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Review

Mapping Local Climate Zones and Their Applications in European Urban Environments: A Systematic Literature Review and Future Development Trends

1
Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, Palacký University Olomouc, 771 46 Olomouc, Czech Republic
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Climatology and Hydrology Research Centre, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 3, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
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Department of Geography, Tourism and Hotel Management, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 3, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
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Department of Complex Systems, Institute of Computer Science of the Czech Academy of Sciences, 182 07 Prague, Czech Republic
5
Global Change Research Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, 603 00 Brno, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Wolfgang Kainz
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(4), 260; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10040260
Received: 8 March 2021 / Revised: 26 March 2021 / Accepted: 5 April 2021 / Published: 12 April 2021
In the light of climate change and burgeoning urbanization, heat loads in urban areas have emerged as serious issues, affecting the well-being of the population and the environment. In response to a pressing need for more standardised and communicable research into urban climate, the concept of local climate zones (LCZs) has been created. This concept aims to define the morphological types of (urban) surface with respect to the formation of local climatic conditions, largely thermal. This systematic review paper analyses studies that have applied the concept of LCZs to European urban areas. The methodology utilized pre-determined keywords and five steps of literature selection. A total of 91 studies were found eligible for analysis. The results show that the concept of LCZs has been increasingly employed and become well established in European urban climate research. Dozens of measurements, satellite observations, and modelling outcomes have demonstrated the characteristic thermal responses of LCZs in European cities. However, a substantial number of the studies have concentrated on the methodological development of the classification process, generating a degree of inconsistency in the delineation of LCZs. Recent trends indicate an increasing prevalence of the accessible remote-sensing based approach over accurate GIS-based methods in the delineation of LCZs. In this context, applications of the concept in fine-scale modelling appear limited. Nevertheless, the concept of the LCZ has proven appropriate and valuable to the provision of metadata for urban stations, (surface) urban heat island analysis, and the assessment of outdoor thermal comfort and heat risk. Any further development of LCZ mapping appears to require a standardised objective approach that may be globally applicable. View Full-Text
Keywords: local climate zones; urban environment; urban climate; urban heat island; heat load assessment local climate zones; urban environment; urban climate; urban heat island; heat load assessment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lehnert, M.; Savić, S.; Milošević, D.; Dunjić, J.; Geletič, J. Mapping Local Climate Zones and Their Applications in European Urban Environments: A Systematic Literature Review and Future Development Trends. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10, 260. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10040260

AMA Style

Lehnert M, Savić S, Milošević D, Dunjić J, Geletič J. Mapping Local Climate Zones and Their Applications in European Urban Environments: A Systematic Literature Review and Future Development Trends. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2021; 10(4):260. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10040260

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lehnert, Michal, Stevan Savić, Dragan Milošević, Jelena Dunjić, and Jan Geletič. 2021. "Mapping Local Climate Zones and Their Applications in European Urban Environments: A Systematic Literature Review and Future Development Trends" ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 10, no. 4: 260. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10040260

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