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Universe, Volume 7, Issue 12 (December 2021) – 54 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): We first quantize an action that describes two massless relativistic scalar particles interacting via a conformally invariant potential. The spectrum is a continuum of massive states that may be interpreted as unparticles. We then obtain the mass operator for a deformed action in which two terms are introduced that break the conformal symmetry: a mass term and a position-dependent coupling term that lead to a mass operator with linear confinement in terms of an effective string tension. The quantized model shows Regge trajectories. We finally propose a tensionless limit in which highly excited confined states reduce to (gapped) unparticles. The originality of our approach is that it applies to both confining and conformal phases via an effective interacting model. View this paper.
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Article
Notes on Higher-Spin Diffeomorphisms
Universe 2021, 7(12), 508; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120508 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 301
Abstract
Higher-spin diffeomorphisms are to higher-order differential operators what diffeomorphisms are to vector fields. Their rigorous definition is a challenging mathematical problem which might predate a better understanding of higher-spin symmetries and interactions. Several yes-go and no-go results on higher-spin diffeomorphisms are collected from [...] Read more.
Higher-spin diffeomorphisms are to higher-order differential operators what diffeomorphisms are to vector fields. Their rigorous definition is a challenging mathematical problem which might predate a better understanding of higher-spin symmetries and interactions. Several yes-go and no-go results on higher-spin diffeomorphisms are collected from the mathematical literature in order to propose a generalisation of the algebra of differential operators on which higher-spin diffeomorphisms are well-defined. This work is dedicated to the memory of Christiane Schomblond, who taught several generations of Belgian physicists the formative rigor and delicate beauty of theoretical physics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mathematical Physics)
Article
The Dipolar Solar Minimum Corona
Universe 2021, 7(12), 507; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120507 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 240
Abstract
The large-scale configuration of the UV solar corona at the minimum activity between solar cycles 22 and 23 is explored in this paper. Exploiting a large sample of spectroscopic observations acquired by the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory in [...] Read more.
The large-scale configuration of the UV solar corona at the minimum activity between solar cycles 22 and 23 is explored in this paper. Exploiting a large sample of spectroscopic observations acquired by the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory in the two-year period of 1996–1997, this work provides the first-ever monochromatic O vi 1032 Å image of the extended corona, and the first-ever two-dimensional maps of the kinetic temperature of oxygen ions and the O vi1037/1032 Å doublet intensity ratio (a proxy for the outflow velocity of the oxygen component of the solar wind), statistically representative of solar minimum conditions. A clear dipolar magnetic structure, both equator- and axis-symmetric, is distinctly shown to shape the solar minimum corona, both in UV emission and in temperature and expansion rate. This statistical approach allows for robust establishment of the key role played by the magnetic field divergence in modulating the speed and temperature of the coronal flows, and identification of the coronal sources of the fast and slow solar wind. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Solar Wind Origin and Evolution)
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Review
Cosmological Tests of Gravity: A Future Perspective
Universe 2021, 7(12), 506; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120506 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 341
Abstract
In this review, we outline the expected tests of gravity that will be achieved at cosmological scales in the upcoming decades. We focus mainly on constraints on phenomenologically parameterized deviations from general relativity, which allow to test gravity in a model-independent way, but [...] Read more.
In this review, we outline the expected tests of gravity that will be achieved at cosmological scales in the upcoming decades. We focus mainly on constraints on phenomenologically parameterized deviations from general relativity, which allow to test gravity in a model-independent way, but also review some of the expected constraints obtained with more physically motivated approaches. After reviewing the state-of-the-art for such constraints, we outline the expected improvement that future cosmological surveys will achieve, focusing mainly on future large-scale structures and cosmic microwave background surveys but also looking into novel probes on the nature of gravity. We will also highlight the necessity of overcoming accuracy issues in our theoretical predictions, issues that become relevant due to the expected sensitivity of future experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale Structure of the Universe)
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Article
Conharmonic Curvature Inheritance in Spacetime of General Relativity
Universe 2021, 7(12), 505; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120505 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 325
Abstract
The motive of the current article is to study and characterize the geometrical and physical competency of the conharmonic curvature inheritance (Conh CI) symmetry in spacetime. We have established the condition for its relationship with both conformal motion and conharmonic motion in general [...] Read more.
The motive of the current article is to study and characterize the geometrical and physical competency of the conharmonic curvature inheritance (Conh CI) symmetry in spacetime. We have established the condition for its relationship with both conformal motion and conharmonic motion in general and Einstein spacetime. From the investigation of the kinematical and dynamical properties of the conformal Killing vector (CKV) with the Conh CI vector admitted by spacetime, it is found that they are quite physically applicable in the theory of general relativity. We obtain results on the symmetry inheritance for physical quantities (μ,p,ui,σij,η,qi) of the stress-energy tensor in imperfect fluid, perfect fluid and anisotropic fluid spacetimes. Finally, we prove that the conharmonic curvature tensor of a perfect fluid spacetime will be divergence-free when a Conh CI vector is also a CKV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Astrophysical Objects in Modified Gravity)
Review
Neutrino Mixing and Oscillations in Quantum Field Theory: A Comprehensive Introduction
Universe 2021, 7(12), 504; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120504 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 358
Abstract
We review some of the main results of the quantum field theoretical approach to neutrino mixing and oscillations. We show that the quantum field theoretical framework, where flavor vacuum is defined, permits giving a precise definition of flavor states as eigenstates of (non-conserved) [...] Read more.
We review some of the main results of the quantum field theoretical approach to neutrino mixing and oscillations. We show that the quantum field theoretical framework, where flavor vacuum is defined, permits giving a precise definition of flavor states as eigenstates of (non-conserved) lepton charges. We obtain the exact oscillation formula, which in the relativistic limit reproduces the Pontecorvo oscillation formula and illustrates some of the contradictions arising in the quantum mechanics approximation. We show that the gauge theory structure underlies the neutrino mixing phenomenon and that there exists entanglement between mixed neutrinos. The flavor vacuum is found to be an entangled generalized coherent state of SU(2). We also discuss flavor energy uncertainty relations, which impose a lower bound on the precision of neutrino energy measurements, and we show that the flavor vacuum inescapably emerges in certain classes of models with dynamical symmetry breaking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Neutrino Physics: From Theory to Experiments)
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Review
Gamma-ray Bursts at the Highest Energies
Universe 2021, 7(12), 503; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120503 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 287
Abstract
Emission from Gamma-ray bursts is thought to be powered mainly by synchrotron radiation from energetic electrons. The same electrons might scatter these synchrotron seed photons to higher (>10 GeV) energies, building a distinct spectral component (synchrotron self-Compton, SSC). This process is expected to [...] Read more.
Emission from Gamma-ray bursts is thought to be powered mainly by synchrotron radiation from energetic electrons. The same electrons might scatter these synchrotron seed photons to higher (>10 GeV) energies, building a distinct spectral component (synchrotron self-Compton, SSC). This process is expected to take place, but its relevance (e.g., the ratio between the SSC and synchrotron emitted power) is difficult to predict on the basis of current knowledge of physical conditions at GRB emission sites. Very high-energy radiation in GRBs can be produced also by other mechanisms, such as synchrotron itself (if PeV electrons are produced at the source), inverse Compton on external seed photons, and hadronic processes. Recently, after years of efforts, very high-energy radiation has been finally detected from at least four confirmed long GRBs by the Cherenkov telescopes H.E.S.S. and MAGIC. In all four cases, the emission has been recorded during the afterglow phase, well after the end of the prompt emission. In this work, I give an overview, accessible also to non-experts of the field, of the recent detections, theoretical implications, and future challenges, with a special focus on why very high-energy observations are relevant for our understanding of Gamma-ray bursts and which long-standing questions can be finally answered with the help of these observations. Full article
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Review
Gravitational Lensing of Continuous Gravitational Waves
Universe 2021, 7(12), 502; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120502 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 312
Abstract
Continuous gravitational waves are analogous to monochromatic light and could therefore be used to detect wave effects such as interference or diffraction. This would be possible with strongly lensed gravitational waves. This article reviews and summarises the theory of gravitational lensing in the [...] Read more.
Continuous gravitational waves are analogous to monochromatic light and could therefore be used to detect wave effects such as interference or diffraction. This would be possible with strongly lensed gravitational waves. This article reviews and summarises the theory of gravitational lensing in the context of gravitational waves in two different regimes: geometric optics and wave optics, for two widely used lens models such as the point mass lens and the Singular Isothermal Sphere (SIS). Observable effects due to the wave nature of gravitational waves are discussed. As a consequence of interference, GWs produce beat patterns which might be observable with next generation detectors such as the ground based Einstein Telescope and Cosmic Explorer, or the space-borne LISA and DECIGO. This will provide us with an opportunity to estimate the properties of the lensing system and other cosmological parameters with alternative techniques. Diffractive microlensing could become a valuable method of searching for intermediate mass black holes formed in the centres of globular clusters. We also point to an interesting idea of detecting the Poisson–Arago spot proposed in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuous Gravitational Waves)
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Article
Gravity Models with Nonlinear Symmetry Realization
Universe 2021, 7(12), 501; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120501 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 313
Abstract
Validity of three gravity models with non-linear realization of conformal symmetry previously discussed in literature is addressed. Two models are found to be equivalent up to a change of coset coordinates. It was found that models contain ghost degrees of freedom that may [...] Read more.
Validity of three gravity models with non-linear realization of conformal symmetry previously discussed in literature is addressed. Two models are found to be equivalent up to a change of coset coordinates. It was found that models contain ghost degrees of freedom that may be excluded by an introduction of an additional symmetry to the target space. One model found to be safe in early universe. The others found to lack spin-2 degrees of freedom and to have peculiar coupling to matter degrees of freedom. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modified Theories of Gravity and Cosmological Applications)
Review
Testing General Relativity with Gravitational Waves: An Overview
Universe 2021, 7(12), 497; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120497 - 16 Dec 2021
Viewed by 439
Abstract
The detections of gravitational-wave (GW) signals from compact binary coalescence by ground-based detectors have opened up the era of GW astronomy. These observations provide opportunities to test Einstein’s general theory of relativity at the strong-field regime. Here we give a brief overview of [...] Read more.
The detections of gravitational-wave (GW) signals from compact binary coalescence by ground-based detectors have opened up the era of GW astronomy. These observations provide opportunities to test Einstein’s general theory of relativity at the strong-field regime. Here we give a brief overview of the various GW-based tests of General Relativity (GR) performed by the LIGO-Virgo collaboration on the detected GW events to date. After providing details for the tests performed in four categories, we discuss the prospects for each test in the context of future GW detectors. The four categories of tests include the consistency tests, parametrized tests for GW generation and propagation, tests for the merger remnant properties, and GW polarization tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Tests of General Relativity)
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Article
Asymptotic Solutions of a Generalized Starobinski Model: Kinetic Dominance, Slow Roll and Separatrices
Universe 2021, 7(12), 500; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120500 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 316
Abstract
We consider a generalized Starobinski inflationary model. We present a method for computing solutions as generalized asymptotic expansions, both in the kinetic dominance stage (psi series solutions) and in the slow roll stage (asymptotic expansions of the separatrix solutions). These asymptotic expansions are [...] Read more.
We consider a generalized Starobinski inflationary model. We present a method for computing solutions as generalized asymptotic expansions, both in the kinetic dominance stage (psi series solutions) and in the slow roll stage (asymptotic expansions of the separatrix solutions). These asymptotic expansions are derived in the framework of the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism where the Hubble parameter is written as a function of the inflaton field. They are applied to determine the values of the inflaton field when the inflation period starts and ends as well as to estimate the corresponding amount of inflation. As a consequence, they can be used to select the appropriate initial conditions for determining a solution with a previously fixed amount of inflation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmological Models, Quantum Theories and Astrophysical Observations)
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Article
Towards Quantum Simulation of Black Holes in a dc-SQUID Array
Universe 2021, 7(12), 499; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120499 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 404
Abstract
We propose quantum simulations of 1 + 1D radial sections of different black hole spacetimes (Schwarzschild, Reissner–Nordstrøm, Kerr and Kerr–Newman), by means of a dc-SQUID array embedded on an open transmission line. This was achieved by reproducing the spatiotemporal dependence of 1 + [...] Read more.
We propose quantum simulations of 1 + 1D radial sections of different black hole spacetimes (Schwarzschild, Reissner–Nordstrøm, Kerr and Kerr–Newman), by means of a dc-SQUID array embedded on an open transmission line. This was achieved by reproducing the spatiotemporal dependence of 1 + 1D sections of the spacetime metric with the propagation speed of the electromagnetic field in the simulator, which can be modulated by an external magnetic flux. We show that the generation of event horizons—and therefore Hawking radiation—in the simulator could be achieved for non-rotating black holes, although we discuss limitations related to fluctuations of the quantum phase. In the case of rotating black holes, it seems that the simulation of ergospheres is beyond reach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analogue Gravity)
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Article
Quantum Hydrodynamics of Spinning Particles in Electromagnetic and Torsion Fields
Universe 2021, 7(12), 498; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120498 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 336
Abstract
We develop a many-particle quantum-hydrodynamical model of fermion matter interacting with the external classical electromagnetic and gravitational/inertial and torsion fields. The consistent hydrodynamical formulation is constructed for the many-particle quantum system of Dirac fermions on the basis of the nonrelativistic Pauli-like equation obtained [...] Read more.
We develop a many-particle quantum-hydrodynamical model of fermion matter interacting with the external classical electromagnetic and gravitational/inertial and torsion fields. The consistent hydrodynamical formulation is constructed for the many-particle quantum system of Dirac fermions on the basis of the nonrelativistic Pauli-like equation obtained via the Foldy–Wouthuysen transformation. With the help of the Madelung decomposition approach, the explicit relations between the microscopic and macroscopic fluid variables are derived. The closed system of equations of quantum hydrodynamics encompasses the continuity equation, and the dynamical equations of the momentum balance and the spin density evolution. The possible experimental manifestations of the torsion in the dynamics of spin waves is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Torsion-Gravity and Spinors in Fundamental Theoretical Physics)
Review
The Role of Longitudinal Polarizations in Horndeski and Macroscopic Gravity: Introducing Gravitational Plasmas
Universe 2021, 7(12), 496; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120496 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 331
Abstract
We discuss some general and relevant features of longitudinal gravitational modes in Horndeski gravity and their interaction with matter media. Adopting a gauge-invariant formulation, we clarify how massive scalar and vector fields can induce additional transverse and longitudinal excitations, resulting in breathing, vector, [...] Read more.
We discuss some general and relevant features of longitudinal gravitational modes in Horndeski gravity and their interaction with matter media. Adopting a gauge-invariant formulation, we clarify how massive scalar and vector fields can induce additional transverse and longitudinal excitations, resulting in breathing, vector, and longitudinal polarizations. We review, then, the interaction of standard gravitational waves with a molecular medium, outlining the emergence of effective massive gravitons, induced by the net quadrupole moment due to molecule deformation. Finally, we investigate the interaction of the massive mode in Horndeski gravity with a noncollisional medium, showing that Landau damping phenomenon can occur in the gravitational sector as well. That allows us to introduce the concept of “gravitational plasma”, where inertial forces associated with the background field play the role of cold ions in electromagnetic plasma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gravitational Waves in Modified Gravity)
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Review
Spacetime Foam, Midisuperspace, and the Cosmological Constant
Universe 2021, 7(12), 495; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120495 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 355
Abstract
Perhaps the cosmological constant really is huge at the Planck scale, but is “hidden” by Planck scale quantum fluctuations of spacetime. I briefly review this proposal and provide some evidence, coming from a simplified midisuperspace model, that an appropriate “foamy” structure can do [...] Read more.
Perhaps the cosmological constant really is huge at the Planck scale, but is “hidden” by Planck scale quantum fluctuations of spacetime. I briefly review this proposal and provide some evidence, coming from a simplified midisuperspace model, that an appropriate “foamy” structure can do the job of hiding a large cosmological constant, and can persist under time evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Quantum & The Gravity)
Article
Nonthermal Radiation of the Extreme TeV Blazar 1ES 0229+200 from Electromagnetic Cascades on Infrared Photon Field
Universe 2021, 7(12), 494; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120494 - 14 Dec 2021
Viewed by 501
Abstract
Extreme TeV blazars (ETBs) are active galactic nuclei with jets presumably pointing towards the observer having their intrinsic (compensated for the effect of γ-ray absorption on extragalactic background light photons) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) peaked at an energy in excess of 1 [...] Read more.
Extreme TeV blazars (ETBs) are active galactic nuclei with jets presumably pointing towards the observer having their intrinsic (compensated for the effect of γ-ray absorption on extragalactic background light photons) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) peaked at an energy in excess of 1 TeV. These sources typically reveal relatively weak and slow variability as well as higher frequency of the low-energy SED peak compared to other classes of blazars. It proved to be exceedingly hard to incorporate all these peculiar properties of ETBs into the framework of conventional γ-ray emission models. ETB physics have recently attracted great attention in the astrophysical community, underlying the importance of the development of self-consistent ETB emission model(s). We propose a new scenario for the formation of X-ray and γ-ray spectra of ETBs assuming that electromagnetic cascades develop in the infrared photon field surrounding the central blazar engine. This scenario does not invoke compact fast-moving sources of radiation (so-called “blobs”), in agreement with the apparent absence of fast and strong variability of ETBs. For the case of the extreme TeV blazar 1ES 0229+200 we propose a specific emission model in the framework of the considered scenario. We demonstrate that this model allows to obtain a good fit to the measured SED of 1ES 0229+200. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Astroparticle Physics)
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Review
Phase Conversions in Neutron Stars: Implications for Stellar Stability and Gravitational Wave Astrophysics
Universe 2021, 7(12), 493; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120493 - 13 Dec 2021
Viewed by 359
Abstract
We review the properties of hybrid stars with a quark matter core and a hadronic mantle, focusing on the role of key micro-physical properties such as the quark/hadron surface and curvature tensions and the conversion speed at the interface between both phases. We [...] Read more.
We review the properties of hybrid stars with a quark matter core and a hadronic mantle, focusing on the role of key micro-physical properties such as the quark/hadron surface and curvature tensions and the conversion speed at the interface between both phases. We summarize the results of works that have determined the surface and curvature tensions from microscopic calculations. If these quantities are large enough, mixed phases are energetically suppressed and the quark core would be separated from the hadronic mantle by a sharp interface. If the conversion speed at the interface is slow, a new class of dynamically stable hybrid objects is possible. Densities tens of times larger than the nuclear saturation density can be attained at the center of these objects. We discuss possible formation mechanisms for the new class of hybrid stars and smoking guns for their observational identification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutron Stars and Gravitational Wave Observations)
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Review
Astrophysical Neutrinos and Blazars
Universe 2021, 7(12), 492; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120492 - 13 Dec 2021
Viewed by 393
Abstract
We review and discuss recent results on the search for correlations between astrophysical neutrinos and γ-ray-detected sources, with many extragalactic studies reporting potential associations with different types of blazars. We investigate possible dependencies on blazar sub-classes by using the largest catalogues and [...] Read more.
We review and discuss recent results on the search for correlations between astrophysical neutrinos and γ-ray-detected sources, with many extragalactic studies reporting potential associations with different types of blazars. We investigate possible dependencies on blazar sub-classes by using the largest catalogues and all the multi-frequency data available. Through the study of similarities and differences in these sources we conclude that blazars come in two distinct flavours: LBLs and IHBLs (low-energy-peaked and intermediate-high-energy-peaked objects). These are distinguished by widely different properties such as the overall spectral energy distribution shape, jet speed, cosmological evolution, broad-band spectral variability, and optical polarisation properties. Although blazars of all types have been proposed as neutrino sources, evidence is accumulating in favour of IHBLs being the counterparts of astrophysical neutrinos. If this is indeed the case, we argue that the peculiar observational properties of IHBLs may be indirectly related to proton acceleration to very high energies. Full article
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Communication
Singularities in Inflationary Cosmological Models
Universe 2021, 7(12), 491; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120491 - 13 Dec 2021
Viewed by 374
Abstract
Due to the accelerated expansion of the universe, the possibilities for the formation of singularities has changed from the classical Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities to include a number of new scenarios. In recent papers it has been shown that such singularities [...] Read more.
Due to the accelerated expansion of the universe, the possibilities for the formation of singularities has changed from the classical Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities to include a number of new scenarios. In recent papers it has been shown that such singularities may appear in inflationary cosmological models with a fractional power scalar field potential. In this paper we enlarge the analysis of singularities in scalar field cosmological models by the use of generalised power expansions of their Hubble scalars and their scalar fields in order to describe all possible models leading to a singularity, finding other possible cases. Unless a negative scalar field potential is considered, all singularities are weak and of type IV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gravitational Singularities and Their Quantum Fates)
Review
Lorentz Symmetry and High-Energy Neutrino Astronomy
Universe 2021, 7(12), 490; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120490 - 12 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 419
Abstract
The search of the violation of Lorentz symmetry, or Lorentz violation (LV), is an active research field. The effects of LV are expected to be very small, and special systems are often used to search it. High-energy astrophysical neutrinos offer a unique system [...] Read more.
The search of the violation of Lorentz symmetry, or Lorentz violation (LV), is an active research field. The effects of LV are expected to be very small, and special systems are often used to search it. High-energy astrophysical neutrinos offer a unique system to search signatures of LV, due to the three factors: high neutrino energy, long propagation distance, and the presence of quantum mechanical interference. In this brief review, we introduce tests of LV and summarize existing searches of LV, using atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrinos from Astrophysical Sources)
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Review
Searching for Magnetospheres around Herbig Ae/Be Stars
Universe 2021, 7(12), 489; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120489 - 12 Dec 2021
Viewed by 372
Abstract
We describe four different approaches for the detection of magnetospheric accretion among Herbig Ae/Be stars with accretion disks. Studies of several unique objects have been carried out. One of the objects is the Herbig Ae star HD 101412 with a comparatively strong magnetic [...] Read more.
We describe four different approaches for the detection of magnetospheric accretion among Herbig Ae/Be stars with accretion disks. Studies of several unique objects have been carried out. One of the objects is the Herbig Ae star HD 101412 with a comparatively strong magnetic field. The second is the early-type Herbig B6e star HD 259431. The existence of a magnetosphere in these objects was not recognized earlier. In both cases, a periodicity in the variation of some line parameters, originating near the region of the disk/star interaction, has been found. The third object is the young binary system HD 104237, hosting a Herbig Ae star and a T Tauri star. Based on the discovery of periodic variations of equivalent widths of atmospheric lines in the spectrum of the primary, we have concluded that the surface of the star is spotted. Comparing our result with an earlier one, we argue that these spots can be connected with the infall of material from the disk onto the stellar surface through a magnetosphere. The fourth example is the Herbig Ae/Be star HD 37806. Signatures of magnetospheric accretion in this object have been identified using a different method. They were inferred from the short-term variability of the He i λ5876 line profile forming in the region of the disk/star interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Physics of Stars - in Memory of Prof. Yuri N. Gnedin)
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Article
Charged Particle Motions near Non-Schwarzschild Black Holes with External Magnetic Fields in Modified Theories of Gravity
Universe 2021, 7(12), 488; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120488 - 10 Dec 2021
Viewed by 339
Abstract
A small deformation to the Schwarzschild metric controlled by four free parameters could be referred to as a nonspinning black hole solution in alternative theories of gravity. Since such a non-Schwarzschild metric can be changed into a Kerr-like black hole metric via a [...] Read more.
A small deformation to the Schwarzschild metric controlled by four free parameters could be referred to as a nonspinning black hole solution in alternative theories of gravity. Since such a non-Schwarzschild metric can be changed into a Kerr-like black hole metric via a complex coordinate transformation, the recently proposed time-transformed, explicit symplectic integrators for the Kerr-type spacetimes are suitable for a Hamiltonian system describing the motion of charged particles around the non-Schwarzschild black hole surrounded with an external magnetic field. The obtained explicit symplectic methods are based on a time-transformed Hamiltonian split into seven parts, whose analytical solutions are explicit functions of new coordinate time. Numerical tests show that such explicit symplectic integrators for intermediate time steps perform well long-term when stabilizing Hamiltonian errors, regardless of regular or chaotic orbits. One of the explicit symplectic integrators with the techniques of Poincaré sections and fast Lyapunov indicators is applied to investigate the effects of the parameters, including the four free deformation parameters, on the orbital dynamical behavior. From the global phase-space structure, chaotic properties are typically strengthened under some circumstances, as the magnitude of the magnetic parameter or any one of the negative deformation parameters increases. However, they are weakened when the angular momentum or any one of the positive deformation parameters increases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modified Theories of Gravity and Cosmological Applications)
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Article
R-Process with Magnetized Nuclei at Dynamo-Explosive Supernovae and Neutron Star Mergers
Universe 2021, 7(12), 487; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120487 - 10 Dec 2021
Viewed by 422
Abstract
Nucleosynthesis at latge magnetic induction levels relevant to core-collapse supernovae and neutron star mergers is considered. For respective magnetic fields of a strength up to ten teratesla, atomic nuclei exhibit a linear magnetic response due to the Zeeman effect. Such nuclear reactivity can [...] Read more.
Nucleosynthesis at latge magnetic induction levels relevant to core-collapse supernovae and neutron star mergers is considered. For respective magnetic fields of a strength up to ten teratesla, atomic nuclei exhibit a linear magnetic response due to the Zeeman effect. Such nuclear reactivity can be described in terms of magnetic susceptibility. Susceptibility maxima correspond to half-filled shells. The neutron component rises linearly with increasing shell angular momentum, while the contribution of protons grows quadratically due to considerable income from orbital magnetization. For a case j = l + 1/2, the proton contribution makes tens of nuclear magnetons and significantly exceeds the neutron values which give several units. In a case j = l − 1/2, the proton component is almost zero up to the g shell. A noticeable increase in the generation of corresponding explosive nucleosynthetic products with antimagic numbers is predicted for nuclei at charge freezing conditions. In the iron group region, new seeds are also created for the r-process. In particular, the magnetic enhancement of the volume of 44Ti isotopes is consistent with results from observations and indicates the substantial increase in the abundance of the main titanium isotope (48Ti) in the Galaxy’s chemical composition. Magnetic effects are proven to result in a shift of the r-process path towards smaller mass numbers, as well as an increase in the volume of low-mass nuclides in peaks of the r-process nuclei. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Fields and Activity through Stellar Evolution)
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Article
A Fast Data Processing Technique for Continuous Gravitational Wave Searches
Universe 2021, 7(12), 486; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120486 - 10 Dec 2021
Viewed by 387
Abstract
This article discusses the potential advantages of a data processing technique for continuous gravitational wave signals searches in the data measured by ground-based gravitational wave interferometers. Its main advantage over other techniques is that it does not need to search over the signal’s [...] Read more.
This article discusses the potential advantages of a data processing technique for continuous gravitational wave signals searches in the data measured by ground-based gravitational wave interferometers. Its main advantage over other techniques is that it does not need to search over the signal’s direction of propagation. Although it is a “coherent method” (i.e., it coherently processes year-long data), it is applied to a data set obtained by multiplying the original time-series with a (half-year) time-shifted copy of it. As a result, the phase modulation due to the interferometer motion around the Sun is automatically canceled in the signal of the synthesized time-series. Although the resulting signal-to-noise ratio is not as high as that of a coherent search, it equals that of current hierarchical methods. In addition, since the signal search is performed over a parameters space of smaller dimensionality, the associated false-alarm probability should be smaller than those characterizing hierarchical methods and result in an improved likelihood of detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuous Gravitational Waves)
Review
A Systematic Approach to Consistent Truncations of Supergravity Theories
Universe 2021, 7(12), 485; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120485 - 09 Dec 2021
Viewed by 338
Abstract
Exceptional generalised geometry is a reformulation of eleven/ten-dimensional supergravity that unifies ordinary diffeomorphisms and gauge transformations of the higher-rank potentials of the theory in an extended notion of diffeormorphisms. These features make exceptional generalised geometry a very powerful tool to study consistent truncations [...] Read more.
Exceptional generalised geometry is a reformulation of eleven/ten-dimensional supergravity that unifies ordinary diffeomorphisms and gauge transformations of the higher-rank potentials of the theory in an extended notion of diffeormorphisms. These features make exceptional generalised geometry a very powerful tool to study consistent truncations of eleven/ten-dimensional supergravities. In this article, we review how the notion of generalised G-structure allows us to derive consistent truncations to supergravity theories in various dimensions and with different amounts of supersymmetry. We discuss in detail the truncations of eleven-dimensional supergravity to N=4 and N=2 supergravity in five dimensions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women Physicists in Astrophysics, Cosmology and Particle Physics)
Article
Optical Singly-Ionized Iron Emission in Radio-Quiet and Relativistically Jetted Active Galactic Nuclei
Universe 2021, 7(12), 484; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120484 - 08 Dec 2021
Viewed by 358
Abstract
The issue of the difference between optical and UV properties of radio-quiet and radio-loud (relativistically “jetted”) active galactic nuclei (AGN) is a long standing one, related to the fundamental question of why a minority of powerful AGN possess strong radio emission due to [...] Read more.
The issue of the difference between optical and UV properties of radio-quiet and radio-loud (relativistically “jetted”) active galactic nuclei (AGN) is a long standing one, related to the fundamental question of why a minority of powerful AGN possess strong radio emission due to relativistic ejections. This paper examines a particular aspect: the singly-ionized iron emission in the spectral range 4400–5600 Å, where the prominent HI Hβ and [Oiii]λλ4959,5007 lines are also observed. We present a detailed comparison of the relative intensity of Feii multiplets in the spectral types of the quasar main sequence where most jetted sources are found, and afterwards discuss radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) nuclei with γ-ray detection and with prominent Feii emission. An Feii template based on I Zw 1 provides an accurate representation of the optical Feii emission for RQ and, with some caveats, also for RL sources. CLOUDY photoionization simulations indicate that the observed spectral energy distribution can account for the modest Feii emission observed in composite radio-loud spectra. However, spectral energy differences alone cannot account for the stronger Feii emission observed in radio-quiet sources, for similar physical parameters. As for RL NLSy1s, they do not seem to behave like other RL sources, likely because of their different physical properties, that could be ultimately associated with a higher Eddington ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Panchromatic View of the Life-Cycle of AGN)
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Article
Aspects of Gauss-Bonnet Scalarisation of Charged Black Holes
Universe 2021, 7(12), 483; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120483 - 07 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 363
Abstract
The general relativity vacuum black holes (BHs) can be scalarised in models where a scalar field non-minimally couples to the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) invariant. Such GB scalarisation comes in two flavours, depending on the GB sign that triggers the phenomenon. Hereafter these two cases [...] Read more.
The general relativity vacuum black holes (BHs) can be scalarised in models where a scalar field non-minimally couples to the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) invariant. Such GB scalarisation comes in two flavours, depending on the GB sign that triggers the phenomenon. Hereafter these two cases are termed GB± scalarisation. For vacuum BHs, only GB+ scalarisation is possible in the static case, while GB scalarisation is spin induced. But for electrovacuum BHs, GB is also charged induced. We discuss the GB scalarisation of Reissner-Nordström and Kerr-Newman BHs, discussing zero modes and constructing fully non-linear solutions. Some comparisons with GB+ scalarisation are given. To assess the generality of the observed features, we also briefly consider the GB± scalarisation of stringy dilatonic BHs and coloured BHs which provide qualitative differences with respect to the electrovacuum case, namely on the distribution and existence of regions triggering GB scalarisation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gravitational Waves and Compact Objects: From Theory to Data Analysis)
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Article
On the Dominant Lunisolar Perturbations for Long-Term Eccentricity Variation: The Case of Molniya Satellite Orbits
Universe 2021, 7(12), 482; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120482 - 07 Dec 2021
Viewed by 358
Abstract
The aim of this work is to investigate the main dominant terms of lunisolar perturbations that affect the orbital eccentricity of a Molniya satellite in the long term. From a practical point of view, these variations are important in the context of space [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to investigate the main dominant terms of lunisolar perturbations that affect the orbital eccentricity of a Molniya satellite in the long term. From a practical point of view, these variations are important in the context of space situational awareness—for instance, to model the long-term evolution of artificial debris in a highly elliptical orbit or to design a reentry end-of-life strategy for a satellite in a highly elliptical orbit. The study assumes a doubly averaged model including the Earth’s oblateness effect and the lunisolar perturbations up to the third-order expansion. The work presents three important novelties with respect to the literature. First, the perturbing terms are ranked according to their amplitudes and periods. Second, the perturbing bodies are not assumed to move on circular orbits. Third, the lunisolar effect on the precession of the argument of pericenter is analyzed and discussed. As an example of theoretical a application, we depict the phase space description associated with each dominant term, taken as isolated, and we show which terms can apply to the relevant dynamics in the same region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Space Science)
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Review
QCD Effective Locality: A Theoretical and Phenomenological Review
Universe 2021, 7(12), 481; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120481 - 07 Dec 2021
Viewed by 363
Abstract
About ten years ago, the use of standard functional manipulations was demonstrated to imply an unexpected property satisfied by the fermionic Green’s functions of QCD and dubbed Effective Locality. This feature of QCD is non-perturbative, as it results from a full gauge [...] Read more.
About ten years ago, the use of standard functional manipulations was demonstrated to imply an unexpected property satisfied by the fermionic Green’s functions of QCD and dubbed Effective Locality. This feature of QCD is non-perturbative, as it results from a full gauge invariant integration of the gluonic degrees of freedom. In this review article, a few salient theoretical aspects and phenomenological applications of this property are summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Field Theory)
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Review
Torsion in String-Inspired Cosmologies and the Universe Dark Sector
Universe 2021, 7(12), 480; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120480 - 06 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 419
Abstract
Several aspects of torsion in string-inspired cosmologies are reviewed. In particular, its connection with fundamental, string-model independent, axion fields associated with the massless gravitational multiplet of the string are discussed. It is argued in favour of the role of primordial gravitational anomalies coupled [...] Read more.
Several aspects of torsion in string-inspired cosmologies are reviewed. In particular, its connection with fundamental, string-model independent, axion fields associated with the massless gravitational multiplet of the string are discussed. It is argued in favour of the role of primordial gravitational anomalies coupled to such axions in inducing inflation of a type encountered in the “Running-Vacuum-Model (RVM)” cosmological framework, without fundamental inflaton fields. The gravitational-anomaly terms owe their existence to the Green–Schwarz mechanism for the (extra-dimensional) anomaly cancellation, and may be non-trivial in such theories in the presence of (primordial) gravitational waves at early stages of the four-dimensional string universe (after compactification). The paper also discusses how the torsion-induced stringy axions can acquire a mass in the post inflationary era, due to non-perturbative effects, thus having the potential to play the role of (a component of) dark matter in such models. Finally, the current-era phenomenology of this model is briefly described with emphasis placed on the possibility of alleviating tensions observed in the current-era cosmological data. A brief phenomenological comparison with other cosmological models in contorted geometries is also made. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beyond Riemannian Geometry in Classical and Quantum Gravity)
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Article
Perspective of Direct Search for Dark Components in the Universe with Multi-Wavelengths Stimulated Resonant Photon-Photon Colliders
Universe 2021, 7(12), 479; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe7120479 - 06 Dec 2021
Viewed by 395
Abstract
We explore a possibility to detect dark components in the Universe via stimulated photon–photon collisions by focusing two-frequency coherent electromagnetic fields in a vacuum. Those fields are assumed to be pulsed reaching Fourier transform limits in near-infrared, THz, and GHz frequency bands, respectively. [...] Read more.
We explore a possibility to detect dark components in the Universe via stimulated photon–photon collisions by focusing two-frequency coherent electromagnetic fields in a vacuum. Those fields are assumed to be pulsed reaching Fourier transform limits in near-infrared, THz, and GHz frequency bands, respectively. The numbers of signal photons as a result of exchange of a pseudoscalar-type pseudo Nambu–Goldstone boson have been evaluated in the individual frequency bands. Within presently available beam intensities, we found that the QCD axion scenarios are thoroughly testable in the mass range 106100 eV based on the common method. Furthermore, we show a possibility to reach the weak coupling domain even beyond the gravitationally weak coupling strength if pulse compression in the GHz band is realized in the near future development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Astroparticle Physics and Particle Cosmology)
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