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Article

Self-Organization in Cold Atoms Mediated by Diffractive Coupling

1
SUPA and Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG, UK
2
Institut de Physique de Nice, CNRS, Université Côte d’Azur, 06560 Valbonne, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Institute of Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, A-1040 Vienna, Austria.
Academic Editor: Andrea Bertoldi
Received: 23 April 2021 / Revised: 8 June 2021 / Accepted: 9 June 2021 / Published: 23 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collective Atomic and Free-Electron Lasing)
This article discusses self-organization in cold atoms via light-mediated interactions induced by feedback from a single retro-reflecting mirror. Diffractive dephasing between the pump beam and the spontaneous sidebands selects the lattice period. Spontaneous breaking of the rotational and translational symmetry occur in the 2D plane transverse to the pump. We elucidate how diffractive ripples couple sites on the self-induced atomic lattice. The nonlinear phase shift of the atomic cloud imprinted onto the optical beam is the parameter determining coupling strength. The interaction can be tailored to operate either on external degrees of freedom leading to atomic crystallization for thermal atoms and supersolids for a quantum degenerate gas, or on internal degrees of freedom like populations of the excited state or Zeeman sublevels. Using the light polarization degrees of freedom on the Poincaré sphere (helicity and polarization direction), specific irreducible tensor components of the atomic Zeeman states can be coupled leading to spontaneous magnetic ordering of states of dipolar and quadrupolar nature. The requirements for critical interaction strength are compared for the different situations. Connections and extensions to longitudinally pumped cavities, counterpropagating beam schemes and the CARL instability are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: self-organization; cold atoms; interaction mediated by light; single-mirror feedback scheme; optomechanical structures; magnetic ordering; cavity QED self-organization; cold atoms; interaction mediated by light; single-mirror feedback scheme; optomechanical structures; magnetic ordering; cavity QED
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ackemann, T.; Labeyrie, G.; Baio, G.; Krešić, I.; Walker, J.G.M.; Costa Boquete, A.; Griffin, P.; Firth, W.J.; Kaiser, R.; Oppo, G.-L.; Robb, G.R.M. Self-Organization in Cold Atoms Mediated by Diffractive Coupling. Atoms 2021, 9, 35. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms9030035

AMA Style

Ackemann T, Labeyrie G, Baio G, Krešić I, Walker JGM, Costa Boquete A, Griffin P, Firth WJ, Kaiser R, Oppo G-L, Robb GRM. Self-Organization in Cold Atoms Mediated by Diffractive Coupling. Atoms. 2021; 9(3):35. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms9030035

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ackemann, Thorsten, Guillaume Labeyrie, Giuseppe Baio, Ivor Krešić, Josh G.M. Walker, Adrian Costa Boquete, Paul Griffin, William J. Firth, Robin Kaiser, Gian-Luca Oppo, and Gordon R.M. Robb 2021. "Self-Organization in Cold Atoms Mediated by Diffractive Coupling" Atoms 9, no. 3: 35. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atoms9030035

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