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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Volume 10, Issue 8 (August 2021) – 80 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In our mobile society, mobile maps are increasingly used in varying map use situations. This has led to an increase in map use contexts, which can be leveraged for determining a suitable context-based map design. Our research sought to analyze combinations of map use contexts to identify relevant contextual factors that influence mobile map design usability. In an online survey with 50 participants, we assessed the usability of 27 map design variations (consisting of map-reading tasks, base map styles, and interactivity variants) and evaluated emerging user patterns of the collected data on usability and map use context. We found that the overall map design is critical in supporting map-reading activities. It was also possible to create archetypal representations of our participants and identify corresponding and suitable map design profiles. View this paper
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Article
Application-Based COVID-19 Micro-Mobility Solution for Safe and Smart Navigation in Pandemics
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 571; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080571 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 534
Abstract
Short distance travel and commute being inevitable, safe route planning in pandemics for micro-mobility, i.e., cycling and walking, is extremely important for the safety of oneself and others. Hence, we propose an application-based solution using COVID-19 occurrence data and a multi-criteria route planning [...] Read more.
Short distance travel and commute being inevitable, safe route planning in pandemics for micro-mobility, i.e., cycling and walking, is extremely important for the safety of oneself and others. Hence, we propose an application-based solution using COVID-19 occurrence data and a multi-criteria route planning technique for cyclists and pedestrians. This study aims at objectively determining the routes based on various criteria on COVID-19 safety of a given route while keeping the user away from potential COVID-19 transmission spots. The vulnerable spots include places such as a hospital or medical zones, contained residential areas, and roads with a high connectivity and influx of people. The proposed algorithm returns a multi-criteria route modeled on COVID-19-modified parameters of micro-mobility and betweenness centrality considering COVID-19 avoidance as well as the shortest available safe route for user ease and shortened time of outside environment exposure. We verified our routing algorithm in a part of Delhi, India, by visualizing containment zones and medical establishments. The results with COVID-19 data analysis and route planning suggest a safer route in the context of the coronavirus outbreak as compared to normal navigation and on average route extension is within 8%–12%. Moreover, for further advancement and post-COVID-19 era, we discuss the need for adding open data policy and the spatial system architecture for data usage, as a part of a pandemic strategy. The study contributes new micro-mobility parameters adapted for COVID-19 and policy guidelines based on aggregated contact tracing data analysis maintaining privacy, security, and anonymity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Information Applications in Active Mobility and Health in Cities)
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Article
Exploring the Planning and Configuration of the Hospital Wayfinding System by Space Syntax: A Case Study of Cheng Ching Hospital, Chung Kang Branch in Taiwan
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 570; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080570 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 283
Abstract
With regard to the outpatient areas of a hospital, the smoothness of the route is now taken into consideration in the process of configuring the wayfinding system. As patients often spend time on ineffective wayfinding processes, and there is limited manpower at hospitals [...] Read more.
With regard to the outpatient areas of a hospital, the smoothness of the route is now taken into consideration in the process of configuring the wayfinding system. As patients often spend time on ineffective wayfinding processes, and there is limited manpower at hospitals and a lack of clarity in the information provided by the wayfinding system, it is difficult to provide effective and timely consultation services for patients. This study was conducted at Cheng Ching Hospital, Chung Kang Branch (CCH/CKB) in Taiwan. This study attempts to investigate the relationships between the wayfinding system of the outpatient areas and the patients’ behaviors in the hospital. Depthmap software based on space syntax is adopted to assist in the route analysis and wayfinding behaviors. It integrates axial mapping analysis and isovist analysis and gives suggestions on the location, format and content of the wayfinding system. The final results of the study show that in the wayfinding task experiment gender has no significant impact on the effect of wayfinding efficiency, while a significant difference is found for age. Older people need more time to complete the wayfinding task, which means that they have poorer performance in wayfinding efficiency. The analysis of the results of space syntax shows that a good wayfinding system should be a symmetric tree-branch structure rather than circular structure in a medical building, that areas where it is easy to become lost should have a clear signage guiding system planning and configuration, and that clear guidance information should be provided to the patients to achieve the goal of saving consultation time and improving the quality of the medical environment. Full article
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Article
Effect of Compositions of MRT System Route Maps on Cognitive Mapping
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 569; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080569 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 342
Abstract
Route maps, common in public transportation systems, refer to thematic maps drawn according to topological concepts. To simplify complex route information, a transport network is represented using primary graphic elements. First used in 1931 with topological concepts, the octilinear design has influenced the [...] Read more.
Route maps, common in public transportation systems, refer to thematic maps drawn according to topological concepts. To simplify complex route information, a transport network is represented using primary graphic elements. First used in 1931 with topological concepts, the octilinear design has influenced the compositions of traffic route maps to this day. The current study involved cognitive mapping research on a representative route map in Taiwan: the Metro Taipei Route Map. Through two task experiments, this study analyzed users’ cognitive behavior when using the route map and alternative route map representations. The results indicated that the route map composed of all curves resulted in higher user performance than maps using a hybrid system and the conventional octilinear system. The route map based on the hybrid system, which included a route in the shape of a perfect circle, was highly evaluated and subjectively preferred by the users. Thus, the addition of appropriate curves in route maps is beneficial for improving usability, cognitive memory, and subjective evaluation. Finally, adding travel time information to a route map effectively enhances users’ decision-making during route planning. Full article
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Article
Spatiotemporal Dynamic Analysis of A-Level Scenic Spots in Guizhou Province, China
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 568; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080568 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 313
Abstract
A-level scenic spots are a unique evaluation form of tourist attractions in China, which have an important impact on regional tourism development. Guizhou is a key tourist province in China. In recent years, the number of A-level scenic spots in Guizhou Province has [...] Read more.
A-level scenic spots are a unique evaluation form of tourist attractions in China, which have an important impact on regional tourism development. Guizhou is a key tourist province in China. In recent years, the number of A-level scenic spots in Guizhou Province has been increasing, and the regional tourist economy has improved rapidly. The spatial distribution evolution characteristics and influencing factors of A-level scenic spots in Guizhou Province from 2005 to 2019 were measured using spatial data analysis methods, trend analysis methods, and geographical detector methods. The results elaborated that the number of A-level scenic spots in all counties of Guizhou Province increased, while in the south it developed slowly. From 2005 to 2019, the spatial distribution in A-level scenic spots were characterized by spatial agglomeration. The spatial distribution equilibrium degree of scenic spots in nine cities in Guizhou Province was gradually developed to reach the “relatively average” level. By 2019, the kernel density distribution of A-level scenic spots had formed the “two-axis, multi-core” layout. One axis was located in the north central part of Guizhou Province, and the other axis ran across the central part. The multi-core areas were mainly located in Nanming District, Yunyan District, Honghuagang District, and Xixiu District. From 2005 to 2007, the standard deviation ellipses of the scenic spots distribution changed greatly in direction and size. After 2007, the long-axis direction of the ellipses gradually formed a southwest to northeast direction. We chose elevation, population density, river density, road network density, tourism income, and GDP as factors, to discuss the spatiotemporal evolution of the scenic spots’ distribution with coupling and attribution analysis. It was found that the river, population distribution, road network density, and the A-level scenic spots’ distribution had a relatively high coupling phenomenon. Highway network density and tourist income have a higher influence on A-level tourist resorts distribution. Finally, on account of the spatiotemporal pattern characteristics of A-level scenic spots in Guizhou Province and the detection results of influencing factors, we put forward suggestions to strengthen the development of scenic spots in southern Guizhou Province and upgrade the development model of “point-axis network surface” to the current “two-axis multi-core” pattern of tourism development. This study can explain the current situation of the spatial development of tourist attractions in Guizhou Province, formulate a regulation mechanism of tourism development, and provide a reference for decision-making to boost the high-quality development of the tourist industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo Data Science for Tourism)
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Article
An In-Depth Analysis of Parking Patterns in a Typical Chinese Danwei via Customized Data Collection App
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 567; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080567 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 313
Abstract
The danwei is a distinctive spatial unit in China, as a legacy of the Maoist era. In a danwei, state-owned enterprises supplied a full set of facilities, such that people’s daily activities did not often extend beyond their danweis. However, with the rapid [...] Read more.
The danwei is a distinctive spatial unit in China, as a legacy of the Maoist era. In a danwei, state-owned enterprises supplied a full set of facilities, such that people’s daily activities did not often extend beyond their danweis. However, with the rapid alteration of civic social space in Chinese cities, many employees are no longer tied to a particular danwei. Traditional Chinese danweis have suddenly been faced with a shortage of car-parking space. In the context of the municipal call for danweis to “dismantle the walls and open up for traffic microcirculation”, this study aims to propose a practical approach that analyzes the parking status in a typical danwei. Based on both the parking data collected via a self-designed smartphone application and the survey data collected via questionnaires, the approach analyzes the parking situation in terms of four aspects, including hot parking zones, dynamic parking demand, vehicle parking behaviors, and perceptions of the parking situation. We conducted the experiment on the Information Department Campus of Wuhan University, which is a typical Chinese danwei with complicated surroundings. The results indicate non-negligible issues in the current parking situation, such as vulnerabilities in parking resource management, and a contradiction between supply and demand. Based on the results, we recommend possible strategies to alleviate the tense parking situation and we are confident of the feasibility of opening danwei roads first instead of opening parking facilities, as a response to “open up” the danweis. This study may serve as a representative example of how danweis should analyze their current parking situation and how to respond to the municipality’s suggestions: using modern technology to conduct data collection, perform in-depth and detailed analysis, and synthesize explicit localized policy. Full article
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Article
Refinement Proposals for Geodiversity Assessment—A Case Study in the Bakony–Balaton UNESCO Global Geopark, Hungary
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 566; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080566 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 434
Abstract
Geodiversity is the variety of natural elements that are excluded from biodiversity, such as: geological, geomorphological, and soil features including their properties, systems, and relationships. Geodiversity assessment measures these features, emphasising the characteristics and physical fragility of the examined areas. In this study, [...] Read more.
Geodiversity is the variety of natural elements that are excluded from biodiversity, such as: geological, geomorphological, and soil features including their properties, systems, and relationships. Geodiversity assessment measures these features, emphasising the characteristics and physical fragility of the examined areas. In this study, a quantitative methodology has been applied in Bakony–Balaton UGGp, Hungary. The Geopark’s area was divided into 2 × 2 km cells in which geodiversity indices were calculated using various data: maps, spatial databases, and elevation models. However, data sources differ significantly in each country: thematic information may not be entirely public or does not have the appropriate scale and complexity. We proposed to use universal data—geomorphons and a watercourse network—derived from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) to calculate geomorphological diversity. Making a balance between the base materials was also an aim of this research. As sources with different data densities are used, some abiotic elements may be overrepresented, while others seem to have less significance. The normalisation of thematic layers solves this problem: it gives a proportion to each sub-element and creates a balanced index. By applying worldwide accessible digital base data and statistical standardization methods, abiotic nature quantification may open new perspectives in geoconservation. Full article
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Article
Defining a Model for Integrating Indoor and Outdoor Network Data to Support Seamless Navigation Applications
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 565; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080565 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 759
Abstract
Spaces are continuous realms where human beings freely navigate, such as from indoor to outdoor and optionally to another indoor space. However, currently available data models to represent space for navigation do not entirely reflect this continuity of freedom and movement. Data conversion [...] Read more.
Spaces are continuous realms where human beings freely navigate, such as from indoor to outdoor and optionally to another indoor space. However, currently available data models to represent space for navigation do not entirely reflect this continuity of freedom and movement. Data conversion or complications in implementation hinder current approaches to link indoor space with outdoor space due to the variety of present data models. Furthermore, this representation of indoor–outdoor connection becomes oversimplified during the integration process. Consequently, location-based applications based on these datasets are limited in conveying mobility within these spaces and aiding navigation activity. This paper defines a framework for integrating indoor and outdoor navigable space to enable seamless navigation. This model enables the connection between indoor and outdoor navigation networks. We describe the connections between these networks through spatial relationships, which can be generalized to represent various cases of indoor–outdoor transitional spaces. Using sample datasets, we demonstrate the framework’s potential to provide a seamless connection between indoor and outdoor space in a route analysis experiment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Geo-Spatial Data and Advanced 3D Modelling in GIS)
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Article
A Survey of Scan-to-BIM Practices in the AEC Industry—A Quantitative Analysis
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 564; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080564 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 539
Abstract
Architectural survey methods using terrestrial 3D laser scanning and digital photogrammetry prove capable of registering a building with a level of accuracy far superior to traditional methods, minimizing errors, and reducing fieldwork. Current developments in the construction industry, and new requirements emerging worldwide, [...] Read more.
Architectural survey methods using terrestrial 3D laser scanning and digital photogrammetry prove capable of registering a building with a level of accuracy far superior to traditional methods, minimizing errors, and reducing fieldwork. Current developments in the construction industry, and new requirements emerging worldwide, have increased the demand for building information modeling (BIM) models as the end product of these surveys. Still, because BIM is a new paradigm, many professionals find the transition challenging, especially when dealing with old and heritage buildings. The new ways of the market demand solutions to optimize processes and make architectural reconstruction from point clouds even more efficient. An online questionnaire survey was carried out with 208 industry professionals working in 78 countries to assess the scope of these demands. As a result, the article presents an overview of current scan-to-BIM practices worldwide with data regarding the architectural survey and BIM modeling derived from point clouds. The implemented survey also identifies in which countries BIM adherence is most accelerated for conventional buildings and for listed buildings and non-listed old buildings, the main benefits and difficulties encountered by professionals, tools and workflows used, and the role of different professionals in collaborative work. Full article
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Article
Impact of Digital and Non-Digital Urban Participatory Approaches on Public Access Conditions: An Evaluation Framework
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 563; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080563 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 369
Abstract
The gradual institutionalization of public participation increasingly compels local authorities to partially share their power over the transformation of urban areas. The smooth running of a participatory session is based on selecting the appropriate type of interaction, or medium, which supports the local [...] Read more.
The gradual institutionalization of public participation increasingly compels local authorities to partially share their power over the transformation of urban areas. The smooth running of a participatory session is based on selecting the appropriate type of interaction, or medium, which supports the local authorities to reach and interact with a targeted public. However, local authorities often appear unfamiliar with the organization of interactive sessions with the population. This article introduces an evaluation framework that focuses on the access conditions of participants to the sessions of interaction. This novel perspective aspires to assist the local authorities in their decision to adopt a participatory medium (or method of interaction). Seven dimensions are investigated to this aim, namely accessibility, availability, adequacy, affordability, acceptability, awareness, and attractiveness (the last dimension is introduced in this article). In light of two real case scenarios that occurred in Western Switzerland, the use of the access framework is investigated for two potential purposes: (1) supporting the choice of a medium for an interactive session according to the urban project’s context and the targeted public; and (2) improving future participatory approaches by assessing the representativeness of participants attending a past session in comparison to the originally targeted public. Full article
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Article
Heat Maps: Perfect Maps for Quick Reading? Comparing Usability of Heat Maps with Different Levels of Generalization
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 562; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080562 - 18 Aug 2021
Viewed by 404
Abstract
Recently, due to Web 2.0 and neocartography, heat maps have become a popular map type for quick reading. Heat maps are graphical representations of geographic data density in the form of raster maps, elaborated by applying kernel density estimation with a given radius [...] Read more.
Recently, due to Web 2.0 and neocartography, heat maps have become a popular map type for quick reading. Heat maps are graphical representations of geographic data density in the form of raster maps, elaborated by applying kernel density estimation with a given radius on point- or linear-input data. The aim of this study was to compare the usability of heat maps with different levels of generalization (defined by radii of 10, 20, 30, and 40 pixels) for basic map user tasks. A user study with 412 participants (16–20 years old, high school students) was carried out in order to compare heat maps that showed the same input data. The study was conducted in schools during geography or IT lessons. Objective (the correctness of the answer, response times) and subjective (response time self-assessment, task difficulty, preferences) metrics were measured. The results show that the smaller radius resulted in the higher correctness of the answers. A larger radius did not result in faster response times. The participants perceived the more generalized maps as easier to use, although this result did not match the performance metrics. Overall, we believe that heat maps, in given circumstances and appropriate design settings, can be considered an efficient method for spatial data presentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Map Design)
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Article
Big Data-Driven Pedestrian Analytics: Unsupervised Clustering and Relational Query Based on Tencent Street View Photographs
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 561; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080561 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 422
Abstract
Recent technological advancements in geomatics and mobile sensing have led to various urban big data, such as Tencent street view (TSV) photographs; yet, the urban objects in the big dataset have hitherto been inadequately exploited. This paper aims to propose a pedestrian analytics [...] Read more.
Recent technological advancements in geomatics and mobile sensing have led to various urban big data, such as Tencent street view (TSV) photographs; yet, the urban objects in the big dataset have hitherto been inadequately exploited. This paper aims to propose a pedestrian analytics approach named vectors of uncountable and countable objects for clustering and analysis (VUCCA) for processing 530,000 TSV photographs of Hong Kong Island. First, VUCCA transductively adopts two pre-trained deep models to TSV photographs for extracting pedestrians and surrounding pixels into generalizable semantic vectors of features, including uncountable objects such as vegetation, sky, paved pedestrian path, and guardrail and countable objects such as cars, trucks, pedestrians, city animals, and traffic lights. Then, the extracted pedestrians are semantically clustered using the vectors, e.g., for understanding where they usually stand. Third, pedestrians are semantically indexed using relations and activities (e.g., walking behind a guardrail, road-crossing, carrying a backpack, or walking a pet) for queries of unstructured photographic instances or natural language clauses. The experiment results showed that the pedestrians detected in the TSV photographs were successfully clustered into meaningful groups and indexed by the semantic vectors. The presented VUCCA can enrich eye-level urban features into computational semantic vectors for pedestrians to enable smart city research in urban geography, urban planning, real estate, transportation, conservation, and other disciplines. Full article
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Article
Improving the Creation of Hot Spot Policing Patrol Routes: Comparing Cognitive Heuristic Performance to an Automated Spatial Computation Approach
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 560; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080560 - 18 Aug 2021
Viewed by 638
Abstract
Hot spot policing involves the deployment of police patrols to places where high levels of crime have previously concentrated. The creation of patrol routes in these hot spots is mainly a manual process that involves using the results from an analysis of spatial [...] Read more.
Hot spot policing involves the deployment of police patrols to places where high levels of crime have previously concentrated. The creation of patrol routes in these hot spots is mainly a manual process that involves using the results from an analysis of spatial patterns of crime to identify the areas and draw the routes that police officers are required to patrol. In this article we introduce a computational approach for automating the creation of hot spot policing patrol routes. The computational techniques we introduce created patrol routes that covered areas of higher levels of crime than an equivalent manual approach for creating hot spot policing patrol routes, and were more efficient in how they covered crime hot spots. Although the evidence on hot spot policing interventions shows they are effective in decreasing crime, the findings from the current research suggest that the impact of these interventions can potentially be greater when using the computational approaches that we introduce for creating hot spot policing patrol routes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geographic Crime Analysis)
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Article
Zero Watermarking for the TIN DEM Data Based on the Edge Length
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 559; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080559 - 18 Aug 2021
Viewed by 325
Abstract
How to keep the fidelity of the digital elevation model (DEM) data is a crucial problem in the current watermarking research, as the watermarked DEM data need to preserve their accuracy. We proposed a zero watermarking method for the triangulated irregular network (TIN) [...] Read more.
How to keep the fidelity of the digital elevation model (DEM) data is a crucial problem in the current watermarking research, as the watermarked DEM data need to preserve their accuracy. We proposed a zero watermarking method for the triangulated irregular network (TIN) DEM data. It takes full advantage of the characteristics of the edge length in the TIN DEM data. First, the radio of the edge lengths is quantified to the watermark index, and then the comparison of the edge lengths is quantified to the watermark bit. Finally, the watermark is constructed by combing the watermark bits according to the watermark indices with the help of the majority voting mechanism. In the method, the TIN DEM data are only used to construct the watermark, not to be embedded by the watermark. Therefore, the data quality is preserved to the greatest extent. Experiments verify the theoretical achievements of this method and demonstrate the method is lossless to the TIN DEM data. Simulation results also show that the method has good robustness on translation, rotation, scaling, and cropping attacks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geomorphometry and Terrain Analysis)
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Article
Application of GIS Tools in the Measurement Analysis of Urban Spatial Layouts Using the Square Grid Method
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 558; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080558 - 17 Aug 2021
Viewed by 487
Abstract
The principal aim of this paper is to present the capabilities of newly developed GIS tools for measurement analysis of urban spatial layouts, using the square grid method. The study of urban morphology and metrology is a multistage process, which involves the metrological [...] Read more.
The principal aim of this paper is to present the capabilities of newly developed GIS tools for measurement analysis of urban spatial layouts, using the square grid method. The study of urban morphology and metrology is a multistage process, which involves the metrological analysis of town plans. The main research step is the determination of measurement modules of town layouts, using the square grid. By using GIS software, the authors developed a new tool, named HGIS Tools, which allow to create any number of modular grids with the selected cell size that corresponds to urban units of distance and surface area. When investigating a large number of towns and cities, this offers a significant improvement of the research procedure. The paper presents a test of the tool’s potential on the example of regular medieval towns from the area of the former Teutonic Order state (currently the territory of Poland), diversified in terms of size, genesis and morphometrics. The obtained results confirmed that HGIS Tools allowed to determine the hypothetical measurement module of the layout of the cities studied. The results were consistent with the analyses of other authors carried out with the traditional grid-square methods. The test of the HGIS Tools showed their significant potential in conducting morphometric analyses of spatial arrangements of urban spatial layout on a larger scale. Full article
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Article
Multistage Impacts of the Heavy Rain Process on the Travel Speeds of Urban Roads
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 557; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080557 - 17 Aug 2021
Viewed by 290
Abstract
Heavy rain causes the highest drop in travel speeds compared with light and moderate rain because it can easily induce flooding on road surfaces, which can continue to hinder urban transportation even after the rainfall is over. However, very few studies have specialized [...] Read more.
Heavy rain causes the highest drop in travel speeds compared with light and moderate rain because it can easily induce flooding on road surfaces, which can continue to hinder urban transportation even after the rainfall is over. However, very few studies have specialized in researching the multistage impacts of the heavy rain process on urban roads, and the cumulative effects of heavy rain in road networks are often overlooked. In this study, the heavy rain process is divided into three consecutive stages, i.e., prepeak, peak, and postpeak. The impact of heavy rain on a road is represented by a three-dimensional traffic speed change ratio vector. Then, the k-means clustering method is implemented to reveal the distinct patterns of speed change ratio vectors. Finally, the characteristics of the links in each cluster are analyzed. An empirical study of Shenzhen, China suggests that there are three major impact patterns in links. The differences among links associated with the three impact patterns are related to the road category, travel speeds in no rain days, and the number of transportation facilities. The findings in this research can contribute to a more in-depth understanding of the relationship between the heavy rain process and the travel speeds of urban roads and provide valuable information for traffic management and personal travel in heavy rain weather. Full article
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Article
Deep Fusion of DOM and DSM Features for Benggang Discovery
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 556; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080556 - 17 Aug 2021
Viewed by 347
Abstract
Benggang is a typical erosional landform in southern and southeastern China. Since benggang poses significant risks to local ecological environments and economic infrastructure, it is vital to accurately detect benggang-eroded areas. Relying only on remote sensing imagery for benggang detection cannot produce satisfactory [...] Read more.
Benggang is a typical erosional landform in southern and southeastern China. Since benggang poses significant risks to local ecological environments and economic infrastructure, it is vital to accurately detect benggang-eroded areas. Relying only on remote sensing imagery for benggang detection cannot produce satisfactory results. In this study, we propose integrating high-resolution Digital Orthophoto Map (DOM) and Digital Surface Model (DSM) data for efficient and automatic benggang discovery. The fusion of complementary rich information hidden in both DOM and DSM data is realized by a two-stream convolutional neural network (CNN), which integrates aggregated terrain and activation image features that are both extracted by supervised deep learning. We aggregate local low-level geomorphic features via a supervised diffusion-convolutional embedding branch for expressive representations of benggang terrain variations. Activation image features are obtained from an image-oriented convolutional neural network branch. The two sources of information (DOM and DSM) are fused via a gated neural network, which learns the most discriminative features for the detection of benggang. The evaluation of a challenging benggang dataset demonstrates that our method exceeds several baselines, even with limited training examples. The results show that the fusion of DOM and DSM data is beneficial for benggang detection via supervised convolutional and deep fusion networks. Full article
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Article
Predicting User Activity Intensity Using Geographic Interactions Based on Social Media Check-In Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 555; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080555 - 17 Aug 2021
Viewed by 273
Abstract
Predicting user activity intensity is crucial for various applications. However, existing studies have two main problems. First, as user activity intensity is nonstationary and nonlinear, traditional methods can hardly fit the nonlinear spatio-temporal relationships that characterize user mobility. Second, user movements between different [...] Read more.
Predicting user activity intensity is crucial for various applications. However, existing studies have two main problems. First, as user activity intensity is nonstationary and nonlinear, traditional methods can hardly fit the nonlinear spatio-temporal relationships that characterize user mobility. Second, user movements between different areas are valuable, but have not been utilized for the construction of spatial relationships. Therefore, we propose a deep learning model, the geographical interactions-weighted graph convolutional network-gated recurrent unit (GGCN-GRU), which is good at fitting nonlinear spatio-temporal relationships and incorporates users’ geographic interactions to construct spatial relationships in the form of graphs as the input. The model consists of a graph convolutional network (GCN) and a gated recurrent unit (GRU). The GCN, which is efficient at processing graphs, extracts spatial features. These features are then input into the GRU, which extracts their temporal features. Finally, the GRU output is passed through a fully connected layer to obtain the predictions. We validated this model using a social media check-in dataset and found that the geographical interactions graph construction method performs better than the baselines. This indicates that our model is appropriate for fitting the complex nonlinear spatio-temporal relationships that characterize user mobility and helps improve prediction accuracy when considering geographic flows. Full article
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Review
A Systematic Review of Station Location Techniques for Bicycle-Sharing Systems Planning and Operation
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 554; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080554 - 17 Aug 2021
Viewed by 340
Abstract
Designing or expanding a bicycle-sharing system (BSS) involves addressing the infrastructure’s location of the bicycle stations. Station location is an essential factor for designing and implementing a new system or for its operation. In a complex spatial optimization context, geographic information systems (GIS) [...] Read more.
Designing or expanding a bicycle-sharing system (BSS) involves addressing the infrastructure’s location of the bicycle stations. Station location is an essential factor for designing and implementing a new system or for its operation. In a complex spatial optimization context, geographic information systems (GIS) can support this decision problem. There are also numerous ways of subdividing the broad spectrum of location-allocation models used in previous studies. However, a station location comprehensive review and systematization with the specific aim of characterizing the state of the art of BSS is missing. The present research aimed to provide a comprehensive systematization for station location problems, criteria, and techniques, seeking to identify the current state of practice. We searched scientific publication databases to collect relevant publications—the final list comprised 24 papers for the literature review. The systematization addresses the two major problems concerning bicycle station location: initial network design and operation improvement (where changes in operating a BSS are implemented). Based on the literature, we propose a set of four main criteria for choosing appropriate places for bike stations (or parking) in a city: “bike network”, “operator”, “user”, and “city infrastructure”. The sub-criteria mentioned in the literature are categorized based on the proposed classification and new sub-criteria are suggested. We also group location modeling techniques into three categories: “mathematical algorithms”, “multi-criteria decision making”, and “GIS”. Combining GIS and multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) has received more attention in recent years to locate bike stations, evaluate their operating performance, and have more accurate and practical results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS in Sustainable Transportation)
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Article
FARMs: A Geospatial Crop Modeling and Agricultural Water Management System
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 553; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080553 - 17 Aug 2021
Viewed by 386
Abstract
To ensure agricultural sustainability and desirable environmental outcomes, stakeholders need systems-based model-driven decision support tools. The objective of this study was to develop a global scale web-based geospatial crop modeling application called Food, Agriculture, and Resource Management system [...] Read more.
To ensure agricultural sustainability and desirable environmental outcomes, stakeholders need systems-based model-driven decision support tools. The objective of this study was to develop a global scale web-based geospatial crop modeling application called Food, Agriculture, and Resource Management system (FARMs), to simplify the application of the crop simulation model —Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) without requiring users to create input weather, climate, and soil files. FARMs was built based on open source Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies and DSSAT to allow for adaptive management through its ability to perform in-season yield predictions for alfalfa and maize, currently. Validation of FARMs against variety trial data in California was acceptable between measured and simulated yields for alfalfa. The work done in this study showed how a complex model like DSSAT can be translated into a useable web-based decision support tool for near-real-time simulation with the help of open-source GIS technologies. Full article
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Erratum
Erratum: Kadhim, I.; Abed, F.M. The Potential of LiDAR and UAV-Photogrammetric Data Analysis to Interpret Archaeological Sites: A Case Study of Chun Castle in South-West England. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10, 41
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 552; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080552 - 16 Aug 2021
Viewed by 337
Abstract
The authors would like to make the following corrections to the published paper [...] Full article
Article
Development of a City-Scale Approach for Façade Color Measurement with Building Functional Classification Using Deep Learning and Street View Images
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 551; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080551 - 16 Aug 2021
Viewed by 657
Abstract
Precise measuring of urban façade color is necessary for urban color planning. The existing manual methods of measuring building façade color are limited by time and labor costs and hardly carried out on a city scale. These methods also make it challenging to [...] Read more.
Precise measuring of urban façade color is necessary for urban color planning. The existing manual methods of measuring building façade color are limited by time and labor costs and hardly carried out on a city scale. These methods also make it challenging to identify the role of the building function in controlling and guiding urban color planning. This paper explores a city-scale approach to façade color measurement with building functional classification using state-of-the-art deep learning techniques and street view images. Firstly, we used semantic segmentation to extract building façades and conducted the color calibration of the photos for pre-processing the collected street view images. Then, we proposed a color chart-based façade color measurement method and a multi-label deep learning-based building classification method. Next, the field survey data were used as the ground truth to verify the accuracy of the façade color measurement and building function classification. Finally, we applied our approach to generate façade color distribution maps with the building classification for three metropolises in China, and the results proved the transferability and effectiveness of the scheme. The proposed approach can provide city managers with an overall perception of urban façade color and building function across city-scale areas in a cost-efficient way, contributing to data-driven decision making for urban analytics and planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Learning and Computer Vision for GeoInformation Sciences)
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Article
3D Perspective towards the Development of a Metadata-Driven Sharing Mechanism for Heterogeneous CCTV Systems
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 550; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080550 - 15 Aug 2021
Viewed by 378
Abstract
The installation of closed-circuit television monitors (CCTV) has rapidly increased in number ever since the 11 September attacks. With the advantages of direct visual inspection, CCTV systems are widely used on various occasions that require instantaneous and long-term monitoring. Especially for emergency response [...] Read more.
The installation of closed-circuit television monitors (CCTV) has rapidly increased in number ever since the 11 September attacks. With the advantages of direct visual inspection, CCTV systems are widely used on various occasions that require instantaneous and long-term monitoring. Especially for emergency response tasks, the prompt availability of CCTV offers EOC (Emergency Operation Center) commanders much better action reference about the reported incidents. However, the heterogeneity among the CCTV systems impedes the effective and efficient use and sharing of CCTV services hosted by different stakeholders, making individual CCTV systems often operate on their own and restrict the possibility of taking the best advantages of the huge number of existing CCTV systems. This research proposes a metadata-driven approach to facilitate a cross-domain sharing mechanism for heterogeneous CCTV systems. The CCTV metadata includes a set of enriched description information based on the analysis from the aspects of Who, When, Where, What, Why and How (5W1H) for CCTV. Sharing mechanisms based on standardised CCTV metadata can then suffice the need for querying and selecting CCTV across heterogeneous systems according to the task at hand. One distinguished design is the modelling of the field of view (FOV) of CCTV from the 3D perspective. By integrating with the 3D feature-based city model data, the 3D FOV information not only provides better visualisation about the spatial coverage of the CCTV systems but also enables the 3D visibility analysis of CCTV based on individual features, such that the selection decision can be further improved with the indexing of CCTV and features. As the number and variety of CCTV systems continuously grows, the proposed mechanism has a great potential to serve as a solid collaborated foundation for integrating heterogeneous CCTV systems for applications that demand comprehensive and instantaneous understanding about the dynamically changing world, e.g., smart cities, disaster management, criminal investigation, etc. Full article
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Article
Vehicle Detection in Very-High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on an Anchor-Free Detection Model with a More Precise Foveal Area
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 549; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080549 - 14 Aug 2021
Viewed by 383
Abstract
Vehicle detection in aerial images is a challenging task. The complexity of the background information and the redundancy of the detection area are the main obstacles that limit the successful operation of vehicle detection based on anchors in very-high-resolution (VHR) remote sensing images. [...] Read more.
Vehicle detection in aerial images is a challenging task. The complexity of the background information and the redundancy of the detection area are the main obstacles that limit the successful operation of vehicle detection based on anchors in very-high-resolution (VHR) remote sensing images. In this paper, an anchor-free target detection method is proposed to solve the problems above. First, a multi-attention feature pyramid network (MA-FPN) was designed to address the influence of noise and background information on vehicle target detection by fusing attention information in the feature pyramid network (FPN) structure. Second, a more precise foveal area (MPFA) is proposed to provide better ground truth for the anchor-free method by determining a more accurate positive sample selection area. The proposed anchor-free model with MA-FPN and MPFA can predict vehicles accurately and quickly in VHR remote sensing images through direct regression and predict the pixels in the feature map. A detailed evaluation based on remote sensing image (RSI) and vehicle detection in aerial imagery (VEDAI) data sets for vehicle detection shows that our detection method performs well, the network is simple, and the detection is fast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Learning for High Spatial Resolution Imagery)
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Article
DeepDBSCAN: Deep Density-Based Clustering for Geo-Tagged Photos
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 548; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080548 - 14 Aug 2021
Viewed by 367
Abstract
Density-based clustering algorithms have been the most commonly used algorithms for discovering regions and points of interest in cities using global positioning system (GPS) information in geo-tagged photos. However, users sometimes find more specific areas of interest using real objects captured in pictures. [...] Read more.
Density-based clustering algorithms have been the most commonly used algorithms for discovering regions and points of interest in cities using global positioning system (GPS) information in geo-tagged photos. However, users sometimes find more specific areas of interest using real objects captured in pictures. Recent advances in deep learning technology make it possible to recognize these objects in photos. However, since deep learning detection is a very time-consuming task, simply combining deep learning detection with density-based clustering is very costly. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm supporting deep content and density-based clustering, called deep density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DeepDBSCAN). DeepDBSCAN incorporates object detection by deep learning into the density clustering algorithm using the nearest neighbor graph technique. Additionally, this supports a graph-based reduction algorithm that reduces the number of deep detections. We performed experiments with pictures shared by users on Flickr and compared the performance of multiple algorithms to demonstrate the excellence of the proposed algorithm. Full article
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Article
Spatial Distribution Assessment of Terrorist Attack Types Based on I-MLKNN Model
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 547; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080547 - 13 Aug 2021
Viewed by 418
Abstract
Terrorist attacks are harmful to lives and property and seriously affect the stability of the international community and economic development. Exploring the regularity of terrorist attacks and building a model for assessing the risk of terrorist attacks (a kind of public safety risk, [...] Read more.
Terrorist attacks are harmful to lives and property and seriously affect the stability of the international community and economic development. Exploring the regularity of terrorist attacks and building a model for assessing the risk of terrorist attacks (a kind of public safety risk, and it means the possibility of a terrorist attack) are of great significance to the security and stability of the international community and to global anti-terrorism. We propose a fusion of Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) and a Multi-label k-Nearest Neighbor (I-MLKNN)-based assessment model for terrorist attacks, which is in a grid-scale and considers 17 factors of socio-economic and natural environments, and applied the I-MLKNN assessment model to assess the risk of terrorist attacks in Southeast Asia. The results show the I-MLKNN multi-label classification algorithm is proven to be an ideal tool for the assessment of the spatial distribution of terrorist attacks, and it can assess the risk of different types of terrorist attacks, thus revealing the law of distribution of different types of terrorist attacks. The terrorist attack risk assessment results indicate that Armed Attacks, Bombing/Explosions and Facility/Infrastructure Attacks in Southeast Asia are high-risk terrorist attack events, and the southernmost part of Thailand and the Philippines are high-risk terrorist attack areas for terrorism. We do not only provide a reference for incorporating spatial features in multi-label classification algorithms, but also provide a theoretical basis for decision-makers involved in terrorist attacks, which is meaningful to the implementation of the international counter-terrorism strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Social Media)
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Article
A Fully Automatic, Interpretable and Adaptive Machine Learning Approach to Map Burned Area from Remote Sensing
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 546; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080546 - 13 Aug 2021
Viewed by 454
Abstract
The paper proposes a fully automatic algorithm approach to map burned areas from remote sensing characterized by human interpretable mapping criteria and explainable results. This approach is partially knowledge-driven and partially data-driven. It exploits active fire points to train the fusion function of [...] Read more.
The paper proposes a fully automatic algorithm approach to map burned areas from remote sensing characterized by human interpretable mapping criteria and explainable results. This approach is partially knowledge-driven and partially data-driven. It exploits active fire points to train the fusion function of factors deemed influential in determining the evidence of burned conditions from reflectance values of multispectral Sentinel-2 (S2) data. The fusion function is used to compute a map of seeds (burned pixels) that are adaptively expanded by applying a Region Growing (RG) algorithm to generate the final burned area map. The fusion function is an Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) operator, learnt through the application of a machine learning (ML) algorithm from a set of highly reliable fire points. Its semantics are characterized by two measures, the degrees of pessimism/optimism and democracy/monarchy. The former allows the prediction of the results of the fusion as affected by more false positives (commission errors) than false negatives (omission errors) in the case of pessimism, or vice versa; the latter foresees if there are only a few highly influential factors or many low influential ones that determine the result. The prediction on the degree of pessimism/optimism allows the expansion of the seeds to be appropriately tuned by selecting the most suited growing layer for the RG algorithm thus adapting the algorithm to the context. The paper illustrates the application of the automatic method in four study areas in southern Europe to map burned areas for the 2017 fire season. Thematic accuracy at each site was assessed by comparison to reference perimeters to prove the adaptability of the approach to the context; estimated average accuracy metrics are omission error = 0.057, commission error = 0.068, Dice coefficient = 0.94 and relative bias = 0.0046. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Hazard Spatial Modelling and Mapping)
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Article
Semantic Enhancement of Human Urban Activity Chain Construction Using Mobile Phone Signaling Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 545; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080545 - 13 Aug 2021
Viewed by 264
Abstract
Data-driven urban human activity mining has become a hot topic of urban dynamic modeling and analysis. Semantic activity chain modeling with activity purpose provides scientific methodological support for the analysis and decision-making of human behavior, urban planning, traffic management, green sustainable development, etc. [...] Read more.
Data-driven urban human activity mining has become a hot topic of urban dynamic modeling and analysis. Semantic activity chain modeling with activity purpose provides scientific methodological support for the analysis and decision-making of human behavior, urban planning, traffic management, green sustainable development, etc. However, the spatial and temporal uncertainty of the ubiquitous mobile sensing data brings a huge challenge for modeling and analyzing human activities. Existing approaches for modeling and identifying human activities based on massive social sensing data rely on a large number of valid supervised samples or limited prior knowledge. This paper proposes an effective methodology for building human activity chains based on mobile phone signaling data and labeling activity purpose semantics to analyze human activity patterns, spatiotemporal behavior, and urban dynamics. We fully verified the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method in human daily activity process construction and activity purpose identification through accuracy comparison and spatial-temporal distribution exploration. This study further confirms the possibility of using big data to observe urban human spatiotemporal behavior. Full article
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Article
A Hybrid Population Distribution Prediction Approach Integrating LSTM and CA Models with Micro-Spatiotemporal Granularity: A Case Study of Chongming District, Shanghai
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 544; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080544 - 13 Aug 2021
Viewed by 314
Abstract
Studying population prediction under micro-spatiotemporal granularity is of great significance for modern and refined urban traffic management and emergency response to disasters. Existing population studies are mostly based on census and statistical yearbook data due to the limitation of data collecting methods. However, [...] Read more.
Studying population prediction under micro-spatiotemporal granularity is of great significance for modern and refined urban traffic management and emergency response to disasters. Existing population studies are mostly based on census and statistical yearbook data due to the limitation of data collecting methods. However, with the advent of techniques in this information age, new emerging data sources with fine granularity and large sample sizes have provided rich materials and unique venues for population research. This article presents a new population prediction model with micro-spatiotemporal granularity based on the long short-term memory (LSTM) and cellular automata (CA) models. We aim at designing a hybrid data-driven model with good adaptability and scalability, which can be used in more refined population prediction. We not only try to integrate these two models, aiming to fully mine the spatiotemporal characteristics, but also propose a method that fuses multi-source geographic data. We tested its functionality using the data from Chongming District, Shanghai, China. The results demonstrated that, among all scenarios, the model trained by three consecutive days (ordinary dates), with the granularity of one hour, incorporated with road networks, achieves the best performance (0.905 as the mean absolute error) and generalization capability. Full article
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Article
The Regional and Local Scale Evolution of the Spatial Structure of High-Speed Railway Networks—A Case Study Focused on Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 543; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080543 - 12 Aug 2021
Viewed by 417
Abstract
China has entered an era of rapid high-speed railway (HSR) development and the spatial structure of urban agglomerations will evolve in parallel with the development and evolution of the spatial structure of the HSR network. In this study, we explore how the spatial [...] Read more.
China has entered an era of rapid high-speed railway (HSR) development and the spatial structure of urban agglomerations will evolve in parallel with the development and evolution of the spatial structure of the HSR network. In this study, we explore how the spatial structure of an HSR network evolves at regional and local scales. Existing research into HSR network structures has mostly been carried out at a regional scale, and has therefore failed to reveal the spatial connections within a city. In this work, we progress the science by exploring it at a local scale. To describe the HSR network more accurately, we use the dwell time to simulate the passenger flow between stations and use the simulated passenger flow as the network weight. We use complex network analysis to investigate the evolution of the network’s spatial structure. Our results present the evolution of station locations, of community structure, and of the locations of connections between stations at a regional scale, and also show how HSR network development within core cities has impacted structures and connectivity at a local scale. These results help us to understand the spatial structure of urban agglomerations and cities, and provide evidence that can be used to optimize the structure of the HSR network within regions and cities. Full article
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Article
Site Selection of Fire Stations in Large Cities Based on Actual Spatiotemporal Demands: A Case Study of Nanjing City
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 542; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080542 - 12 Aug 2021
Viewed by 310
Abstract
The rapid expansion of cities brings in new challenges for the urban firefighting security, while the increasing fire frequency poses serious threats to the life, property, and safety of individuals living in cities. Firefighting in cities is a challenging task, and the optimal [...] Read more.
The rapid expansion of cities brings in new challenges for the urban firefighting security, while the increasing fire frequency poses serious threats to the life, property, and safety of individuals living in cities. Firefighting in cities is a challenging task, and the optimal spatial arrangement of fire stations is critical to firefighting security. However, existing researches lack any consideration of the negative effects of the spatial randomness of fire outbreaks and delayed response time due to traffic jams upon the site selection. Based on the set cover location model integrated with the spatiotemporal big data, this paper combines the fire outbreak point with the traffic situation. The presented site selection strategy manages to ensure the arrival of the firefighting task force at random simulated fire outbreak points within the required time, under the constraints of the actual city planning and traffic situation. Taking Nanjing city as an example, this paper collects multi-source big data for the comprehensive analysis, including the full data of the fire outbreak history from June 2014 to June 2018, the traffic jam data based on the Amap, and the investigation data of the firefighting facilities in Nanjing. The regularity behind fire outbreaks is analyzed, the factors related to fire risks are identified, and the risk score is calculated. The previous fire outbreak points are put through the clustering analysis, the spatial distribution probability at points in each cluster is calculated according to the clustering score, and the random fire outbreak points are generated via the Monte Carlo simulation. Meanwhile, the objective emergency response time is set as five minutes. The average vehicle speed for each road in the urban area is calculated, and the actual traffic network model is built to compute the travel time from massive randomly-distributed simulated fire points. The problem is solved by making the travel time for all simulated demand points below five minutes. At last, the site selection result based on our model is adjusted and validated, according to the planned land use. The presented method incorporates the view of the spatiotemporal big data and provides a new idea and technical method for the modification and efficiency improvement of the fire station site selection model, contributing to a service cover ratio increase from 58% to 90%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Information Technology and Its Applications)
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