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Atoms, Volume 9, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 19 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In the context of X-ray astrophysics, we are committed in our collaborative research projects to reduce the modeling uncertainties from the underlying atomic processes and database, such that the interpretations of observed spectra are only limited by observational uncertainties. Currently, we are preparing for the forthcoming XRISM and Athena space telescopes. For the past 20 years, we have been computing atomic datasets to model the spectra of the inner-shell K lines from elements with atomic number Z ≤ 30 and, more recently, to account for high-density effects. In this figure, we fit the spectrum of the Perseus Cluster from the HITOMI collaboration with the XSTAR spectral modeling code (red line), showing that, with the higher resolution, the iconic Fe XXV “triplet” becomes a quartet leading to more reliable diagnostics of the electron temperature and density. View this paper.
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Article
Development of an Electron-Atom Compton Scattering Apparatus Using a Picosecond Pulsed Electron Gun
Atoms 2021, 9(1), 19; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms9010019 - 15 Mar 2021
Viewed by 783
Abstract
An apparatus has been developed for electron-atom Compton scattering experiments that can employ a pulsed laser and a picosecond pulsed electron beam in a pump-and-probe scheme. The design and technical details of the apparatus are described. Furthermore, experimental results on the Xe atom [...] Read more.
An apparatus has been developed for electron-atom Compton scattering experiments that can employ a pulsed laser and a picosecond pulsed electron beam in a pump-and-probe scheme. The design and technical details of the apparatus are described. Furthermore, experimental results on the Xe atom in its ground state are presented to illustrate the performance of the pulsed electron gun and the detection and spectrometric capabilities for scattered electrons. The scope of future application is also discussed, involving real-time measurement of intramolecular force acting on each constituent atom with different mass numbers, in a transient, evolving system during a molecular reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Spectroscopy and Collisions)
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Article
Polaron Problems in Ultracold Atoms: Role of a Fermi Sea across Different Spatial Dimensions and Quantum Fluctuations of a Bose Medium
Atoms 2021, 9(1), 18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms9010018 - 09 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 706
Abstract
The notion of a polaron, originally introduced in the context of electrons in ionic lattices, helps us to understand how a quantum impurity behaves when being immersed in and interacting with a many-body background. We discuss the impact of the impurities on the [...] Read more.
The notion of a polaron, originally introduced in the context of electrons in ionic lattices, helps us to understand how a quantum impurity behaves when being immersed in and interacting with a many-body background. We discuss the impact of the impurities on the medium particles by considering feedback effects from polarons that can be realized in ultracold quantum gas experiments. In particular, we exemplify the modifications of the medium in the presence of either Fermi or Bose polarons. Regarding Fermi polarons we present a corresponding many-body diagrammatic approach operating at finite temperatures and discuss how mediated two- and three-body interactions are implemented within this framework. Utilizing this approach, we analyze the behavior of the spectral function of Fermi polarons at finite temperature by varying impurity-medium interactions as well as spatial dimensions from three to one. Interestingly, we reveal that the spectral function of the medium atoms could be a useful quantity for analyzing the transition/crossover from attractive polarons to molecules in three-dimensions. As for the Bose polaron, we showcase the depletion of the background Bose-Einstein condensate in the vicinity of the impurity atom. Such spatial modulations would be important for future investigations regarding the quantification of interpolaron correlations in Bose polaron problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physics of Impurities in Quantum Gases)
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Article
Impact Features Induced by Single Fast Ions of Different Charge-State on Muscovite Mica
Atoms 2021, 9(1), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms9010017 - 25 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 815
Abstract
The influence of the charge state q on surface modifications induced by the impact of individual fast, heavy ions on muscovite mica was investigated. Beams of 593 MeV 197Auq+ with well-defined initial charge states over a relatively broad range of values (30 to 51) and at different irradiation geometries were used. At normal incidence, the impact features are rounded protrusions (hillocks) with ≳20 nm in diameter. At grazing angles, besides the hillocks, craters and elongated tails (up to 350 nm-long) extending along the direction of ion penetration are produced. It is shown that the impact features at normal incidence depend strongly on the initial charge state of the projectiles. This dependence is very weak at grazing angles as the ion reaches the equilibrium charge state closer to the surface. At normal ion incidence, the hillock volume scales with q3.3 ± 0.6. This dependence stems largely from the increase in the hillock height, as a weak dependence of the diameter was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Charge-State Evolution in Ion-Atom/Solid Collisions)
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Review
Data Needs for Modeling Low-Temperature Non-Equilibrium Plasmas: The LXCat Project, History, Perspectives and a Tutorial
Atoms 2021, 9(1), 16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms9010016 - 24 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1518
Abstract
Technologies based on non-equilibrium, low-temperature plasmas are ubiquitous in today’s society. Plasma modeling plays an essential role in their understanding, development and optimization. An accurate description of electron and ion collisions with neutrals and their transport is required to correctly describe plasma properties [...] Read more.
Technologies based on non-equilibrium, low-temperature plasmas are ubiquitous in today’s society. Plasma modeling plays an essential role in their understanding, development and optimization. An accurate description of electron and ion collisions with neutrals and their transport is required to correctly describe plasma properties as a function of external parameters. LXCat is an open-access, web-based platform for storing, exchanging and manipulating data needed for modeling the electron and ion components of non-equilibrium, low-temperature plasmas. The data types supported by LXCat are electron- and ion-scattering cross-sections with neutrals (total and differential), interaction potentials, oscillator strengths, and electron- and ion-swarm/transport parameters. Online tools allow users to identify and compare the data through plotting routines, and use the data to generate swarm parameters and reaction rates with the integrated electron Boltzmann solver. In this review, the historical evolution of the project and some perspectives on its future are discussed together with a tutorial review for using data from LXCat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Perspectives of Atomic and Molecular Databases)
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Article
Few-Cycle Infrared Pulse Evolving in FEL Oscillators and Its Application to High-Harmonic Generation for Attosecond Ultraviolet and X-ray Pulses
Atoms 2021, 9(1), 15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms9010015 - 24 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 954
Abstract
Generation of few-cycle optical pulses in free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators has been experimentally demonstrated in FEL facilities based on normal-conducting and superconducting linear accelerators. Analytical and numerical studies have revealed that the few-cycle FEL lasing can be explained in the frame of superradiance, [...] Read more.
Generation of few-cycle optical pulses in free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators has been experimentally demonstrated in FEL facilities based on normal-conducting and superconducting linear accelerators. Analytical and numerical studies have revealed that the few-cycle FEL lasing can be explained in the frame of superradiance, cooperative emission from self-bunched systems. In the present paper, we review historical remarks of superradiance FEL experiments in short-pulse FEL oscillators with emphasis on the few-cycle pulse generation and discuss the application of the few-cycle FEL pulses to the scheme of FEL-HHG, utilization of infrared FEL pulses to drive high-harmonic generation (HHG) from gas and solid targets. The FEL-HHG enables one to explore ultrafast science with attosecond ultraviolet and X-ray pulses with a MHz repetition rate, which is difficult with HHG driven by solid-state lasers. A research program has been launched to develop technologies for the FEL-HHG and to conduct a proof-of-concept experiment of FEL-HHG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collective Atomic and Free-Electron Lasing)
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Article
Dynamics of the Creation of a Rotating Bose–Einstein Condensation by Two Photon Raman Transition Using a Laguerre–Gaussian Laser Pulse
Atoms 2021, 9(1), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms9010014 - 08 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 855
Abstract
We present numerical simulations to unravel the dynamics associated with the creation of a vortex in a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC), from another nonrotating BEC using two-photon Raman transition with Gaussian (G) and Laguerre–Gaussian (LG) laser pulses. In particular, we consider BEC of Rb [...] Read more.
We present numerical simulations to unravel the dynamics associated with the creation of a vortex in a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC), from another nonrotating BEC using two-photon Raman transition with Gaussian (G) and Laguerre–Gaussian (LG) laser pulses. In particular, we consider BEC of Rb atoms at their hyperfine ground states confined in a quasi two dimensional harmonic trap. Optical dipole potentials created by G and LG laser pulses modify the harmonic trap in such a way that density patterns of the condensates during the Raman transition process depend on the sign of the generated vortex. We investigate the role played by the Raman coupling parameter manifested through dimensionless peak Rabi frequency and intercomponent interaction on the dynamics during the population transfer process and on the final population of the rotating condensate. During the Raman transition process, the two BECs tend to have larger overlap with each other for stronger intercomponent interaction strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physics of Impurities in Quantum Gases)
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Article
Maximum Ionization in Restricted and Unrestricted Hartree-Fock Theory
Atoms 2021, 9(1), 13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms9010013 - 05 Feb 2021
Viewed by 769
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate the maximum number of electrons that can be bound to a system of nuclei modelled by Hartree-Fock theory. We consider both the Restricted and Unrestricted Hartree-Fock models. We are taking a non-existence approach (necessary but not sufficient), in [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigate the maximum number of electrons that can be bound to a system of nuclei modelled by Hartree-Fock theory. We consider both the Restricted and Unrestricted Hartree-Fock models. We are taking a non-existence approach (necessary but not sufficient), in other words we are finding an upper bound on the maximum number of electrons. In giving a detailed account of the proof of Lieb’s bound [Theorem 1, Phys. Rev. A 29 (1984), 3018] for the Hartree-Fock models we establish several new auxiliary results, furthermore we propose a condition that, if satisfied, will give an improved upper bound on the maximum number of electrons within the Restricted Hartree-Fock model. For two-electron atoms we show that the latter condition holds. Full article
Article
The XSTAR Atomic Database
Atoms 2021, 9(1), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms9010012 - 05 Feb 2021
Viewed by 898
Abstract
We describe the atomic database of the xstar spectral modeling code, summarizing the systematic upgrades carried out in the past twenty years to enable the modeling of K-lines from chemical elements with atomic number Z30 and recent extensions to handle high-density plasmas. Such plasma environments are found, for instance, in the inner region of accretion disks round compact objects (neutron stars and black holes), which emit rich information about the system’s physical properties. Our intention is to offer a reliable modeling tool to take advantage of the outstanding spectral capabilities of the new generation of X-ray space telescopes (e.g., xrism and athena) to be launched in the coming years. Data curatorial aspects are discussed and an updated list of reference sources is compiled to improve the database provenance metadata. Two xstar spin-offs—the ISMabs absorption model and the uaDB database—are also described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Perspectives of Atomic and Molecular Databases)
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Article
Loading a Paul Trap: Densities, Capacities, and Scaling in the Saturation Regime
Atoms 2021, 9(1), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms9010011 - 29 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 799
Abstract
Providing ideal conditions for the study of ion-neutral collisions, we investigate here the properties of the saturated, steady state of a three-dimensional Paul trap, loaded from a magneto-optic trap. In particular, we study three assumptions that are sometimes made under saturated, steady-state conditions: [...] Read more.
Providing ideal conditions for the study of ion-neutral collisions, we investigate here the properties of the saturated, steady state of a three-dimensional Paul trap, loaded from a magneto-optic trap. In particular, we study three assumptions that are sometimes made under saturated, steady-state conditions: (i) The pseudopotential provides a good approximation for the number, Ns, of ions in the saturation regime, (ii) the maximum of Ns occurs at a loading rate of approximately 1 ion per rf cycle, and (iii) the ion density is approximately constant. We find that none of these assumptions are generally valid. However, based on detailed classical molecular dynamics simulations, and as a function of loading rate and trap control parameter, we show where to find convenient dynamical regimes for ion-neutral collision experiments, or how to rescale to the pseudo-potential predictions. We also investigate the fate of the electrons generated during the loading process and present a new heating mechanism, insertion heating, that in some regimes of trapping and loading may rival and even exceed the rf-heating power of the trap. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Energy Interactions between Ions and Ultracold Alkali Atoms)
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Atoms in 2020
Atoms 2021, 9(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms9010010 - 27 Jan 2021
Viewed by 748
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Atoms maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Article
Stark-Broadening of Ar K-Shell Lines: A Comparison between Molecular Dynamics Simulations and MERL Results
Atoms 2021, 9(1), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms9010009 - 25 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 991
Abstract
Analysis of Stark-broadened spectral line profiles is a powerful, non-intrusive diagnostic technique to extract the electron density of high-energy-density plasmas. The increasing number of applications and availability of spectroscopic measurements have stimulated new research on line broadening theory calculations and computer simulations, and [...] Read more.
Analysis of Stark-broadened spectral line profiles is a powerful, non-intrusive diagnostic technique to extract the electron density of high-energy-density plasmas. The increasing number of applications and availability of spectroscopic measurements have stimulated new research on line broadening theory calculations and computer simulations, and their comparison. Here, we discuss a comparative study of Stark-broadened line shapes calculated with computer simulations using non-interacting and interacting particles, and with the multi-electron radiator line shape MERL code. In particular, we focus on Ar K-shell X-ray line transitions in He- and H-like ions, i.e., Heα, Heβ and Heγ in He-like Ar and Lyα, Lyβ and Lyγ in H-like Ar. These lines have been extensively used for X-ray spectroscopy of Ar-doped implosion cores in indirect- and direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The calculations were done for electron densities ranging from 1023 to 3×1024 cm3 and a representative electron temperature of 1 keV. Comparisons of electron broadening only and complete line profiles including electron and ion broadening effects, as well as Doppler, are presented. Overall, MERL line shapes are narrower than those from independent and interacting particles computer simulations performed at the same conditions. Differences come from the distinctive treatments of electron broadening and are more pronounced in α line transitions. We also discuss the recombination broadening mechanism that naturally emerges from molecular dynamics simulations and its influence on the line shapes. Furthermore, we assess the impact of employing either molecular dynamics or MERL line profiles on the diagnosis of core conditions in implosion experiments performed on the OMEGA laser facility. Full article
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Article
Fundamental Parameters Related to Selenium Kα and Kβ Emission X-ray Spectra
Atoms 2021, 9(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms9010008 - 22 Jan 2021
Viewed by 901
Abstract
We present relativistic ab initio calculations of fundamental parameters for atomic selenium, based on the Multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method. In detail, fluorescence yields and subshell linewidths, both of K shell, as well as Kβ to Kα intensity ratio are provided, showing overall agreement with previous theoretical calculations and experimental values. Relative intensities were evaluated assuming the same ionization cross-section for the K-shell hole states, leading to a statistical distribution of these initial states. A method for estimating theoretical linewidths of X-ray lines, where the lines are composed by a multiplet of fine-structure levels that are spread in energy, is proposed. This method provides results that are closer to Kα1,2 experimental width values than the usual method, although slightly higher discrepancies occur for the Kβ1,3 lines. This indicates some inaccuracies in the calculation of Auger rates that have a higher contribution for partial linewidths of the subshells involved in the Kβ1,3 profile. Apart from this, the calculated value of Kβ to Kα intensity ratio, which is less sensitive to Auger rates issues, is in excellent agreement with recommended values. Full article
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Article
Study of HgOH to Assess Its Suitability for Electron Electric Dipole Moment Searches
Atoms 2021, 9(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms9010007 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 960
Abstract
In search of suitable molecular candidates for probing the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron (de), a property that arises due to parity and time-reversal violating (P,T-odd) interactions, we consider the triatomic mercury hydroxide (HgOH) molecule. The impetus for this proposal is based on previous works on two systems: the recently proposed ytterbium hydroxide (YbOH) experiment that demonstrates the advantages of polyatomics for such EDM searches, and the finding that mercury halides provide the highest enhancement due to de compared to other diatomic molecules. We identify the ground state of HgOH as being in a bent geometry, and show that its intrinsic EDM sensitivity is comparable to the corresponding value for YbOH. Along with the theoretical results, we discuss plausible experimental schemes for an EDM measurement in HgOH. Furthermore, we provide pilot calculations of the EDM sensitivity for de for HgCH3 and HgCF3, that are natural extensions of HgOH. Full article
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Article
“Amplified Spontaneous Emission” in Micro- and Nanolasers
Atoms 2021, 9(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms9010006 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 729
Abstract
Amplified Spontaneous Emission is ubiquitous in systems with optical gain and is responsible for many opportunities and shortcomings. Its role in the progression from the simplest form of thermal radiation (single emitter spontaneous emission) all the way to coherent radiation from inverted systems [...] Read more.
Amplified Spontaneous Emission is ubiquitous in systems with optical gain and is responsible for many opportunities and shortcomings. Its role in the progression from the simplest form of thermal radiation (single emitter spontaneous emission) all the way to coherent radiation from inverted systems is still an open question. We critically review observations of photon bursts in micro- and nanolasers, in the perspective of currently used measurement techniques, in relation to threshold-related questions for small devices. Corresponding stochastic predictions are analyzed, and contrasted with burst absence in differential models, in light of general phase space properties. A brief discussion on perspectives is offered in the conclusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collective Atomic and Free-Electron Lasing)
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Article
Atomic Concealment Due to Loss of Coherence of the Incident Beam of Projectiles in Collision Processes
Atoms 2021, 9(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms9010005 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 690
Abstract
In the study of collision processes, a series of conditions is usually assumed. One of them is that the beam of projectiles is coherent in lengths greater than those of the targets against which it strikes. However, recent experimental results and theoretical analyzes [...] Read more.
In the study of collision processes, a series of conditions is usually assumed. One of them is that the beam of projectiles is coherent in lengths greater than those of the targets against which it strikes. However, recent experimental results and theoretical analyzes have shown that this assumption can not only fail, but that it is possible to manipulate the coherence length experimentally to go from a coherent situation to an incoherent one. The most conspicuous and studied manifestation of such loss of coherence is the disappearance of interference effects. However, in the present work we show that a strong decrease can also occur in the magnitude of the cross section, not only differential but also total, due to an atomic concealment effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Spectroscopy and Collisions)
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Article
Casimir-Polder Interaction of an Atom with a Cavity Wall Made of Phase-Change Material out of Thermal Equilibrium
Atoms 2021, 9(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms9010004 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 734
Abstract
We consider the out-of-thermal-equilibrium Casimir-Polder interaction between atoms of He*, Na, Cs, and Rb and a cavity wall made of sapphire coated with a vanadium dioxide film which undergoes the dielectric-to-metal phase transition with increasing wall temperature. Numerical computations of the Casimir-Polder force and its gradient as the functions of atom-wall separation and wall temperature are made when the latter exceeds the temperature of the environment. The obtained results are compared with those in experiment on measuring the gradient of the Casimir-Polder force between 87Rb atoms and a silica glass wall out of thermal equilibrium. It is shown that the use of phase-change wall material significantly increases the force magnitude and especially the force gradient, as opposed to the case of a dielectric wall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cold Atoms, Quantum Gases and Bose-Einstein Condensation)
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Article
A Complete CDW Theory for the Single Ionization of Multielectronic Atoms by Bare Ion Impact
Atoms 2021, 9(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms9010003 - 13 Jan 2021
Viewed by 689
Abstract
A complete form of the post version of the continuum distorted wave (CDW) theory is used to investigate the single ionization of multielectronic atoms by fast bare heavy ion beams. The influence of the non-ionized electrons on the dynamic evolution is included through [...] Read more.
A complete form of the post version of the continuum distorted wave (CDW) theory is used to investigate the single ionization of multielectronic atoms by fast bare heavy ion beams. The influence of the non-ionized electrons on the dynamic evolution is included through a residual target potential considered as a non-Coulomb central potential through a GSZ parametric one. Divergences found in the transition amplitude containing the short-range part of the target potential are avoided by considering, in that term exclusively, an eikonal phase instead of the continuum factor as the initial channel distortion function. In this way, we achieve the inclusion of the interaction between the target active electron and the residual target, giving place to a more complete theory. The present analysis is supported by comparisons with existing experimental electron emission spectra and other distorted wave theories. Full article
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Article
Machine Learning Predictions of Transition Probabilities in Atomic Spectra
Atoms 2021, 9(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms9010002 - 06 Jan 2021
Viewed by 913
Abstract
Forward modeling of optical spectra with absolute radiometric intensities requires knowledge of the individual transition probabilities for every transition in the spectrum. In many cases, these transition probabilities, or Einstein A-coefficients, quickly become practically impossible to obtain through either theoretical or experimental methods. [...] Read more.
Forward modeling of optical spectra with absolute radiometric intensities requires knowledge of the individual transition probabilities for every transition in the spectrum. In many cases, these transition probabilities, or Einstein A-coefficients, quickly become practically impossible to obtain through either theoretical or experimental methods. Complicated electronic orbitals with higher order effects will reduce the accuracy of theoretical models. Experimental measurements can be prohibitively expensive and are rarely comprehensive due to physical constraints and sheer volume of required measurements. Due to these limitations, spectral predictions for many element transitions are not attainable. In this work, we investigate the efficacy of using machine learning models, specifically fully connected neural networks (FCNN), to predict Einstein A-coefficients using data from the NIST Atomic Spectra Database. For simple elements where closed form quantum calculations are possible, the data-driven modeling workflow performs well but can still have lower precision than theoretical calculations. For more complicated nuclei, deep learning emerged more comparable to theoretical predictions, such as Hartree–Fock. Unlike experiment or theory, the deep learning approach scales favorably with the number of transitions in a spectrum, especially if the transition probabilities are distributed across a wide range of values. It is also capable of being trained on both theoretical and experimental values simultaneously. In addition, the model performance improves when training on multiple elements prior to testing. The scalability of the machine learning approach makes it a potentially promising technique for estimating transition probabilities in previously inaccessible regions of the spectral and thermal domains on a significantly reduced timeline. Full article
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Article
Investigation of Resonance-Enhanced High-Order Harmonics by Two-Component Laser-Produced Plasmas
Atoms 2021, 9(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms9010001 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 803
Abstract
Resonance-enhanced harmonics from laser-produced plasma plumes are an interesting phenomenon, whose underlying mechanism is still under debate. In particular, it is unclear whether the macroscopic dispersion properties of the plasma are the key factors for the formation of the enhancement. To shed light [...] Read more.
Resonance-enhanced harmonics from laser-produced plasma plumes are an interesting phenomenon, whose underlying mechanism is still under debate. In particular, it is unclear whether the macroscopic dispersion properties of the plasma are the key factors for the formation of the enhancement. To shed light on this problem, we perform experiments with two-component plasmas, in which one of the components (tin) is known to be able to generate enhanced harmonics and the other component (lead) is known for altering the overall dispersion properties of the plasma medium. We compare the harmonics spectra from the plasma of pure tin and the plasma of tin/lead alloy. Depending on the driving wavelength, we observe enhanced harmonics at around 47 or 44 nm in both types of plasmas. The two enhanced regions could be attributed to resonances in singly-charged and doubly-charged tin ions, respectively. Our results indicate that the co-existence of lead plasma does not destroy the presence of the enhanced harmonics of tin plasma, and it seems to suggest that the macroscopic properties of the plasma are not the origin of the resonance-enhanced harmonics in tin. Full article
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