- the international status of 3D cadastres has been examined;
- dialogue with likeminded international jurisdictions has taken place;
- attendance and participation at national and international conferences with a 3D cadastre flavour has occurred;
- input of practising licensed cadastral surveyors has been obtained.
2. The Present Situation in New Zealand
2.1. Property Rights and the Cadastral Survey System
2.2. A 3D Legal Cadastre
2.3. The Cadastre and the Role of Monuments
2.4. The Cadastre and the Role of 2D Coordinates
2.5. The Cadastre and the 2D Parcel Fabric
2.6. The Cadastre and the Effects of Ground Movement
2.7. 2D Cadastral Survey Datasets
2.8. 3D Cadastral Survey Datasets
2.9. Future Goals for the New Zealand 3D Cadastre
3. Approach to Achieving Digital 3D
3.1. Identifying an Approach
3.2. Spatial Objects to Represent 3D Parcels
3.3. Establishing the Fundamental Requirements
3.3.1. Search, Visualise & Retrieve
- see 3D parcels as 2D birds-eye (plan) view against the 2D cadastral parcel network (Figure 9);
- see 3D parcels in 3D against a 3D projection of the 2D parcel fabric in an area (Figure 10), which also enable different 3D cadastral survey datasets to be related to each other spatially;
- interrogate 3D parcels defined in a cadastral survey dataset by visualising and interacting with them in 3D;
- retrieve all data in the 3D cadastral survey dataset as provided by the surveyor.
- as it was lodged, certified and approved in the cadastral survey dataset, as that is the authoritative record of the legal position of the boundary; and;
- as transformed to fit the digital cadastre, recognising that positions change over time due to improved data and geodetic shifts.
3.3.2. Creation of 3D Parcels
3D Parcel Represented by Permanent Structure Boundaries
- Three-dimensional parcel representation of the permanent structure boundary only (as presented in Figure 7). The parcel and its boundaries would be defined by a 3D spatial object, along with a description of the physical structure to which it is related and the relationship (e.g., ‘boundary through centre of wall’ or ‘boundary follows centre of concrete floor’). The description of the relationship between the permanent structure boundaries and the permanent structure is of great importance as it defines the legal position of the boundary.
- Spatial object representation of the permanent structure boundary and the permanent structure (e.g., the physical structure of the apartment complex associated with the 3D parcels depicted in Figure 7). The 3D parcel and its boundaries would be defined by a spatial object, as would the permanent structure itself (i.e., two layers of data would be provided). A description of the relationship between the two would not necessarily be required as this would be able to be determined from the spatial objects using a measurement tool in spatial software. This approach, in which legal spaces are associated with the physical elements to which they relate, was raised by Aien et al.  and is being further promoted in recent research, by Atazadeh, Rajabifard and Kalantari .
- the ‘2D’ underlying primary parcel, or the 3D parcel where it is being subdivided or redefined;
- any permanent structure to which it is referenced (e.g., wall, floor and ceiling of an apartment complex).
- new 3D parcel boundaries do not overlap underlying parcel boundaries to which they relate;
- new 3D parcels in a 3D cadastral survey dataset do not illegitimately overlap (some types of overlaps are permitted) other 3D parcels (new and existing);
- 3D cadastral survey datasets are in terms of the official national vertical and horizontal datums;
- the 3D volume of any existing 3D parcel that is being subdivided (e.g., a unit redevelopment of an apartment complex) is completely taken into account.
3.3.6. Maintaining Spatial Alignment
4. New Zealand’s Progress to a 3D Digital Cadastre and the International Opportunity
4.1. Advanced Survey and Title Services to Replace Landonline
4.2. Applicability of New Zealand’s Approach to other Jurisdictions
4.3. Development of Software Applications
Conflicts of Interest
References and Notes
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|Search, visualise and retrieve existing 3D parcels stored in the digital cadastre|
|Create new 3D parcels via 3D cadastral survey datasets|
|Lodge new 3D cadastral survey datasets|
|Validate 3D cadastral survey datasets against regulatory and system requirements|
|Integrate 3D cadastral survey datasets into the digital cadastre|
|Maintain spatial alignment of 3D parcels in digital cadastre|
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