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Article

Exploring Spatial Patterns of Virginia Tornadoes Using Kernel Density and Space-Time Cube Analysis (1960–2019)

1
Geography Program, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA
2
Center for Geospatial Science, Education & Analytics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Wolfgang Kainz and Dean Kyne
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 310; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050310
Received: 1 March 2021 / Revised: 28 April 2021 / Accepted: 1 May 2021 / Published: 7 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disaster Management and Geospatial Information)
This study evaluates the spatial-temporal patterns in Virginia tornadoes using the National Weather Service Storm Prediction Center’s Severe Weather GIS (SVRGIS) database. In addition to descriptive statistics, the analysis employs Kernel Density Estimation for spatial pattern analysis and space-time cubes to visualize the spatiotemporal frequency of tornadoes and potential trends. Most of the 726 tornadoes between 1960–2019 occurred in Eastern Virginia, along the Piedmont and Coastal Plain. Consistent with other literature, both the number of tornadoes and the tornado days have increased in Virginia. While 80% of the tornadoes occurred during the warm season, tornadoes did occur during each month including two deadly tornadoes in January and February. Over the 60-year period, a total of 28 people were killed in the Commonwealth. Most tornado activity took place in the afternoon and early evening hours drawing attention to the temporal variability of risk and vulnerability. Spatial analysis results identify significant, non-random clusters of tornado activity and increasing temporal frequency. While this study improves weather-related literacy and addresses a need in the Commonwealth, more research is necessary to further evaluate the synoptic and mesoscale mechanisms of Virginia tornadoes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Virginia; tornadoes; space-time cube; spatial analysis Virginia; tornadoes; space-time cube; spatial analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Allen, M.J.; Allen, T.R.; Davis, C.; McLeod, G. Exploring Spatial Patterns of Virginia Tornadoes Using Kernel Density and Space-Time Cube Analysis (1960–2019). ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10, 310. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050310

AMA Style

Allen MJ, Allen TR, Davis C, McLeod G. Exploring Spatial Patterns of Virginia Tornadoes Using Kernel Density and Space-Time Cube Analysis (1960–2019). ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2021; 10(5):310. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050310

Chicago/Turabian Style

Allen, Michael J., Thomas R. Allen, Christopher Davis, and George McLeod. 2021. "Exploring Spatial Patterns of Virginia Tornadoes Using Kernel Density and Space-Time Cube Analysis (1960–2019)" ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 10, no. 5: 310. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050310

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