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Atoms, Volume 8, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 32 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Spectroscopic studies of emission from an ablation cloud of a pellet injected into a high-temperature plasma may offer information about not only atomic data and the possibility of new light sources but also the ablation mechanism and atomic processes therein, and transport in the main plasma. In this work, we developed an echelle spectrometer to perform a whole-visible-range single-shot measurement with high resolution and observed the emission spectrum of an aluminum ablation cloud generated in a large helical device (LHD). More than 50 emission lines were identified as Al I, Al II, Al III, and Al IV lines. We estimated the electron temperature and density of the ablation cloud from the line intensity distribution and Stark broadening, respectively, and newly determined the Stark broadening coefficients of many Al II and III lines from the observed Stark widths. View this paper
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Open AccessArticle
Broad UV Emission Lines in Type-1 Active Galactic Nuclei: A Note on Spectral Diagnostics and the Excitation Mechanism
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 94; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040094 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 442
Abstract
This paper reviews several basic emission properties of the UV emission lines observed in the spectra of quasars and type-1 active galactic nuclei, mainly as a function of the ionization parameter, metallicity, and density of the emitting gas. The analysis exploits a general-purpose [...] Read more.
This paper reviews several basic emission properties of the UV emission lines observed in the spectra of quasars and type-1 active galactic nuclei, mainly as a function of the ionization parameter, metallicity, and density of the emitting gas. The analysis exploits a general-purpose 4D array of the photoionization simulations computed using the code CLOUDY, covering ionization parameter in the range 104.510+1.0, hydrogen density nH1071014 cm−3, metallicity Z between 0.01 and 100 Z, and column density in the range 10211023 cm−2. The focus is on the most prominent UV emission lines observed in quasar spectra, namely Nvλ1240, Siivλ1397, Oiv]λ1402, Civλ1549, Heiiλ1640, Aliiiλ1860, Siiii]λ1892, and Ciii]λ1909, and on the physical conditions under which electron-ion impact excitation is predicted to be the dominant line producer. Photoionization simulations help constrain the physical interpretation and the domain of applicability of spectral diagnostics derived from measurements of emission line ratios, reputed to be important for estimating the ionization degree, density, and metallicity of the broad line emitting gas, as well as the relative intensity ratios of the doublet or multiplet components relevant for empirical spectral modeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Spectroscopy and Collisions)
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Open AccessArticle
Multimode Collective Atomic Recoil Lasing in Free Space
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 93; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040093 - 10 Dec 2020
Viewed by 488
Abstract
Cold atomic clouds in collective atomic recoil lasing are usually confined by an optical cavity, which forces the light-scattering to befall in the mode fixed by the resonator. Here we consider the system to be in free space, which leads into a vacuum [...] Read more.
Cold atomic clouds in collective atomic recoil lasing are usually confined by an optical cavity, which forces the light-scattering to befall in the mode fixed by the resonator. Here we consider the system to be in free space, which leads into a vacuum multimode collective scattering. We show that the presence of an optical cavity is not always necessary to achieve coherent collective emission by the atomic ensemble and that a preferred scattering path arises along the major axis of the atomic cloud. We derive a full vectorial model for multimode collective atomic recoil lasing in free space. Such a model consists of multi-particle equations capable of describing the motion of each atom in a 2D/3D cloud. These equations are numerically solved by means of molecular dynamic algorithms, usually employed in other scientific fields. The numerical results show that both atomic density and collective scattering patterns are applicable to the cloud’s orientation and shape and to the polarization of the incident light. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collective Atomic and Free-Electron Lasing)
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Open AccessArticle
Extended Atomic Structure Calculations for W11+ and W13+
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 92; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040092 - 07 Dec 2020
Viewed by 488
Abstract
We report an extensive and elaborate theoretical study of atomic properties for Pm-like and Eu-like Tungsten using Flexible Atomic Code (FAC). Excitation energies for 304 and 500 fine structure levels are presented respectively, for W11+ and W13+. Properties of the [...] Read more.
We report an extensive and elaborate theoretical study of atomic properties for Pm-like and Eu-like Tungsten using Flexible Atomic Code (FAC). Excitation energies for 304 and 500 fine structure levels are presented respectively, for W11+ and W13+. Properties of the 4f-core-excited states are evaluated. Different sets of configurations are used and the discrepancies in identifications of the ground level are discussed. We evaluate transition wavelength, transition probability, oscillator strength, and collisional excitation cross section for various transitions. Comparisons are made between our calculated values and previously available results, and good agreement has been achieved. We have predicted some new energy levels and transition data where no other experimental or theoretical results are available. The present set of results should be useful in line identification and interpretation of spectra as well as in modelling of fusion plasmas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atomic Structure Calculations of Complex Atoms)
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Open AccessArticle
Stark-Zeeman Broadening of Spectral Line Shapes in Magnetized Plasmas
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 91; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040091 - 04 Dec 2020
Viewed by 518
Abstract
In this work, we studied the Lyman-alpha line in the presence of a magnetic field, such as the ones found at the edge of tokamaks. The emphasis is on the contribution of the motional Stark effect on line broadening, which may have comparable [...] Read more.
In this work, we studied the Lyman-alpha line in the presence of a magnetic field, such as the ones found at the edge of tokamaks. The emphasis is on the contribution of the motional Stark effect on line broadening, which may have comparable effects to the internal plasma microfields for the spectral line in question. The effect of the magnetic field, temperature, and the Maxwell distribution of the ion velocities and density on Lyman-alpha are studied. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Multipole Polarizabilities of Helium and Screened-Helium Atoms
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 90; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040090 - 04 Dec 2020
Viewed by 502
Abstract
The precise estimation of atomic polarizabilities impinges upon a number of areas and processes in physical science. We calculate precisely the dynamic multipole polarizabilities of the helium and screened-helium atoms using highly correlated exponential wavefunctions based on the pseudo-state summation method. For screened [...] Read more.
The precise estimation of atomic polarizabilities impinges upon a number of areas and processes in physical science. We calculate precisely the dynamic multipole polarizabilities of the helium and screened-helium atoms using highly correlated exponential wavefunctions based on the pseudo-state summation method. For screened environments, we consider the Debye–Hückel potential (DHP) as the interaction potentials between the charged particles. The dynamic multipole (quadrupole, octupole, and hexadecapole) polarizabilities for the ground state of the helium atom and the multipole (quadrupole and octupole) polarizabilities of the screened-helium atom for different screening parameters are reported along with magic-zero wavelengths. The reported results for hexadecapole polarizability of the helium atom and dynamic multipole polarizability of the screened-helium atom are new and would be useful for future investigation on this topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Spectroscopy and Collisions)
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Open AccessArticle
Calculations of Electron Loss to Continuum in Collisions of Li- and Be-Like Uranium Ions with Nitrogen Targets
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 89; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040089 - 04 Dec 2020
Viewed by 455
Abstract
Doubly differential cross sections for projectile ionization in fast collisions of few-electron uranium ions with the nitrogen target are calculated within the first order of the relativistic perturbation theory. A comparison with the recent measurements of the energy distribution of forward-emitted electrons is [...] Read more.
Doubly differential cross sections for projectile ionization in fast collisions of few-electron uranium ions with the nitrogen target are calculated within the first order of the relativistic perturbation theory. A comparison with the recent measurements of the energy distribution of forward-emitted electrons is made and good agreement is found. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
New Energy Levels of Neutral Lanthanum Derived from an Optogalvanic Spectrum between 5610 and 6110 Å
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 88; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040088 - 04 Dec 2020
Viewed by 459
Abstract
In a previous paper, we reported on a complete optogalvanic (OG) spectrum of a discharge burning in a La–Ar gas mixture, in the spectral range 5610–6110 Å (17,851 to 16,364 cm−1). Now we are able to communicate further new energy [...] Read more.
In a previous paper, we reported on a complete optogalvanic (OG) spectrum of a discharge burning in a La–Ar gas mixture, in the spectral range 5610–6110 Å (17,851 to 16,364 cm−1). Now we are able to communicate further new energy levels, found via searching for laser-induced fluorescence lines when exciting unclassified lines from the OG spectrum. We were able to find 17 new levels, and for two further levels, the line list has extended. With the help of these 19 levels, we could classify 132 spectral lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Spectroscopy and Collisions)
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Open AccessArticle
CI-MBPT and Intensity-Based Lifetime Calculations for Th II
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 87; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040087 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Lifetime calculations of Th II J = 1.5 and 2.5 odd states are performed with configuration–interaction many-body perturbation theory (CI-MBPT). For many J = 2.5 states, lifetimes are quite accurate, but two pairs of J = 2.5 odd states and many groups of [...] Read more.
Lifetime calculations of Th II J = 1.5 and 2.5 odd states are performed with configuration–interaction many-body perturbation theory (CI-MBPT). For many J = 2.5 states, lifetimes are quite accurate, but two pairs of J = 2.5 odd states and many groups of J = 1.5 states are strongly mixed, making theoretical predictions unreliable. To solve this problem, a method based on intensities is used. To relate experimental intensities to lifetimes, two parameters, one an overall coefficient of proportionality for transition rates and one temperature of the Boltzmann distribution of populations, are introduced and fitted to minimize the deviation between theoretical and intensity-derived lifetimes. For strongly mixed groups of states, the averaged lifetimes obtained from averaged transition rates were used instead of individual lifetimes in the fit. Close agreement is obtained. Then intensity branching ratios are used to extract individual lifetimes for the strongly mixed states. The resulting lifetimes are compared to available directly measured lifetimes and reasonable agreement is found, considering limited accuracy of intensity measurements. The method of intensity-based lifetime calculations with fit to theoretical lifetimes is quite general and can be applied to many complex atoms where strong mixing between multiple states exists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atomic Structure Calculations of Complex Atoms)
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Open AccessArticle
Calculation of the Differential Breit–Rosenthal Effect in the 6s6p 3P1,2 States of Hg
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 86; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040086 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 422
Abstract
Studies of the hyperfine anomaly has found a renewed interest with the recent development of techniques to study the properties of long chains of unstable nuclei. By using the hyperfine structure for determining the nuclear magnetic dipole moments, the hyperfine anomaly puts a [...] Read more.
Studies of the hyperfine anomaly has found a renewed interest with the recent development of techniques to study the properties of long chains of unstable nuclei. By using the hyperfine structure for determining the nuclear magnetic dipole moments, the hyperfine anomaly puts a limit to the accuracy. In this paper, the differential Breit–Rosenthal effect is calculated for the 6s6p3P1,2 states in 199Hg as a function of the change in nuclear radii, using the MCDHF code, GRASP2018. The differential Breit–Rosenthal effect was found to be of the order of 0.1%fm2, in most cases much less than the Bohr-Weisskopf effect. The results also indicate that large calculations might not be necessary, with the present accuracy of the experimental values for the hyperfine anomaly. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Procedures for Relativistic Atomic Structure Calculations
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 85; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040085 - 26 Nov 2020
Viewed by 461
Abstract
Variational methods are used extensively in the calculation of transition rates for numerous lines in a spectrum. In the GRASP code, solutions of the multiconfiguration Dirac–Hartree–Fock (MCDHF) equations that optimize the orbitals are represented by numerical values on a grid using finite differences [...] Read more.
Variational methods are used extensively in the calculation of transition rates for numerous lines in a spectrum. In the GRASP code, solutions of the multiconfiguration Dirac–Hartree–Fock (MCDHF) equations that optimize the orbitals are represented by numerical values on a grid using finite differences for integration and differentiation. The numerical accuracy and efficiency of existing procedures are evaluated and some modifications proposed with heavy elements in mind. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atomic Structure Calculations of Complex Atoms)
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Open AccessArticle
On the Stark Effect of the O I 777-nm Triplet in Plasma and Laser Fields
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 84; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040084 - 20 Nov 2020
Viewed by 457
Abstract
The O I 777-nm triplet transition is often used for plasma density diagnostics. It is also employed in nonlinear optics setups for producing quasi-comb structures when pumped by a near-resonant laser field. Here, we apply computer simulations to situations of the radiating atom [...] Read more.
The O I 777-nm triplet transition is often used for plasma density diagnostics. It is also employed in nonlinear optics setups for producing quasi-comb structures when pumped by a near-resonant laser field. Here, we apply computer simulations to situations of the radiating atom subjected to the plasma microfields, laser fields, and both perturbations together. Our results, in particular, resolve a controversy related to the spectral line anomalously broadened in some laser-produced plasmas. The importance of using time-dependent density matrix is discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Study of Electron and Positron Elastic Scattering from Hydrogen Sulphide Using Analytically Obtained Static Potential
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 83; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040083 - 18 Nov 2020
Viewed by 481
Abstract
A detailed study of elastic scattering of electrons and positrons from a hydrogen sulphide (H2S) molecule is presented using the method of partial wave phase shift analysis with suitably chosen complex optical potentials. The important aspect of our present work is [...] Read more.
A detailed study of elastic scattering of electrons and positrons from a hydrogen sulphide (H2S) molecule is presented using the method of partial wave phase shift analysis with suitably chosen complex optical potentials. The important aspect of our present work is that we uniquely obtain static potential in an analytical form and use it along with exchange (only for electron), polarization and purely imaginary absorption potentials to define the complex optical potential. The static potential is evaluated by obtaining charge density from the H2S molecule using the molecular wavefunction represented through an accurate analytical form of the Gaussian orbitals. The primary aim of our study is to test our present approach, as applied to the electron and positron scattering from H2S. Therefore, the results for electron and positron impact differential, integral, momentum-transfer, absorption and total cross sections are obtained for the incident energies in the range of 10–500 eV. Comparisons of these different types of cross section results with the available measurements and other calculations show good agreement, which suggests the applicability of our present approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Spectroscopy and Collisions)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact Energy and Angular Dependence of L X-ray Emission from a Thick Polycrystalline Tungsten Element Induced by 15–25 keV Electrons
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 82; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040082 - 17 Nov 2020
Viewed by 431
Abstract
The impact energy and angular dependence of L X-rays of a thick polycrystalline tungsten (W; atomic number, Z = 74) target induced by 15–25 keV electrons has been measured at different angles varying from 15° to 75° at intervals of 5° using a [...] Read more.
The impact energy and angular dependence of L X-rays of a thick polycrystalline tungsten (W; atomic number, Z = 74) target induced by 15–25 keV electrons has been measured at different angles varying from 15° to 75° at intervals of 5° using a Si PIN photodiode detector. The variation of measured relative intensity of Ll, Lα, Lβ and Lγ characteristic lines as a function of incidence angle is found to be anisotropic and the measured variation compares well with the PENELOPE simulation results. The angular variation of intensity ratio of Ll/Lα and Lβ/Lα shows anisotropic distribution, whereas the angular variation of the Lγ/Lα ratio exhibits almost isotropic distribution within the uncertainty of measurements. These measured ratios are found to be in good agreement with Monte Carlo (MC) calculations. The measured intensity ratios of Lβ/Lα and Lγ/Lα at a given incidence angle show a linear dependence with impact energy and exhibit good agreement with simulation results; however, the measured intensity ratio of Ll/Lα shows a non-linear variation with the impact energy and yields poor agreement with theoretical calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Spectroscopy and Collisions)
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Open AccessArticle
Plasma Spectroscopy on an Aluminum-Pellet Ablation Cloud in an LHD Plasma with an Echelle Spectrometer
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 81; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040081 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 497
Abstract
We developed an echelle spectrometer for the simultaneous observation of the whole visible range with a high instrumental resolution, for example, 0.055 nm (full width at the half maximum) at 400 nm and 0.10 nm at 750 nm. With the spectrometer, the emission [...] Read more.
We developed an echelle spectrometer for the simultaneous observation of the whole visible range with a high instrumental resolution, for example, 0.055 nm (full width at the half maximum) at 400 nm and 0.10 nm at 750 nm. With the spectrometer, the emission from an ablation cloud of an aluminum pellet injected into a high-temperature plasma generated in the Large Helical Device (LHD) was measured. We separated the emission lines into Al I, II, III and IV groups, and estimated the electron temperature and density of the ablation cloud from the line intensity distribution and Stark broadening respectively, of each of the Al I, II and III groups. We also determined the Stark broadening coefficients of many Al II and III lines from the respective Stark widths with the estimated electron temperature and density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atomic and Molecular Spectra in Magnetically Confined Torus Plasmas)
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Open AccessArticle
Multiple Sequential Ionization of Valence n = 4 Shell of Krypton by Intense Femtosecond XUV Pulses
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 80; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040080 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 487
Abstract
Sequential photoionization of krypton by intense extreme ultraviolet femtosecond pulses is studied theoretically for the photon energies below the 3d excitation threshold. This regime with energetically forbidden Auger decay is characterized by special features, such as time scaling of the level population. [...] Read more.
Sequential photoionization of krypton by intense extreme ultraviolet femtosecond pulses is studied theoretically for the photon energies below the 3d excitation threshold. This regime with energetically forbidden Auger decay is characterized by special features, such as time scaling of the level population. The model is based on the solution of rate equations with photoionization cross sections of krypton in different charge and multiplet states determined using R-matrix calculations. Predictions of the ion yields and photoelectron spectra for various photon fluence are presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction of Ionizing Photons with Atomic and Molecular Ions)
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Open AccessArticle
Magic Wavelengths for Optical-Lattice Based Cs and Rb Active Clocks
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 79; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040079 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 502
Abstract
Active clocks could provide better stabilities during initial stages of measurements over passive clocks, in which stabilities become saturated only after long-term measurements. This unique feature of an active clock has led to search for suitable candidates to construct such clocks. The other [...] Read more.
Active clocks could provide better stabilities during initial stages of measurements over passive clocks, in which stabilities become saturated only after long-term measurements. This unique feature of an active clock has led to search for suitable candidates to construct such clocks. The other challenging task of an atomic clock is to reduce its possible systematics. A major part of the optical lattice atomic clocks based on neutral atoms are reduced by trapping atoms at the magic wavelengths of the optical lattice lasers. Keeping this in mind, we find the magic wavelengths between all possible hyperfine levels of the transitions in Rb and Cs atoms that were earlier considered to be suitable for making optical active clocks. To validate the results, we give the static dipole polarizabilities of Rb and Cs atoms using the electric dipole transition amplitudes that are used to evaluate the dynamic dipole polarizabilities and compare them with the available literature values. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Scattering and Its Applications to Various Atomic Processes: Elastic Scattering, Resonances, Photoabsorption, Rydberg States, and Opacity of the Atmosphere of the Sun and Stellar Objects
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 78; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040078 - 06 Nov 2020
Viewed by 445
Abstract
A scattering process can be a natural process or a process carried out in a laboratory. The scattering of particles from targets has resulted in important discoveries in physics. We discuss various scattering theories of electrons and positrons and their applications to elastic [...] Read more.
A scattering process can be a natural process or a process carried out in a laboratory. The scattering of particles from targets has resulted in important discoveries in physics. We discuss various scattering theories of electrons and positrons and their applications to elastic scattering, resonances, photoabsorption, excitation, and solar and stellar atmospheres. Among the most commonly employed approaches are the Kohn variational principle, close-coupling approximation, method of polarized orbitals, R-matrix formulation, and hybrid theory. In every formulation, an attempt is made to include exchange, long-range and short-range correlations, and to make the approach variationally correct. The present formulation, namely, hybrid theory, which is discussed in greater detail compared to other approximations, includes exchange, long-range correlations, and short-range correlations at the same time, and is variationally correct. It was applied to calculate the phase shifts for elastic scattering, the resonance parameters of two-electron systems, photoabsorption in two-electron systems, excitation of atomic hydrogen by an electron and positron impact, and to study the opacity of the Sun’s atmosphere. Calculations of polarizabilities, Rydberg states, and bound states of atoms are also discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Casimir Force between Two Vortices in a Turbulent Bose–Einstein Condensate
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 77; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040077 - 04 Nov 2020
Viewed by 557
Abstract
We consider the Casimir force between two vortices due to the presence of density fluctuations induced by turbulent modes in a Bose–Einstein condensate. We discuss the cases of unbounded and finite condensates. Turbulence is described as a superposition of elementary excitations (phonons or [...] Read more.
We consider the Casimir force between two vortices due to the presence of density fluctuations induced by turbulent modes in a Bose–Einstein condensate. We discuss the cases of unbounded and finite condensates. Turbulence is described as a superposition of elementary excitations (phonons or BdG modes) in the medium. Expressions for the Casimir force between two identical vortex lines are derived, assuming that the vortices behave as point particles. Our analytical model of the Casimir force is confirmed by numerical simulations of the Gross–Pitaevskii equation, where the finite size of the vortices is retained. Our results are valid in the mean-field description of the turbulent medium. However, the Casimir force due to quantum fluctuations can also be estimated, assuming the particular case where the occupation number of the phonon modes in the condensed medium is reduced to zero and only zero-point fluctuations remain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cold Atoms, Quantum Gases and Bose-Einstein Condensation)
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Open AccessArticle
A Decade with VAMDC: Results and Ambitions
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 76; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040076 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 986
Abstract
This paper presents an overview of the current status of the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC) e-infrastructure, including the current status of the VAMDC-connected (or to be connected) databases, updates on the latest technological development within the infrastructure and a presentation [...] Read more.
This paper presents an overview of the current status of the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC) e-infrastructure, including the current status of the VAMDC-connected (or to be connected) databases, updates on the latest technological development within the infrastructure and a presentation of some application tools that make use of the VAMDC e-infrastructure. We analyse the past 10 years of VAMDC development and operation, and assess their impact both on the field of atomic and molecular (A&M) physics itself and on heterogeneous data management in international cooperation. The highly sophisticated VAMDC infrastructure and the related databases developed over this long term make them a perfect resource of sustainable data for future applications in many fields of research. However, we also discuss the current limitations that prevent VAMDC from becoming the main publishing platform and the main source of A&M data for user communities, and present possible solutions under investigation by the consortium. Several user application examples are presented, illustrating the benefits of VAMDC in current research applications, which often need the A&M data from more than one database. Finally, we present our vision for the future of VAMDC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Perspectives of Atomic and Molecular Databases)
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Open AccessArticle
An Investigation of Laser Produced Lead-Tin Alloy Plasmas between 10 and 18 nm
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 75; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040075 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 549
Abstract
The results of a systematic study performed on Pb-Sn alloys of concentration 65–35% and 94–6% by weight along with spectra from pure Pb and Sn in the wavelength range of 9.8–18 nm are presented. The dynamics of the Nd:YAG laser produced plasma were [...] Read more.
The results of a systematic study performed on Pb-Sn alloys of concentration 65–35% and 94–6% by weight along with spectra from pure Pb and Sn in the wavelength range of 9.8–18 nm are presented. The dynamics of the Nd:YAG laser produced plasma were changed by varying the focused spot size and input energy of the laser pulse; the laser irradiance at the target varied from 7.3 × 109 W cm−2 to 1.2 × 1012 W cm−2. The contributing ion stages and line emission are identified using the steady state collisional radiative model of Colombant and Tonon, and the Cowan suite of atomic structure codes. The Sn spectrum was dominated in each case by the well-known unresolved transition array (UTA) near 13.5 nm. However, a surprising result was the lack of any enhancement or narrowing of this feature at low concentrations of Sn in the alloy spectra whose emission was essentially dominated by Pb ions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction of Ionizing Photons with Atomic and Molecular Ions)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrogen Line Shapes in Plasmas with Large Magnetic Fields
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 74; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040074 - 15 Oct 2020
Viewed by 529
Abstract
We report on hydrogen line shape calculations in the presence of an external magnetic field, at conditions such that the quadratic Zeeman effect is important. The latter is described through a term proportional to B2 in the Hamiltonian, accounting for atomic diamagnetism. [...] Read more.
We report on hydrogen line shape calculations in the presence of an external magnetic field, at conditions such that the quadratic Zeeman effect is important. The latter is described through a term proportional to B2 in the Hamiltonian, accounting for atomic diamagnetism. It provides a shift and an asymmetry on Lorentz triplets, and it leads to the occurrence of forbidden components. Motivated by investigations performed at the fifth edition of the Spectral Line Shape in Plasmas (SLSP5) code comparison workshop, we perform new calculations of hydrogen Lyman line profiles. Field values representative of magnetized white dwarf atmosphere conditions are taken. The calculations are done using a computer simulation technique, designed for Stark broadening modeling. A discussion of the results is done in the framework of plasma diagnostics. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Calcium and Potassium Spectra in the EUV
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 73; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040073 - 14 Oct 2020
Viewed by 493
Abstract
In online data bases, the entries on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra of Ca are much more sparse than those of neighbouring elements such as Ar, K, Sc and Ti. This may be a result of experimental problems with Ca in the laboratory as [...] Read more.
In online data bases, the entries on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra of Ca are much more sparse than those of neighbouring elements such as Ar, K, Sc and Ti. This may be a result of experimental problems with Ca in the laboratory as well as of the limited role of multiply charged Ca ions in solar observations. Beam-foil EUV spectra of Ca and K are presented that provide survey data of a single element each. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Spectroscopy and Collisions)
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Open AccessArticle
Absolute Double Differential Cross Sections of Bremsstrahlung Produced from 4.0 keV Electrons Incident on Free Ar Atoms
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 72; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040072 - 12 Oct 2020
Viewed by 471
Abstract
New results are reported on the measurements of absolute double differential cross sections (DDCSs) of bremsstrahlung produced from 4.0 keV electrons incident on free Ar atoms in the angular detection range of 45°–120°. A significant reduction of the thick target bremsstrahlung (TTB) of [...] Read more.
New results are reported on the measurements of absolute double differential cross sections (DDCSs) of bremsstrahlung produced from 4.0 keV electrons incident on free Ar atoms in the angular detection range of 45°–120°. A significant reduction of the thick target bremsstrahlung (TTB) of the chamber wall and of the photon transmission windows has been achieved by modifying the experimental set-up used previously; a large reduction of TTB in the present experiments is supported by the results of our model calculations for the ratio of TTB background to the normal bremsstrahlung (NB) spectrum carried out for the employed geometry of the experimental set-up. The results of photon energy distribution measured at different angles and those of angular distributions of photons of a given energy are compared with theoretical predictions of Kissel–Quarles–Pratt (KQP) theory for ordinary bremsstrahlung and with predictions of total bremsstrahlung including polarization bremsstrahlung (PBS) of the stripping approximation (SA). A satisfactory agreement observed between experiment and predictions using SA theory for absolute DDCSs of bremsstrahlung provides evidence for an appreciable contribution of polarization bremsstrahlung at the considered impact energy of electrons on one hand, while on the other hand, it exhibits a large discrepancy (about a factor of 2) in DDCSs of bremsstrahlung photons obtained by experiment and by KQP theory for photon energy distributions at all detection angles measured in these experiments. In addition, present results of the angular dependence of photons of different energies show anisotropic distributions and they are found to be in reasonable agreement with both KQP and SA theories. The satisfactory agreement between experiment and theory for angular distributions is an indication of a significant reduction of the background produced from TTB photons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Spectroscopy and Collisions)
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Open AccessArticle
NIFS Atomic and Molecular Numerical Database for Collision Processes
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 71; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040071 - 09 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 601
Abstract
The National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) has compiled and developed atomic and molecular numerical databases for various collision processes and makes it accessible from the internet to the public. The database contains numerical data of cross sections and rate coefficients for electron [...] Read more.
The National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) has compiled and developed atomic and molecular numerical databases for various collision processes and makes it accessible from the internet to the public. The database contains numerical data of cross sections and rate coefficients for electron collision or ion collisions with atoms and molecules, attached with bibliographic information on their data sources. The database system provides query forms to search data, and numerical data are retrievable. The graphical output is helpful to understand energy dependence of cross sections and temperature dependence of rate coefficients obtained by various studies. All data are compiled mainly from published literature, and data sources can be tracked by the bibliographic information. We also have data of sputtering yields and back-scattering coefficients for solid surfaces collided by ions in the database. All data in the database are applicable to understand atomic and molecular processes in various plasmas, such as fusion plasma, astrophysical plasma and applied plasma, as well as for understanding plasma–surface interaction in plasmas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Perspectives of Atomic and Molecular Databases)
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Open AccessArticle
Phase-Sensitive Vector Terahertz Electrometry from Precision Spectroscopy of Molecular Ions
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 70; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040070 - 07 Oct 2020
Viewed by 525
Abstract
This article proposes a new method for sensing THz waves that can allow electric field measurements traceable to the International System of Units and to the fundamental physical constants by using the comparison between precision measurements with cold trapped HD+ ions and [...] Read more.
This article proposes a new method for sensing THz waves that can allow electric field measurements traceable to the International System of Units and to the fundamental physical constants by using the comparison between precision measurements with cold trapped HD+ ions and accurate predictions of molecular ion theory. The approach exploits the lightshifts induced on the two-photon rovibrational transition at 55.9 THz by a THz wave around 1.3 THz, which is off-resonantly coupled to the HD+ fundamental rotational transition. First, the direction and the magnitude of the static magnetic field applied to the ion trap is calibrated using Zeeman spectroscopy of HD+. Then, a set of lightshifts are converted into the amplitudes and the phases of the THz electric field components in an orthogonal laboratory frame by exploiting the sensitivity of the lightshifts to the intensity, the polarization and the detuning of the THz wave to the HD+ energy levels. The THz electric field measurement uncertainties are estimated for quantum projection noise-limited molecular ion frequency measurements with the current accuracy of molecular ion theory. The method has the potential to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of electric field metrology and may be extended to THz magnetic fields and to optical fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atom Based Quantum Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
BASECOL2020 New Technical Design
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 69; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040069 - 07 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 493
Abstract
The BASECOL database has been created and scientifically enriched since 2004. It contains collisional excitation rate coefficients of molecules for application to the interstellar medium and to cometary atmospheres. Recently, major technical updates have been performed in order to be compliant with international [...] Read more.
The BASECOL database has been created and scientifically enriched since 2004. It contains collisional excitation rate coefficients of molecules for application to the interstellar medium and to cometary atmospheres. Recently, major technical updates have been performed in order to be compliant with international standards for management of data and in order to provide a more friendly environment to query and to present the data. The current paper aims at presenting the key features of the technical updates and to underline the compatibility of BASECOL database with the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center. This latter aims to interconnect atomic and molecular databases, thus providing a single location where users can access atomic and molecular data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Perspectives of Atomic and Molecular Databases)
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Open AccessArticle
Database NORAD-Atomic-Data for Atomic Processes in Plasma
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 68; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040068 - 07 Oct 2020
Viewed by 486
Abstract
The online atomic database of NORAD-Atomic-Data, where NORAD stands for Nahar OSU Radiative, is part of the data sources of the two international collaborations of the Opacity Project (OP) and the Iron Project (IP). It contains large sets of parameters for the dominant [...] Read more.
The online atomic database of NORAD-Atomic-Data, where NORAD stands for Nahar OSU Radiative, is part of the data sources of the two international collaborations of the Opacity Project (OP) and the Iron Project (IP). It contains large sets of parameters for the dominant atomic processes in astrophysical plasmas, such as, (i) photo-excitation, (ii) photoionization, (iii) electron–ion recombination, (iv) electron–impact excitations. The atomic parameters correspond to tables of energy levels, level-specific total photoionization cross-sections, partial photoionization cross-sections of all bound states for leaving the residual ion in the ground state, partial cross-sections of the ground state for leaving the ion in various excited states, total level-specific electron–ion recombination rate coefficients that include both the radiative and dielectronic recombination, total recombination rate coefficients summed from contributions of an infinite number of recombined states, total photo-recombination cross-sections and rates with respect to photoelectron energy, transition probabilities, lifetimes, collision strengths. The database was created after the first two atomic databases, TOPbase under the OP and TIPbase under the IP. Hence the contents of NORAD-Atomic-Data are either new or from repeated calculations using a much larger wave function expansion making the data more complete. The results have been obtained from the R-matrix method using the close-coupling approximation developed under the OP and IP, and from atomic structure calculations using the program SUPERSTRUCTURE. They have been compared with available published results which have been obtained theoretically and experimentally, and are expected to be of high accuracy in general. All computations were carried out using the computational facilities at the Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC) starting in 1990. At present it contains atomic data for 154 atomic species, 98 of which are lighter atomic species with nuclear charge Z ≤ 28 and 56 are heavier ones with Z > 28. New data are added with publications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Perspectives of Atomic and Molecular Databases)
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Open AccessArticle
Vibrationally and Spin-Orbit-Resolved Inner-Shell X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of the NH+ Molecular Ion: Measurements and ab Initio Calculations
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 67; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040067 - 04 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 440
Abstract
This article presents N2+ fragment yields following nitrogen K-shell photo-absorption in the NH+ molecular ion measured at the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation facility in the photon energy region 390–450 eV. The combination of the high sensitivity of the merged-beam, multi-analysis ion apparatus [...] Read more.
This article presents N2+ fragment yields following nitrogen K-shell photo-absorption in the NH+ molecular ion measured at the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation facility in the photon energy region 390–450 eV. The combination of the high sensitivity of the merged-beam, multi-analysis ion apparatus (MAIA) with the high spectral resolution of the PLEIADES beamline helped to resolve experimentally vibrational structures of highly excited [N1s−1H]*+ electronic states with closed or open-shell configurations. The assignment of the observed spectral features was achieved with the help of density functional theory (DFT) and post-Hartree Fock Multiconfiguration Self-Consistent-Field/Configuration Interaction (MCSCF/CI) ab-initio theoretical calculations of the N1s core-to-valence and core-to-Rydberg excitations, including vibrational dynamics. New resonances were identified compared to previous work, owing to detailed molecular modeling of the vibrational, spin-orbit coupling and metastable state effects on the spectra. The latter are evidenced by spectral contributions from the 4Σ electronic state which lies 0.07 eV above the NH+2Π ground state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction of Ionizing Photons with Atomic and Molecular Ions)
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Open AccessArticle
Atomic Data Assessment with PyNeb
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 66; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040066 - 04 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 486
Abstract
PyNeb is a Python package widely used to model emission lines in gaseous nebulae. We take advantage of its object-oriented architecture, class methods, and historical atomic database to structure a practical environment for atomic data assessment. Our aim is to reduce the uncertainties [...] Read more.
PyNeb is a Python package widely used to model emission lines in gaseous nebulae. We take advantage of its object-oriented architecture, class methods, and historical atomic database to structure a practical environment for atomic data assessment. Our aim is to reduce the uncertainties in the parameter space (line ratio diagnostics, electron density and temperature, and ionic abundances) arising from the underlying atomic data by critically selecting the PyNeb default datasets. We evaluate the questioned radiative-rate accuracy of the collisionally excited forbidden lines of the N- and P-like ions (O ii, Ne iv, S ii, Cl iii, and Ar iv), which are used as density diagnostics. With the aid of observed line ratios in the dense NGC 7027 planetary nebula and careful data analysis, we arrive at emissivity ratio uncertainties from the radiative rates within 10%, a considerable improvement over a previously predicted 50%. We also examine the accuracy of an extensive dataset of electron-impact effective collision strengths for the carbon isoelectronic sequence recently published. By estimating the impact of the new data on the pivotal [N ii] and [O iii] temperature diagnostics and by benchmarking the collision strength with a measured resonance position, we question their usefulness in nebular modeling. We confirm that the effective-collision-strength scatter of selected datasets for these two ions does not lead to uncertainties in the temperature diagnostics larger than 10%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Perspectives of Atomic and Molecular Databases)
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Open AccessArticle
Spin-Polarized Photoelectron Fluxes from Fullerene Anions
Atoms 2020, 8(4), 65; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms8040065 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 583
Abstract
Initial insights into spin-polarized photoelectron fluxes from fullerene anions are presented here. Both the angle-dependent and angle-integrated degrees of spin polarization of said photoelectron fluxes are discussed. Empty C60(2p) and endohedral [email protected]60(2p [...] Read more.
Initial insights into spin-polarized photoelectron fluxes from fullerene anions are presented here. Both the angle-dependent and angle-integrated degrees of spin polarization of said photoelectron fluxes are discussed. Empty C60(2p) and endohedral [email protected]60(2p) and [email protected]60(2p) anions, where the attached electron resides in a 2p state, are chosen as case studies. We uncover the characteristics of the phenomenon in the framework of a semi-empirical methodology where the C60 cage is modeled by a spherical annular potential, rather than aiming at a rigorous study. It is found that the spin-polarization degree of photoelectron fluxes from fullerene anions can reach large values, including a nearly complete polarization, at/in specific values/domains of the photoelectron momentum. This is shown to correlate with an inherent feature of photoionization of fullerenes, the abundance of resonances, known as confinement resonances, in their photodetachment spectra owing to a large empty space inside fullerenes. Moreover, the results obtained can serve as a touchstone for future studies of the phenomenon by more rigorous theories and/or experiments to reveal the significance of interactions omitted in the present study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction of Ionizing Photons with Atomic and Molecular Ions)
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