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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Volume 10, Issue 5 (May 2021) – 85 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): As human beings, we are prone to taking for granted information that stems from our domain knowledge, instead of being properly formalized. On the other hand, automated agents are typically not apt to correctly model information that is not crisp but involves blurred membership degrees. Finally, even when fully formalized, knowledge may strive for consensus and widespread adoption in the specific application domain. Applying appropriate “semantics” to data and metadata objects is thus of paramount importance, especially for geoinformation, as input data frequently have blurred contours and output data may depend on judgment by the researcher. This paper applies a renowned classification of semantics to geosemantics in order to pinpoint elective approaches for the individual categories. View this paper
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Article
A GIS Assessment of the Suitability of Tilapia and Clarias Pond Farming in Tanzania
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 354; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050354 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 673
Abstract
Aquaculture production in Tanzania has increased in recent years, responding to an increased demand for fish, but the scale and productivity of smallholder aquaculture remains below the level needed to support significant sector growth in Tanzania. This study assesses, through geospatial analyses, the [...] Read more.
Aquaculture production in Tanzania has increased in recent years, responding to an increased demand for fish, but the scale and productivity of smallholder aquaculture remains below the level needed to support significant sector growth in Tanzania. This study assesses, through geospatial analyses, the suitability for freshwater pond farming of Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus in Tanzania, by assessing the geographical distribution of seven criteria (water availability, water temperature, soil texture, terrain slope, availability of farm inputs, potential farm-gate sales, and access to local markets) identified as important for fish pond farming. The criteria were developed and standardized from 15 sub-criteria, which were classified into a four-level suitability scale based on physical scores. The individual weights of the different criteria in the overall GIS suitability assessment were determined through a multi-criteria evaluation. The final results were validated and compared through field observations, interviews with 89 rural and 11 urban aquaculture farmers, and a questionnaire survey with 16 regional fisheries officers. Our results indicate that there is a good potential for aquaculture in Tanzania. Almost 60% of Tanzania is assessed as being suitable and 40% as moderately suitable for small-scale subsistence pond farming, which is the dominating fish farming practice currently. The corresponding figures for medium-scale commercial farming, which many regions expect to be the dominating farming method within ten-years, were 52% and 47% respectively. The availability of water was the most limiting factor for fish pond farming, which was confirmed by both farmers and regional fisheries officers, and assessed as being “suitable” in only 28% of the country. The availability of farm-gate sales and local markets were “moderate suitable” to “suitable” and were seen as a constraint for commercial farms in rural areas. The availability of farm inputs (agriculture waste and manure) was overall good (26% very suitable and 32% suitable), but high-quality fish feed was seen as a constraint to aquaculture development, both by farmers and regional fisheries officers. Soil, terrain, and water temperature conditions were assessed as good, especially at low altitudes and in regions close to the sea and south of Lake Victoria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS-Based Analysis for Quality of Life and Environmental Monitoring)
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Article
Automatic Delineation of Urban Growth Boundaries Based on Topographic Data Using Germany as a Case Study
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 353; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050353 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 497
Abstract
Urban Growth Boundary (UGB) is a growth management policy that designates specific areas where growth should be concentrated in order to avoid urban sprawl. The objective of such a boundary is to protect agricultural land, open spaces and the natural environment, as well [...] Read more.
Urban Growth Boundary (UGB) is a growth management policy that designates specific areas where growth should be concentrated in order to avoid urban sprawl. The objective of such a boundary is to protect agricultural land, open spaces and the natural environment, as well as to use existing infrastructure and public services more efficiently. Due to the inherent heterogeneity and complexity of settlements, UGBs in Germany are currently created manually by experts. Therefore, every dataset is linked to a specific area, investigation period and dedicated use. Clearly, up-to-date, homogeneous, meaningful and cost-efficient delineations created automatically are needed to avoid this reliance on manually or semi-automatically generated delineations. Here, we present an aggregative method to produce UGBs using building footprints and generally available topographic data as inputs. It was applied to study areas in Frankfurt/Main, the Hanover region and rural Brandenburg while taking full account of Germany’s planning and legal framework for spatial development. Our method is able to compensate for most of the weaknesses of available UGB data and to significantly raise the accuracy of UGBs in Germany. Therefore, it represents a valuable tool for generating basic data for future studies. Application elsewhere is also conceivable by regionalising the employed parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Information Science in Planning and Development of Smart Cities)
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Article
Public Bike Trip Purpose Inference Using Point-of-Interest Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 352; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050352 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 470
Abstract
Public bike-sharing is eco-friendly, connects excellently with other transportation modes, and provides a means of mobility that is highly suitable in the current era of climate change. This study proposes a methodology for inferring the bike trip purpose based on bike-share and point-of-interest [...] Read more.
Public bike-sharing is eco-friendly, connects excellently with other transportation modes, and provides a means of mobility that is highly suitable in the current era of climate change. This study proposes a methodology for inferring the bike trip purpose based on bike-share and point-of-interest (POI) data. Because the purpose of a trip involves decision-making, its inference necessitates an understanding of the spatiotemporal complexity of human activities. Thus, the spatiotemporal features affecting bike trips were selected from the bike-share data, and the land uses at the origin and destination of the trips were extracted from the POI data. During POI type embedding, the data were augmented considering the geographical distance between the POIs and the number of bike rentals at each bike station. We further developed a ground truth data construction method that uses temporal mobile and POI data. The inference model was built using machine learning and applied to experiments involving bike stations in Seocho-gu, Seoul, Korea. The experimental results revealed that optimal performance was achieved with the use of decision tree algorithms, as demonstrated by a 78.95% overall accuracy and 66.43% F1-score. The proposed method contributes to a better understanding of the causes of movement within cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geodata Science and Spatial Analysis in Urban Studies)
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Article
Development of an Integrated BIM-3D GIS Approach for 3D Cadastre in Morocco
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 351; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050351 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 614
Abstract
With rapid population growth, there is an increasing demand for vertical use of space. The wide spread of complex and high-rise buildings, as well as the increasing number of infrastructure above or underground, requires new methods for efficient management of land property. 3D [...] Read more.
With rapid population growth, there is an increasing demand for vertical use of space. The wide spread of complex and high-rise buildings, as well as the increasing number of infrastructure above or underground, requires new methods for efficient management of land property. 3D cadastre has, thus, become a necessity for land administration. However, the success of 3D cadastral systems relies on the definition of legal and institutional frameworks and requires implementing performant technical solutions. The potential of BIM and 3D GIS in this field has been demonstrated by several authors. However, cadastral development is strongly related to the national context of each country in terms of laws, institutions, etc. In this paper, an integrated approach based on BIM and 3D GIS for the implementation of a 3D cadastre in Morocco is presented. This approach demonstrates the relevance of such integration for the efficient management of cadastral information. First, a Conceptual Data Model (CDM) based on an extension of CityGML, was proposed for the management of cadastral information in Morocco. Then, a BIM modeling process was developed according to the model’s specifications and then translated to CityGML format. After that, a 3D Geodatabase was implemented in ArcGIS based on the proposed CDM. Our method was applied to a case of co-ownership building, showing several difficulties and limits in terms of 2D representation. The results show several advantages in terms of representation and management of 3D cadastral objects. In addition, some improvements are proposed to extend the concept of co-owner share to a volumetric calculation. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Ecohydrological and Climatological Zoning of the Cities: Case Study of the City of Pilsen
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 350; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050350 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Standardized delimiting of local climate zones (LCZ) will be better applicable to the urban adaptation to climate change when the ecohydrological properties of LCZ units are known. Therefore, the properties of LCZ units based on the methodology of ecohydrological zoning of the urban [...] Read more.
Standardized delimiting of local climate zones (LCZ) will be better applicable to the urban adaptation to climate change when the ecohydrological properties of LCZ units are known. Therefore, the properties of LCZ units based on the methodology of ecohydrological zoning of the urban landscape, which was created in GIS as a basis for planning blue-green infrastructure of cities in the Czech Republic, are presented in the paper. The goal of this study is to compare approaches and results of our own ecohydrological zonation and standardized LCZ delimiting in the city of Pilsen. Both methodological approaches differ in input data, resolution details and parameters used. The results showed that the areas of the individual LCZ classes show different levels of ecohydrological qualities. Internal heterogeneity of LCZ classes demonstrated by variance of ecohydrological parameters’ values can be partly explained by different techniques and data sources for delimitation of both zonations, but by different sets of delimitation criteria. The discussion is held on the importance of terrain slope for supplementing the LCZ classification. A case study can be a stimulus for further development of holistic urban zoning methodologies that would take into account both climatological and ecohydrological conditions. Full article
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Article
Coupling Historical Maps and LiDAR Data to Identify Man-Made Landforms in Urban Areas
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 349; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050349 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 521
Abstract
In recent years, there has been growing interest in urban geomorphology both for its applications in terms of landscape planning, and its historical, cultural, and scientific interest. Due to recent urban growth, the identification of landforms in cities is difficult, particularly in Mediterranean [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been growing interest in urban geomorphology both for its applications in terms of landscape planning, and its historical, cultural, and scientific interest. Due to recent urban growth, the identification of landforms in cities is difficult, particularly in Mediterranean and central European cities, characterized by more than 1000 years of urban stratification. By comparing and overlapping 19th-century cartography and modern topography from remote sensing data, this research aims to assess the morphological evolution of the city of Genoa (Liguria, NW Italy). The analysis focuses on a highly detailed 1:2’000 scale map produced by Eng. Ignazio Porro in the mid-19th century. The methodology, developed in QGIS, was applied on five case studies of both hillside and valley floor areas of the city of Genoa. Through map overlay and digitalization of elevation data and contour lines, it was possible to identify with great accuracy the most significant morphological transformations that have occurred in the city since the mid-19th century. In addition, the results were validated by direct observation and by drills data of the regional database. The results allowed the identification and quantification of the main anthropic landforms. The paper suggests that the same methodology can be applied to other historical urban contexts characterized by urban and architectural stratification. Full article
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Article
A Quantitative Analysis of Factors Influencing Organic Matter Concentration in the Topsoil of Black Soil in Northeast China Based on Spatial Heterogeneous Patterns
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 348; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050348 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Black soil is fertile, abundant with organic matter (OM) and is exceptional for farming. The black soil zone in northeast China is the third-largest black soil zone globally and produces a quarter of China’s commodity grain. However, the soil organic matter (SOM) in [...] Read more.
Black soil is fertile, abundant with organic matter (OM) and is exceptional for farming. The black soil zone in northeast China is the third-largest black soil zone globally and produces a quarter of China’s commodity grain. However, the soil organic matter (SOM) in this zone is declining, and the quality of cultivated land is falling off rapidly due to overexploitation and unsustainable management practices. To help develop an integrated protection strategy for black soil, this study aimed to identify the primary factors contributing to SOM degradation. The geographic detector, which can detect both linear and nonlinear relationships and the interactions based on spatial heterogeneous patterns, was used to quantitatively analyze the natural and anthropogenic factors affecting SOM concentration in northeast China. In descending order, the nine factors affecting SOM are temperature, gross domestic product (GDP), elevation, population, soil type, precipitation, soil erosion, land use, and geomorphology. The influence of all factors is significant, and the interaction of any two factors enhances their impact. The SOM concentration decreases with increased temperature, population, soil erosion, elevation and terrain undulation. SOM rises with increased precipitation, initially decreases with increasing GDP but then increases, and varies by soil type and land use. Conclusions about detailed impacts are presented in this paper. For example, wind erosion has a more significant effect than water erosion, and irrigated land has a lower SOM content than dry land. Based on the study results, protection measures, including conservation tillage, farmland shelterbelts, cross-slope ridges, terraces, and rainfed farming are recommended. The conversion of high-quality farmland to non-farm uses should be prohibited. Full article
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Article
Urban Quality of Life: Spatial Modeling and Indexing in Athens Metropolitan Area, Greece
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 347; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050347 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 417
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to assess and visualize the Quality of Life provided by urban space as a place of residence. The proposed methodology, after its theoretical documentation, is implemented in Athens Metropolitan Area, Greece. For the evaluation of Urban Quality [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to assess and visualize the Quality of Life provided by urban space as a place of residence. The proposed methodology, after its theoretical documentation, is implemented in Athens Metropolitan Area, Greece. For the evaluation of Urban Quality of Life, a complex index is constructed by using multicriteria analysis. For this purpose, Quality of Life controlling factors such as built space, natural, socioeconomic, and cultural environment, infrastructure and services, and the quality of housing were analyzed within a GIS environment. The mapping of this index led to the identification of areas with different levels of Quality of Life. The results of the research can lead to more effective decision making regarding the planning of targeted actions and the distribution of financial resources to improve the Quality of Life of the residents in urban areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS-Based Analysis for Quality of Life and Environmental Monitoring)
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Article
Simulation of Land-Use Changes Using the Partitioned ANN-CA Model and Considering the Influence of Land-Use Change Frequency
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 346; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050346 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Land-use change is a typical geographic evolutionary process characterized by spatial heterogeneity. As such, the driving factors, conversion rules, and rate of change vary for different regions around the world. However, most cellular automata (CA) models use the same transition rules for all [...] Read more.
Land-use change is a typical geographic evolutionary process characterized by spatial heterogeneity. As such, the driving factors, conversion rules, and rate of change vary for different regions around the world. However, most cellular automata (CA) models use the same transition rules for all cells in the model space when simulating land-use change. Thus, spatial heterogeneity change is ignored in the model, which means that these models are prone to over- or under simulation, resulting in a large deviation from reality. An effective means of accounting for the influence of spatial heterogeneity on the quality of the CA model is to establish a partitioned model based on cellular space partitioning. This study established a partitioned, dual-constrained CA model using the area-weighted frequency of land-use change (AWFLUC) to capture its spatial heterogeneity. This model was used to simulate the land-use evolution of the Dianchi Lake watershed. First, the CA space was divided into subzones using a dual-constrained spatial clustering method. Second, an artificial neural network (ANN) was used to automatically acquire conversion rules to construct an ANN-CA model of land-use change. Finally, land-use changes were simulated using the ANN-CA model based on data from 2006 to 2016, and model reliability was validated. The experimental results showed that compared with the non-partitioned CA model, the partitioned counterpart was able to improve the accuracy of land-use change simulation significantly. Furthermore, AWFLUC is an important indicator of the spatial heterogeneity of land-use change. The shapes of the division spaces were more similar to reality and the simulation accuracy was higher when AWFLUC was considered as a land-use change characteristic. Full article
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Article
Seismic Damage Semantics on Post-Earthquake LOD3 Building Models Generated by UAS
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 345; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050345 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 379
Abstract
In a post-earthquake scenario, the semantic enrichment of 3D building models with seismic damage is crucial from the perspective of disaster management. This paper aims to present the methodology and the results for the Level of Detail 3 (LOD3) building modelling (after an [...] Read more.
In a post-earthquake scenario, the semantic enrichment of 3D building models with seismic damage is crucial from the perspective of disaster management. This paper aims to present the methodology and the results for the Level of Detail 3 (LOD3) building modelling (after an earthquake) with the enrichment of the semantics of the seismic damage based on the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-98). The study area is the Vrisa traditional settlement on the island of Lesvos, Greece, which was affected by a devastating earthquake of Mw = 6.3 on 12 June 2017. The applied methodology consists of the following steps: (a) unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) nadir and oblique images are acquired and photogrammetrically processed for 3D point cloud generation, (b) 3D building models are created based on 3D point clouds and (c) 3D building models are transformed into a LOD3 City Geography Markup Language (CityGML) standard with enriched semantics of the related seismic damage of every part of the building (walls, roof, etc.). The results show that in following this methodology, CityGML LOD3 models can be generated and enriched with buildings’ seismic damage. These models can assist in the decision-making process during the recovery phase of a settlement as well as be the basis for its monitoring over time. Finally, these models can contribute to the estimation of the reconstruction cost of the buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Semantics Applications)
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Article
Spatiotemporal Patterns of Human Mobility and Its Association with Land Use Types during COVID-19 in New York City
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 344; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050344 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 437
Abstract
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted every facet of society. One of the non-pharmacological measures to contain the COVID-19 infection is social distancing. Federal, state, and local governments have placed multiple executive orders for human mobility reduction to slow down the [...] Read more.
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted every facet of society. One of the non-pharmacological measures to contain the COVID-19 infection is social distancing. Federal, state, and local governments have placed multiple executive orders for human mobility reduction to slow down the spread of COVID-19. This paper uses geotagged tweets data to reveal the spatiotemporal human mobility patterns during this COVID-19 pandemic in New York City. With New York City open data, human mobility pattern changes were detected by different categories of land use, including residential, parks, transportation facilities, and workplaces. This study further compares human mobility patterns by land use types based on an open social media platform (Twitter) and the human mobility patterns revealed by Google Community Mobility Report cell phone location, indicating that in some applications, open-access social media data can generate similar results to private data. The results of this study can be further used for human mobility analysis and the battle against COVID-19. Full article
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Article
A Spatial Approach for Modeling Amphibian Road-Kills: Comparison of Regression Techniques
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 343; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050343 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 772
Abstract
Road networks are the main source of mortality for many species. Amphibians, which are in global decline, are the most road-killed fauna group, due to their activity patterns and preferred habitats. Many different methodologies have been applied in modeling the relationship between environment [...] Read more.
Road networks are the main source of mortality for many species. Amphibians, which are in global decline, are the most road-killed fauna group, due to their activity patterns and preferred habitats. Many different methodologies have been applied in modeling the relationship between environment and road-kills events, such as logistic regression. Here, we compared the performance of five regression techniques to relate amphibians’ road-kill frequency to environmental variables. For this, we surveyed three country roads in northern Portugal in search of road-killed amphibians. To explain the presence of road-kills, we selected a set of environmental variables important for the presence of amphibians and the occurrence of road-kills. We compared the performances of five modeling techniques: (i) generalized linear models, (ii) generalized additive models, (iii) random forest, (iv) boosted regression trees, and (v) geographically weighted regression. The boosted regression trees and geographically weighted regression techniques performed the best, with a percentage of deviance explained between 61.8% and 76.6% and between 55.3% and 66.7%, respectively. Moreover, the geographically weighted regression showed a great advantage over the other techniques, as it allows mapping local parameter coefficients as well as local model performance (pseudo-R2). The results suggest that geographically weighted regression is a useful tool for road-kill modeling, as well as to better visualize and map the spatial variability of the models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of GIS for Biodiversity Research)
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Article
The Land-Use Change Dynamics Based on the CORINE Data in the Period 1990–2018 in the European Archipelagos of the Macaronesia Region: Azores, Canary Islands, and Madeira
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 342; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050342 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 477
Abstract
Islands as peripheral and ultra-peripheral are typically highlighted as ecologically sensitive areas to human activities due to the tremendous biological diversity of beings and the future possibility of habitat loss. In this regard, the comprehension of the land occupation dynamics and trends in [...] Read more.
Islands as peripheral and ultra-peripheral are typically highlighted as ecologically sensitive areas to human activities due to the tremendous biological diversity of beings and the future possibility of habitat loss. In this regard, the comprehension of the land occupation dynamics and trends in the ultra-peripheral territories is crucial to attempt long-lasting regional sustainability, as is the island region’s case. Therefore, the present article aims to analyze the trends and dynamics of the land-use changes on the European Archipelagos of the Macaronesia Region over the last three decades, using the CORINE (Coordination of Information on the Environment) data. Some of the obtained results show that about 3.4% of the Azores’ surface is characterized mainly by discontinuous urban fabric, representing 67% of the total urban fabric of the Azores over the last thirty years. Additionally, in Madeira Archipelago, the land is mainly occupied by forest and semi-natural areas, representing almost three-thirds of the territory. A similar scenario is verified in the Canary Islands, where forests and semi-natural areas represent approximately three-quarters of the territory. Once more, this study shows the relevance of the island areas’ unique character, which should be preserved and protected. Therefore, the priorities must be defined and established management strategies that are significant for the well-being of these highly valued areas. Moreover, the study showed that notable changes had occurred in the period 1990–2018 in this landscape. Hence there is a need for appropriate measures to mitigate these negative impacts on the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Information Technology and Its Applications)
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Article
Subsurface Topographic Modeling Using Geospatial and Data Driven Algorithm
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 341; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050341 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 413
Abstract
Infrastructures play an important role in urbanization and economic activities but are vulnerable. Due to unavailability of accurate subsurface infrastructure maps, ensuring the sustainability and resilience often are poorly recognized. In the current paper a 3D topographical predictive model using distributed geospatial data [...] Read more.
Infrastructures play an important role in urbanization and economic activities but are vulnerable. Due to unavailability of accurate subsurface infrastructure maps, ensuring the sustainability and resilience often are poorly recognized. In the current paper a 3D topographical predictive model using distributed geospatial data incorporated with evolutionary gene expression programming (GEP) was developed and applied on a concrete-face rockfill dam (CFRD) in Guilan province- northern to generate spatial variation of the subsurface bedrock topography. The compared proficiency of the GEP model with geostatistical ordinary kriging (OK) using different analytical indexes showed 82.53% accuracy performance and 9.61% improvement in precisely labeled data. The achievements imply that the retrieved GEP model efficiently can provide accurate enough prediction and consequently meliorate the visualization insights linking the natural and engineering concerns. Accordingly, the generated subsurface bedrock model dedicates great information on stability of structures and hydrogeological properties, thus adopting appropriate foundations. Full article
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Article
What Is the Shape of Geographical Time-Space? A Three-Dimensional Model Made of Curves and Cones
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 340; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050340 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 409
Abstract
Geographical time-spaces exhibit a series of properties, including space inversion, that turns any representation effort into a complex task. In order to improve the legibility of the representation and leveraging the advances of three-dimensional computer graphics, the aim of the study is to [...] Read more.
Geographical time-spaces exhibit a series of properties, including space inversion, that turns any representation effort into a complex task. In order to improve the legibility of the representation and leveraging the advances of three-dimensional computer graphics, the aim of the study is to propose a new method extending time-space relief cartography introduced by Mathis and L’Hostis. The novelty of the model resides in the use of cones to describing the terrestrial surface instead of graph faces, and in the use of curves instead of broken segments for edges. We implement the model on the Chinese space. The Chinese geographical time-space of reference year 2006 is produced by the combination and the confrontation of the fast air transport system and of the 7.5-times slower road transport system. Slower, short range flights are represented as curved lines above the earth surface with longer length than the geodesic, in order to account for a slower speed. The very steep slope of cones expresses the relative difficulty of crossing terrestrial time-space, as well as the comparably extreme efficiency of long-range flights for moving between cities. Finally, the whole image proposes a coherent representation of the geographical time-space where fast city-to-city transport is combined with slow terrestrial systems that allow one to reach any location. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatio-Temporal Models and Geo-Technologies)
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Article
Block2vec: An Approach for Identifying Urban Functional Regions by Integrating Sentence Embedding Model and Points of Interest
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 339; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050339 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 423
Abstract
Urban functional regions are essential information in parsing urban spatial structure. The rapid and accurate identification of urban functional regions is important for improving urban planning and management. Thanks to its low cost and fast data update characteristics, the Point of Interest (POI) [...] Read more.
Urban functional regions are essential information in parsing urban spatial structure. The rapid and accurate identification of urban functional regions is important for improving urban planning and management. Thanks to its low cost and fast data update characteristics, the Point of Interest (POI) is one of the most common types of open access data. It mainly identifies urban functional regions by analyzing the potential correlation between POI data and the regions. Even though this is an important manifestation of the functional region, the spatial correlation between regions is rarely considered in previous studies. In order to extract the spatial semantic information among regions, a new model, called the Block2vec, is proposed by using the idea of the Skip-gram framework. The Block2vec model maps the spatial correlation between the POIs, as well as the regions, to a high-dimensional vector, in which classification of urban functional regions can be better performed. The results from cluster analysis showed that the high-dimensional vector extracted can well distinguish the regions with different functions. The random forests classification result (Overall accuracy = 0.7186, Kappa = 0.6429) illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed method. This study also verified the potential of the sentence embedding model in the semantic information extraction of POIs. Full article
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Article
Autonomous Flight Trajectory Control System for Drones in Smart City Traffic Management
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 338; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050338 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 493
Abstract
With the exponential growth of numerous drone operations ranging from infrastructure monitoring to even package delivery services, the integration of UAS in the smart city transportation systems is an actual task that requires radically new, sustainable (safe, secure, with minimum environmental impact and [...] Read more.
With the exponential growth of numerous drone operations ranging from infrastructure monitoring to even package delivery services, the integration of UAS in the smart city transportation systems is an actual task that requires radically new, sustainable (safe, secure, with minimum environmental impact and life cycle cost) solutions. The primary objective of this proposed option is the definition of routes as desired and commanded trajectories and their autonomous execution. The airspace structure and fixed routes are given in the global GPS reference system with supporting GIS mapping. The concept application requires a series of further studies and solutions as drone trajectory (or corridor) following by an autonomous trajectory tracking control system, coupled with autonomous conflict detection, resolution, safe drone following, and formation flight options. The second part of the paper introduces such possible models and shows some results of their verification tests. Drones will be connected with the agency, designed trajectories to support them with factual information on trajectories and corridors. While the agency will use trajectory elements to design fixed or desired trajectories, drones may use the conventional GPS, infrared, acoustic, and visual sensors for positioning and advanced navigation. The accuracy can be improved by unique markers integrated into the infrastructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue UAV in Smart City and Smart Region)
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Article
Multifractal Characteristics Analysis Based on Slope Distribution Probability in the Yellow River Basin, China
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 337; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050337 - 16 May 2021
Viewed by 492
Abstract
Multifractal theory provides a reliable method for the scientific quantification of the geomorphological features of basins. However, most of the existing research has investigated small and medium-sized basins rather than complex and large basins. In this study, the Yellow River Basin and its [...] Read more.
Multifractal theory provides a reliable method for the scientific quantification of the geomorphological features of basins. However, most of the existing research has investigated small and medium-sized basins rather than complex and large basins. In this study, the Yellow River Basin and its sub-basins were selected as the research areas, and the generalized fractal dimension and multifractal spectrum were computed and analyzed with a multifractal technique based on the slope distribution probability. The results showed that the Yellow River Basin and its sub-basins exhibit clear multifractal characteristics, which indicates that the multifractal theory can be applied well to the analysis of large-scale basin geomorphological features. We also concluded that the region with the most uneven terrain is the Yellow River Downstream Basin with the “overhanging river”, followed by the Weihe River Basin, the Yellow River Mainstream Basin, and the Fenhe River Basin. Multifractal analysis can reflect the geomorphological feature information of the basins comprehensively with the generalized fractal dimension and the multifractal spectrum. There is a strong correlation between some common topographic parameters and multifractal parameters, and the correlation coefficients between them are greater than 0.8. The results provide a scientific basis for analyzing the geomorphic characteristics of large-scale basins and for the further research of the morphogenesis of the forms. Full article
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Article
A Dynamic and Static Context-Aware Attention Network for Trajectory Prediction
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 336; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050336 - 16 May 2021
Viewed by 571
Abstract
Forecasting the motion of surrounding vehicles is necessary for an autonomous driving system applied in complex traffic. Trajectory prediction helps vehicles make more sensible decisions, which provides vehicles with foresight. However, traditional models consider the trajectory prediction as a simple sequence prediction task. [...] Read more.
Forecasting the motion of surrounding vehicles is necessary for an autonomous driving system applied in complex traffic. Trajectory prediction helps vehicles make more sensible decisions, which provides vehicles with foresight. However, traditional models consider the trajectory prediction as a simple sequence prediction task. The ignorance of inter-vehicle interaction and environment influence degrades these models in real-world datasets. To address this issue, we propose a novel Dynamic and Static Context-aware Attention Network named DSCAN in this paper. The DSCAN utilizes an attention mechanism to dynamically decide which surrounding vehicles are more important at the moment. We also equip the DSCAN with a constraint network to consider the static environment information. We conducted a series of experiments on a real-world dataset, and the experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of our model. Moreover, the present study suggests that the attention mechanism and static constraints enhance the prediction results. Full article
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Article
Geocoding Freeform Placenames: An Example of Deciphering the Czech National Immigration Database
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 335; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050335 - 15 May 2021
Viewed by 491
Abstract
The growth of international migration and its societal and political impacts bring a greater need for accurate data to measure, understand and control migration flows. However, in the Czech immigration database, the birthplaces of immigrants are only kept in freeform text fields, a [...] Read more.
The growth of international migration and its societal and political impacts bring a greater need for accurate data to measure, understand and control migration flows. However, in the Czech immigration database, the birthplaces of immigrants are only kept in freeform text fields, a substantial obstacle to their further processing due to numerous errors in transcription and spelling. This study overcomes this obstacle by deploying a custom geocoding engine based on GeoNames, tailored transcription rules and fuzzy matching in order to achieve good accuracy even for noisy data while not depending on third-party services, resulting in lower costs than the comparable approaches. The results are presented on a subnational level for the immigrants coming to Czechia from the USA, Ukraine, Moldova and Vietnam, revealing important spatial patterns that are invisible on the national level. Full article
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Article
A Trajectory Ensemble-Compression Algorithm Based on Finite Element Method
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 334; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050334 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Trajectory compression is an efficient way of removing noise and preserving key features in location-based applications. This paper focuses on the dynamic compression of trajectory in memory, where the compression accuracy of trajectory changes dynamically with the different application scenarios. Existing methods can [...] Read more.
Trajectory compression is an efficient way of removing noise and preserving key features in location-based applications. This paper focuses on the dynamic compression of trajectory in memory, where the compression accuracy of trajectory changes dynamically with the different application scenarios. Existing methods can achieve this by adjusting the compression parameters. However, the relationship between the parameters and compression accuracy of most of these algorithms is considerably complex and varies with different trajectories, which makes it difficult to provide reasonable accuracy. We propose a novel trajectory compression algorithm that is based on the finite element method, in which the trajectory is taken as an elastomer to compress as a whole by elasticity theory, and trajectory compression can be thought of as deformation under stress. The compression accuracy can be determined by the stress size that is applied to the elastomer. When compared with the existing methods, the experimental results show that our method can provide more stable, data-independent compression accuracy under the given stress parameters, and with reasonable performance. Full article
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Article
Filtering Link Outliers in Vehicle Trajectories by Spatial Reasoning
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 333; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050333 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 358
Abstract
Vehicle trajectories derived from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are used in various traffic applications based on trajectory quality analysis for the development of successful traffic models. A trajectory consists of points and links that are connected, where both the points and links [...] Read more.
Vehicle trajectories derived from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are used in various traffic applications based on trajectory quality analysis for the development of successful traffic models. A trajectory consists of points and links that are connected, where both the points and links are subject to positioning errors in the GNSS. Existing trajectory filters focus on point outliers, but neglect link outliers on tracks caused by a long sampling interval. In this study, four categories of link outliers are defined, i.e., radial, drift, clustered, and shortcut; current available algorithms are applied to filter apparent point outliers for the first three categories, and a novel filtering approach is proposed for link outliers of the fourth category in urban areas using spatial reasoning rules without ancillary data. The proposed approach first measures specific geometric properties of links from trajectory databases and then evaluates the similarities of geometric measures among the links, following a set of spatial reasoning rules to determine link outliers. We tested this approach using taxi trajectory datasets for Beijing with a built-in sampling interval of 50 to 65 s. The results show that clustered links (27.14%) account for the majority of link outliers, followed by shortcut (6.53%), radial (3.91%), and drift (0.62%) outliers. Full article
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Article
Geospatial Management and Analysis of Microstructural Data from San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) Core Samples
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 332; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050332 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 663
Abstract
Core samples obtained from scientific drilling could provide large volumes of direct microstructural and compositional data, but generating results via the traditional treatment of such data is often time-consuming and inefficient. Unifying microstructural data within a spatially referenced Geographic Information System (GIS) environment [...] Read more.
Core samples obtained from scientific drilling could provide large volumes of direct microstructural and compositional data, but generating results via the traditional treatment of such data is often time-consuming and inefficient. Unifying microstructural data within a spatially referenced Geographic Information System (GIS) environment provides an opportunity to readily locate, visualize, correlate, and apply remote sensing techniques to the data. Using 26 core billet samples from the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD), this study developed GIS-based procedures for: 1. Spatially referenced visualization and storage of various microstructural data from core billets; 2. 3D modeling of billets and thin section positions within each billet, which serve as a digital record after irreversible fragmentation of the physical billets; and 3. Vector feature creation and unsupervised classification of a multi-generation calcite vein network from cathodluminescence (CL) imagery. Building on existing work which is predominantly limited to the 2D space of single thin sections, our results indicate that a GIS can facilitate spatial treatment of data even at centimeter to nanometer scales, but also revealed challenges involving intensive 3D representations and complex matrix transformations required to create geographically translated forms of the within-billet coordinate systems, which are suggested for consideration in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Geology and GIS)
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Article
An Evaluation Model for Analyzing Robustness and Spatial Closeness of 3D Indoor Evacuation Networks
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 331; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050331 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 346
Abstract
Indoor evacuation efficiency heavily relies on the connectivity status of navigation networks. During disastrous situations, the spreading of hazards (e.g., fires, plumes) significantly influences indoor navigation networks’ status. Nevertheless, current research concentrates on utilizing classical statistical methods to analyze this status and lacks [...] Read more.
Indoor evacuation efficiency heavily relies on the connectivity status of navigation networks. During disastrous situations, the spreading of hazards (e.g., fires, plumes) significantly influences indoor navigation networks’ status. Nevertheless, current research concentrates on utilizing classical statistical methods to analyze this status and lacks the flexibility to evaluate the increasingly disastrous scope’s influence. We propose an evaluation method combining 3D spatial geometric distance and topology for emergency evacuations to address this issue. Within this method, we offer a set of indices to describe the nodes’ status and the entire network under emergencies. These indices can help emergency responders quickly identify vulnerable nodes and areas in the network, facilitating the generation of evacuation plans and improving evacuation efficiency. We apply this method to analyze the fire evacuation efficiency and resilience of two experiment buildings’ indoor networks. Experimental results show a strong influence on the network’s spatial connectivity on the evacuation efficiency under disaster situations. Full article
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Article
Implicit, Formal, and Powerful Semantics in Geoinformation
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 330; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050330 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 406
Abstract
Distinct, alternative forms of geosemantics, whose classification is often ill-defined, emerge in the management of geospatial information. This paper proposes a workflow to identify patterns in the different practices and methods dealing with geoinformation. From a meta-review of the state of the art [...] Read more.
Distinct, alternative forms of geosemantics, whose classification is often ill-defined, emerge in the management of geospatial information. This paper proposes a workflow to identify patterns in the different practices and methods dealing with geoinformation. From a meta-review of the state of the art in geosemantics, this paper first pinpoints “keywords” representing key concepts, challenges, methods, and technologies. Then, we illustrate several case studies, following the categorization into implicit, formal, and powerful (i.e., soft) semantics depending on the kind of their input. Finally, we associate the case studies with the previously identified keywords and compute their similarities in order to ascertain if distinguishing methodologies, techniques, and challenges can be related to the three distinct forms of semantics. The outcomes of the analysis sheds some light on the diverse methods and technologies that are more suited to model and deal with specific forms of geosemantics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence for Multisource Geospatial Information)
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Article
Cascaded Attention DenseUNet (CADUNet) for Road Extraction from Very-High-Resolution Images
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 329; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050329 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 355
Abstract
The use of very-high-resolution images to extract urban, suburban and rural roads has important application value. However, it is still a problem to effectively extract the road area occluded by roadside tree canopy or high-rise buildings to maintain the integrity of the extracted [...] Read more.
The use of very-high-resolution images to extract urban, suburban and rural roads has important application value. However, it is still a problem to effectively extract the road area occluded by roadside tree canopy or high-rise buildings to maintain the integrity of the extracted road area, the smoothness of the sideline and the connectivity of the road network. This paper proposes an innovative Cascaded Attention DenseUNet (CADUNet) semantic segmentation model by embedding two attention modules, such as global attention and core attention modules, in the DenseUNet framework. First, a set of cascaded global attention modules are introduced to obtain the contextual information of the road; secondly, a set of cascaded core attention modules are embedded to ensure that the road information is transmitted to the greatest extent among the dense blocks in the network, and further assist the global attention module in acquiring multi-scale road information, thereby improving the connectivity of the road network while restoring the integrity of the road area shaded by the tree canopy and high-rise buildings. Based on binary cross entropy, an adaptive loss function is proposed for network parameter tuning. Experiments on the Massachusetts road dataset and the DeepGlobe-CVPR 2018 road dataset show that this semantic segmentation model can effectively extract the road area shaded by tree canopy and improve the connectivity of the road network. Full article
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Article
Evaluating the Effect of the Financial Status to the Mobility Customs
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 328; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050328 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 384
Abstract
In this article, we explore the relationship between cellular phone data and housing prices in Budapest, Hungary. We determine mobility indicators from one months of Call Detail Records (CDR) data, while the property price data are used to characterize the socioeconomic status at [...] Read more.
In this article, we explore the relationship between cellular phone data and housing prices in Budapest, Hungary. We determine mobility indicators from one months of Call Detail Records (CDR) data, while the property price data are used to characterize the socioeconomic status at the Capital of Hungary. First, we validated the proposed methodology by comparing the Home and Work locations estimation and the commuting patterns derived from the cellular network dataset with reports of the national mini census. We investigated the statistical relationships between mobile phone indicators, such as Radius of Gyration, the distance between Home and Work locations or the Entropy of visited cells, and measures of economic status based on housing prices. Our findings show that the mobility correlates significantly with the socioeconomic status. We performed Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on combined vectors of mobility indicators in order to characterize the dependence of mobility habits on socioeconomic status. The results of the PCA investigation showed remarkable correlation of housing prices and mobility customs. Full article
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Article
Natural and Political Determinants of Ecological Vulnerability in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau: A Case Study of Shannan, China
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 327; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050327 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 418
Abstract
Changing land-use patterns in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (QTP) due to natural factors and human interference have led to higher ecological vulnerability and even more underlying issues related to time and space in this alpine area. Ecological vulnerability assessment provides not only a solution [...] Read more.
Changing land-use patterns in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (QTP) due to natural factors and human interference have led to higher ecological vulnerability and even more underlying issues related to time and space in this alpine area. Ecological vulnerability assessment provides not only a solution to surface-feature-related problems but also insight into sustainable eco-environmental planning and resource management as a response to potential climate changes if driving factors are known. In this study, the ecological vulnerability index (EVI) of Shannan City in the core area of the QTP was assessed using a selected set of ecological, social, and economic indicators and spatial principal component analysis (SPCA) to calculate their weights. The data included Landsat images and socio-economic data from 1990 to 2015, at five-year intervals. The results showed that the total EVI remains at a medium vulnerability level, with minor fluctuations over 25 years (peaks in 2000, when there was a sudden increase in slight vulnerability, which switched to extreme vulnerability), and gradually increases from east to west. In addition, spatial analysis showed a distinct positive correlation between the EVI and land-use degree, livestock husbandry output, desertification area, and grassland area. The artificial afforestation program (AAP) has a positive effect by preventing the environment from becoming more vulnerable. The results provide practical information and suggestions for planners to take measures to improve the land-use degree in urban and pastoral areas in the QTP based on spatial-temporal heterogeneity patterns of the EVI of Shannan City. Full article
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Article
Geospatial Decision-Making Framework Based on the Concept of Satisficing
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 326; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050326 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 463
Abstract
Decision-making methods used in geospatial decision making are computationally complex prescriptive methods, the details of which are rarely transparent to the decision maker. However, having a deep understanding of the details and mechanisms of the applied method is a prerequisite for the efficient [...] Read more.
Decision-making methods used in geospatial decision making are computationally complex prescriptive methods, the details of which are rarely transparent to the decision maker. However, having a deep understanding of the details and mechanisms of the applied method is a prerequisite for the efficient use thereof. In this paper, we present a novel decision-making framework that emanates from the need for intuitive and easy-to-use decision support systems for geospatial multi-criteria decision making. The framework consists of two parts: the decision-making model Even Swaps on Reduced Data Sets (ESRDS), and the interactive visualization framework. The decision-making model is based on the concept of satisficing, and as such, it is intuitive and easy to understand and apply. It integrates even swaps, a prescriptive decision-making method, with the findings of behavioural decision-making theories. Providing visual feedback and interaction opportunities throughout the decision-making process, the interactive visualization part of the framework helps the decision maker gain better insight into the decision space and attribute dependencies. Furthermore, it provides the means to analyse and compare the outcomes of different scenarios and decision paths. Full article
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Article
An Automatic and Operational Method for Land Cover Change Detection Using Spatiotemporal Analysis of MODIS Data: A Northern Ontario (Canada) Case Study
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 325; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050325 - 11 May 2021
Viewed by 372
Abstract
Mapping and understanding the differences in land cover and land use over time is an essential component of decision-making in sectors such as resource management, urban planning, and forest fire management, as well as in tracking of the impacts of climate change. Existing [...] Read more.
Mapping and understanding the differences in land cover and land use over time is an essential component of decision-making in sectors such as resource management, urban planning, and forest fire management, as well as in tracking of the impacts of climate change. Existing methods sometimes pose a barrier to the effective monitoring of changes in land cover and land use, since a threshold parameter is often needed and determined based on trial and error. This study aimed to develop an automatic and operational method for change detection on a large scale from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Super pixels were the basic unit of analysis instead of traditional individual pixels. T2 tests based on the feature vectors of temporal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land surface temperature were used for change detection. The developed method was applied to data over a predominantly vegetated area in northern Ontario, Canada spanning 120,000 sq. km from 2001–2016. The accuracies ranged between 78% and 88% for the NDVI-based test, from 74% to 86% for the LST-based test, and from 70% to 86% for the joint method compared with manual interpretation. Our proposed method for detecting land cover change provides a functional and viable alternative to existing methods of land cover change detection as it is reliable, repeatable, and free from uncertainty in establishing a threshold for change. Full article
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