06 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1797
Abstract
Curcumin nanoemulsion was prepared using coconut oil, Tween 80 (surfactant) and polyethylene glycol (co-solvent) with the addition of honey and glycerol as additives. The nanoemulsion was optimized and systematically characterized for transdermal delivery. Small particle size (15.92 nm), low polydispersity index (0.17) and [...] Read more.
Curcumin nanoemulsion was prepared using coconut oil, Tween 80 (surfactant) and polyethylene glycol (co-solvent) with the addition of honey and glycerol as additives. The nanoemulsion was optimized and systematically characterized for transdermal delivery. Small particle size (15.92 nm), low polydispersity index (0.17) and slight acidic (pH 4.18) curcumin nanoemulsion was obtained without any chemical degradation based on the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum. The incorporation of curcumin inside nanoglobul improved curcumin stability and skin permeability. Its high permeability can be seen from Nile dyed curcumin in different layers of skin through fluorescent imaging. The release kinetic of curcumin followed the Higuchi model, which explains why the skin permeation was a Fickian diffusion-controlled process because the Korsmeyer constant was proven to be 0.3 (<0.5). Nanoencapsulation slightly decreased the antioxidant capacity of curcumin for about 7.9% compared to its free counterpart. It showed low cytotoxicity (EC50 2.3552 µg/mL) to human skin fibroblasts. Cell death was noticed at a high concentration (2.5 µg/mL) of treatment. Curcumin was also found to promote wound closure at low concentration 0.1563 µg/mL and was comparable with the performance of ascorbic acid based on scratch assay. Therefore, this nutritious curcumin nanoemulsion is a promising transdermal delivery system for topical application. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Cladode Drying Techniques on the Prebiotic Potential and Molecular Characteristics of the Mucilage Extracted from Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia joconostle
Sci. Pharm. 2020, 88(4), 43; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm88040043 - 02 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1269
Abstract
The dry, powdered cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica are often-used in over-the-counter (OTC) pharmaceutical formulations. Gentle drying techniques, such as lyophilization and vacuum drying are compared with convection drying for the cladodes and also compared with another species of economic importance, Opuntia joconostle. The [...] Read more.
The dry, powdered cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica are often-used in over-the-counter (OTC) pharmaceutical formulations. Gentle drying techniques, such as lyophilization and vacuum drying are compared with convection drying for the cladodes and also compared with another species of economic importance, Opuntia joconostle. The heteropolysaccharide purified from the mucilage extracted from the dried powders were investigated in their monosaccharide composition (HPAEC-PAD, TLC), mineral and protein content, molecular dimensions (SEC) and fermentability by probiotic bacteria (Bioscreen technique) for evaluation of the prebiotic potential of the mucilage. The heteropolysaccharide is composed of galactose, arabinose, xylose, galacturonic acid and rhamnose. O. ficus-indica includes an additional 13% of glucose coming from an α-glucan. The content of Ca (0.3%) and Mg (0.4%) is relatively low in both species; the content of protein adds up to 1.5% in O. ficus-indica but is significantly lower in O. joconostle with 0.8%. The average molecular mass Mw of the extracted mucilage ranges from 3.7 to 4.7 × 105 g∙mol−1 for both species; only the mucilage from long-time convection drying (C2) delivers a lower average Mw of 2.6 × 105 g∙mol−1, due to partial breakdown of the mucilage matrix. All tested probiotic strains utilized the mucilage to some extent; C2 being the most active, and thus confirms the prebiotic potential of cladode’s powder and its derived products. In general, the molecular dimensions and prebiotic potential are not extremely sensitive to the drying treatment, yet temperature and drying time can modify the cladode’s powder to a profile with better prebiotic characteristics. Full article
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Review
The Mechanism of Action of Cyclophosphamide and Its Consequences for the Development of a New Generation of Oxazaphosphorine Cytostatics
Sci. Pharm. 2020, 88(4), 42; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm88040042 - 28 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1546
Abstract
Although cyclophosphamide (CP) has been used successfully in the clinic for over 50 years, it has so far not been possible to elucidate the mechanism of action and to use it for improvement. This was not possible because the basis of the mechanism [...] Read more.
Although cyclophosphamide (CP) has been used successfully in the clinic for over 50 years, it has so far not been possible to elucidate the mechanism of action and to use it for improvement. This was not possible because the basis of the mechanism of action of CP, which was found by lucky coincidence, is apoptosis, the discovery of which was honored with the Nobel Prize only in 2002. Another reason was that results from cell culture experiments were used to elucidate the mechanism of action, ignoring the fact that in vivo metabolism differs from in vitro conditions. In vitro, toxic acrolein is formed during the formation of the cytotoxic metabolite phosphoreamidemustard (PAM), whereas in vivo proapoptotic hydroxypropanal (HPA) is formed. The CP metabolites formed in sequence 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide (OHCP) are the main cause of toxicity, aldophosphamide (ALDO) is the pharmacologically active metabolite and HPA amplifies the cytotoxic apoptosis initiated by DNA alkylation by PAM. It is shown that toxicity is drastically reduced but anti-tumor activity strongly increased by the formation of ALDO bypassing OHCP. Furthermore, it is shown that the anti-tumor activity against advanced solid P388 tumors that grow on CD2F1 mice is increased by orders of magnitude if DNA damage caused by a modified PAM is poorly repairable. Full article
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Article
Prevalence of Adverse Drug Events in Severely Obese Adults and Associated Factors: Clinical Trial Baseline Results
Sci. Pharm. 2020, 88(4), 41; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm88040041 - 23 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1223
Abstract
Drugs are the most widely used therapeutic tool for treatment of diseases. However, misuse can lead to an adverse drug event (ADE) in susceptible individuals such as those that are severely obese. This study aimed to describe the frequency of ADEs, the associations [...] Read more.
Drugs are the most widely used therapeutic tool for treatment of diseases. However, misuse can lead to an adverse drug event (ADE) in susceptible individuals such as those that are severely obese. This study aimed to describe the frequency of ADEs, the associations of ADEs with anatomical therapeutic chemical classes and their respective frequency, estimate the prevalence of ADEs, and analyse factors associated with ADE in adults with severe obesity. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a randomized clinical trial in the central-western region of Brazil. A total of 150 individuals aged 18–65 years with a Body Mass Index of 35 kg/m2 were included. The outcome variable was the presence of ADE and the explanatory variables were socio-demographic factors, lifestyle, health, and medication use. ADEs were associated with use of drugs for the digestive tract and metabolism (p < 0.001) and the cardiovascular system (p < 0.001). The prevalence of ADEs was 32.67% (n = 49) and associated with the age range 40 to 49 years (p = 0.033), diabetes (p = 0.004), multimorbidities ≥ 4 (p = 0.009), self-medication (0.031), and presence of potential drug interactions (0.017). The prevalence of ADEs was high and was associated with drugs commonly used in treatment of obesity-related morbidities and self-medication. The introduction of a pharmacist to multi-professional teams can improve medication safety for severely obese patients. Full article
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