Next Article in Journal
Socioeconomic and Environmental Impacts on Regional Tourism across Chinese Cities: A Spatiotemporal Heterogeneous Perspective
Next Article in Special Issue
Integrating Network Centrality and Node-Place Model to Evaluate and Classify Station Areas in Shanghai
Previous Article in Journal
How Image Acquisition Geometry of UAV Campaigns Affects the Derived Products and Their Accuracy in Areas with Complex Geomorphology
Previous Article in Special Issue
A New Data-Enabled Intelligence Framework for Evaluating Urban Space Perception
Article

Heterogeneity of Spatial Distribution and Factors Influencing Unattended Locker Points in Guangzhou, China: The Case of Hive Box

1
School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 135, Xingang Xi Road, Guangzhou 510275, China
2
College of Tourism, Xinjiang University, No. 666, Sheng Li Road, Urumqi 830049, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Maria Antonia Brovelli, Hussein Abdulmuttalib and Wolfgang Kainz
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(6), 409; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10060409
Received: 24 March 2021 / Revised: 8 June 2021 / Accepted: 10 June 2021 / Published: 14 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geodata Science and Spatial Analysis in Urban Studies)
Hive Box is a company that operates a network of express unattended collection and delivery points (UCDPs) in China. Hive Box distribution enhances community-based end-to-end delivery services and low-carbon city logistics. It is argued that UCDPs compared with attended collection and delivery points (ACDPs) should be considered for further investigation. Therefore, the present study employed kernel density estimation, spatial autocorrelation analysis, and geographically weighted regression to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of Hive Box distribution across Guangzhou. Hive Box location data were collected from smartphone apps. The results were as follows: (1) the kernel density declined from the city center toward the outskirts, and showed point-like spatial agglomerations in the city center; (2) the Moran’s I index analysis showed that Hive Box distribution exhibited spatial agglomeration from a global perspective and geographic variations in locality in space; the heterogeneity of urban–rural differences implies the uneven development of Hive Box distribution in Guangzhou; and (3) the factors influencing Hive Box distribution were multilevel, and their effects were complex and varied across regions. These results shed light on the agglomeration and heterogeneity characteristics of the spatial distribution and influencing factors of Hive Boxes. For an enhanced community-based end-to-end delivery service, this study suggested the identification of the geographic variations of Hive Box distribution and the combined effects of multiple factors in intensifying the infrastructure of unattended locker points. View Full-Text
Keywords: last-mile logistics; end-to-end delivery service; collection and delivery point (CDP); smart locker; Hive Box; geographically weighted regression (GWR); Guangzhou last-mile logistics; end-to-end delivery service; collection and delivery point (CDP); smart locker; Hive Box; geographically weighted regression (GWR); Guangzhou
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, R.; Cao, Y.; Li, M.; Zikirya, B.; Zhou, C. Heterogeneity of Spatial Distribution and Factors Influencing Unattended Locker Points in Guangzhou, China: The Case of Hive Box. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10, 409. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10060409

AMA Style

Liu S, Liu Y, Zhang R, Cao Y, Li M, Zikirya B, Zhou C. Heterogeneity of Spatial Distribution and Factors Influencing Unattended Locker Points in Guangzhou, China: The Case of Hive Box. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2021; 10(6):409. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10060409

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Song, Ying Liu, Rongrong Zhang, Yongwang Cao, Ming Li, Bahram Zikirya, and Chunshan Zhou. 2021. "Heterogeneity of Spatial Distribution and Factors Influencing Unattended Locker Points in Guangzhou, China: The Case of Hive Box" ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 10, no. 6: 409. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10060409

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop