As “kidneys of the earth”, wetlands play an important role in ameliorating weather conditions, flood storage, and the control and reduction of environmental pollution. With the development of local economies, the wetlands in both the Amazon and Yangtze River Basins have been affected and threatened by human activities, such as urban expansion, reclamation of land from lakes, land degradation, and large-scale agricultural development. It is necessary and important to develop a wetland ecosystem health evaluation model and to quantitatively evaluate the wetland ecosystem health in these two basins. In this paper, GlobeLand30 land cover maps and socio-economic and climate data from 2000 and 2010 were adopted to assess the wetland ecosystem health of the Yangtze and Amazon River Basins on the basis of a pressure-state-response (PSR) model. A total of 13 indicators were selected to build the wetland health assessment system. Weights of these indicators and PSR model components, as well as normalized wetland health scores, were assigned and calculated based on the analytic hierarchy process method. The results showed that from 2000 to 2010, the value of the mean wetland ecosystem health index in the Yangtze River Basin decreased from 0.482 to 0.481, while it increased from 0.582 to 0.593 in the Amazon River Basin. This indicated that the average status of wetland ecosystem health in the Amazon River Basin is better than that in the Yangtze River Basin, and that wetland health improved over time in the Amazon River Basin but worsened in the Yangtze River Basin.
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