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Sci. Pharm., Volume 89, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 4 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Liquid Chromatographic Fingerprints for the Characterization of Flavanol-Rich Nutraceuticals Based on 4-Dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde Precolumn Derivatization
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(2), 18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89020018 - 06 May 2021
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Abstract
Flavanols consist of a great family of bioactive molecules displaying a wide range of health-promoting attributes for humans, including antioxidant, antimicrobial or anti-inflammatory effects. As a result, botanical species rich in this type of compound are often used to develop nutraceutical products or [...] Read more.
Flavanols consist of a great family of bioactive molecules displaying a wide range of health-promoting attributes for humans, including antioxidant, antimicrobial or anti-inflammatory effects. As a result, botanical species rich in this type of compound are often used to develop nutraceutical products or dietary supplements with recognized healthy attributes. This paper aims at characterizing nutraceutical products using liquid chromatographic fingerprints related to flavanol composition. Catechins and their oligomers were exploited to characterize and authenticate various commercial products prepared with extracts of red berries and medicinal plants. These compounds resulted in interesting descriptors of some fruits and vegetables, thus providing an additional perspective for the study of nutraceuticals. For such a purpose, a new method based on liquid chromatography with UV/Vis detection (HPLC–UV/Vis) with precolumn derivatization with 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde was developed. Results indicated that the separation of flavanols was very complex due to the degradation of procyanidin derivatives. The resulting data sets were analyzed using chemometric methods such as principal component analysis and partial least square–discriminant analysis. Despite the complexity of chromatographic fingerprints, nutraceutical samples could be discriminated according to their main ingredients. In general, catechin and epicatechin were the most abundant compounds in the different samples, and procyanidin A2 was highly specific to cranberry. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Preliminary Protocol Development of a HPLC-TBARS-EVSC (Ex Vivo Stratum Corneum) Assay for Skin Research: Application in a Sunscreen System
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(2), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89020017 - 27 Apr 2021
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Abstract
Considering the importance of the cutaneous tissue investigation and the need for the development of new protocols to non-invasively establish the safety and efficacy of dermocosmetics and topical products, we aimed at developing an HPLC-TBARS-EVSC (high performance liquid chromatography–thiobarbituric acid reactive species–ex vivo [...] Read more.
Considering the importance of the cutaneous tissue investigation and the need for the development of new protocols to non-invasively establish the safety and efficacy of dermocosmetics and topical products, we aimed at developing an HPLC-TBARS-EVSC (high performance liquid chromatography–thiobarbituric acid reactive species–ex vivo stratum corneum) assay for the lipid peroxidation measurement on subjects’ stratum corneum (SC) obtained by tape stripping; additionally, we applied the HPLC-TBARS-EVSC assay in an emulsified sunscreen system containing ethylhexyl triazone and bemotrizinol as UV filters. HPLC analysis was performed in isocratic mode with 35% methanol/65% phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) as the mobile phase. The diode detector was set at 532 nm to quantify the malondialdehyde (MDA)-TBA adduct. An ex vivo tape stripping method was applied in 10 volunteers in three pre-defined regions of the volar forearms: the control; the irradiated; and the site containing the sunscreen (2.0 mg·cm−2). Ten adhesive tapes per region were used for SC removal. An exclusive ex vivo protocol to measure SC lipid peroxidation was preliminarily developed with linearity and selectivity. The protocol suggested the use of an artificial irradiation dose (5506 KJ·m−2) to improve the assay response from the SC. The sunscreen system had a significative decrease in SC lipoperoxidative damage compared to the control. Our protocol can aid in the efficacy establishment of anti-UV and antioxidant agents, for instance, in studies that aim at elucidating the level of SC lipid peroxidation and even in carrying out baseline investigations characterizing different ethnicities and genders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Ingredients in Topical and Transdermal Delivery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Novel, Fast, Simple HPLC Method for Determination of Atorvastatin and its Impurities in Tablets
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(2), 16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89020016 - 05 Apr 2021
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Abstract
Our main target and concept was to develop a method for the determination of the most prescribed antilipemic drug, atorvastatin, together with its related substances, with a single sample preparation and during a single chromatographic run, in the shortest possible period of time, [...] Read more.
Our main target and concept was to develop a method for the determination of the most prescribed antilipemic drug, atorvastatin, together with its related substances, with a single sample preparation and during a single chromatographic run, in the shortest possible period of time, with the lowest possible mobile phase consumption. A new rapid, simple chromatographic method for the determination of atorvastatin and its main specified impurities was developed, using different chromatographic columns. With this new concept of a mobile phase and a powerful core–shell, or a superficially porous silica-based column, satisfactory results for targeted parameters, such as critical peak resolution, run time length, and column backpressure, were achieved. The analysis is performed within a run duration of less than 15 min, which is about six times shorter than the official European Pharmacopoeia method. The chromatogram performances suggests that the method limit of quantification (LOQ) can be about 7 times lower, and the limit of detection (LOD) about 20 times lower, using an injection volume of only 2 µl. This was confirmed by the performed method validation in accordance with the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guideline for the validation of analytical procedures Q2(R1), where the selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of quantification, and limit of detection were tested and confirmed. Full article
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Open AccessTechnical Note
Simple Equations Pertaining to the Particle Number and Surface Area of Metallic, Polymeric, Lipidic and Vesicular Nanocarriers
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(2), 15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89020015 - 29 Mar 2021
Viewed by 669
Abstract
Introduction: Bioactive encapsulation and drug delivery systems have already found their way to the market as efficient therapeutics to combat infections, viral diseases and different types of cancer. The fields of food fortification, nutraceutical supplementation and cosmeceuticals have also been getting the benefit [...] Read more.
Introduction: Bioactive encapsulation and drug delivery systems have already found their way to the market as efficient therapeutics to combat infections, viral diseases and different types of cancer. The fields of food fortification, nutraceutical supplementation and cosmeceuticals have also been getting the benefit of encapsulation technologies. Aim: Successful formulation of such therapeutic and nutraceutical compounds requires thorough analysis and assessment of certain characteristics including particle number and surface area without the need to employ sophisticated analytical techniques. Solution: Here we present simple mathematical formulas and equations used in the research and development of drug delivery and controlled release systems employed for bioactive encapsulation and targeting the sites of infection and cancer in vitro and in vivo. Systems covered in this entry include lipidic vesicles, polymeric capsules, metallic particles as well as surfactant- and tocopherol-based micro- and nanocarriers. Full article
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