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Article

A Long Baseline Three Carrier Ambiguity Resolution with a New Ionospheric Constraint

1
State Key Laboratory of Geodesy and Earth’s Dynamics, Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430077, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049, China
3
Shandong Women’s University, Jinan 250300, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Zhao-Liang Li, Jose A. Sobrino, Chao Ren and Wolfgang Kainz
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 198; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi5110198
Received: 23 August 2016 / Revised: 25 October 2016 / Accepted: 27 October 2016 / Published: 1 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geodesy & Its Applications)
Global navigation satellite sensors can transmit three frequency signals. When the classical three-carrier ambiguity resolution (TCAR) is applied to long baselines of hundreds of kilometres, the narrow-lane integer ambiguity resolution (IAR) is affected by the remaining double-differenced (DD) ionospheric delays. As such, large amounts of observational data are typically needed for successful recovery. To strengthen ionospheric delays, we analysed the combination of three frequency signals and a new ambiguity-free ionospheric combination where the least amount of noise is defined, which is enhanced with epoch-differenced ionospheric delays to provide better absolute ionospheric delay and temporal change. To optimize ionosphere estimations, we propose defining the optimal smoothing length, and also propose a strategy to diagnose wrongly determined ionospheric estimations. With such ionospheric information, we can obtain the ionosphere-weighted model by incorporating the ionospheric information to the geometry-based model and use the real triple-frequency observations to evaluate our method. Our results show that the precision of ionospheric estimations from our new ionospheric model is 25% higher than that from the current combination method and that it can provide real-time smoothed ionospheric delay with magnitudes defined to the nearest centimetre. Additionally, using ionospheric estimation as a constraint, the ionosphere-weighted model requires 20% less time to generate the first-fixed solution (TFFS) than the geometry-based model. View Full-Text
Keywords: triple-frequency signals; new ionospheric model; ionosphere-weighted model; TFFS1 triple-frequency signals; new ionospheric model; ionosphere-weighted model; TFFS1
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ning, Y.; Yuan, Y.; Huang, Z.; Chai, Y.; Tan, B. A Long Baseline Three Carrier Ambiguity Resolution with a New Ionospheric Constraint. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5, 198. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi5110198

AMA Style

Ning Y, Yuan Y, Huang Z, Chai Y, Tan B. A Long Baseline Three Carrier Ambiguity Resolution with a New Ionospheric Constraint. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2016; 5(11):198. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi5110198

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ning, Yafei, Yunbin Yuan, Zhen Huang, Yanju Chai, and Bingfeng Tan. 2016. "A Long Baseline Three Carrier Ambiguity Resolution with a New Ionospheric Constraint" ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 5, no. 11: 198. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi5110198

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