3. A Template Library of Roof Decorative Components
3.1. An Overview of Roof Decorative Components in the Template Library
3.2. Construction of the Template Library
3.3. Template Library Coding Schema
4. Geo-Registration Mechanism for Template Library
4.1. Automatic Detection of Roof Decorative Components
4.2. Transformation of 3D Template Roof Model into 3D Point Cloud
4.3. Coarse Registration Based on SAC-IA
- Select points from the collected point cloud on the unknown Ming and Qing official-style architecture. In order to ensure that the selected points have different FPFH features, the distance between each selected point should be greater than a pre-defined minimum distance threshold .
- In the transformed point cloud derived from the template library, the SAC-IA first searches the points which have similar FPFH features of the selected points from collected point cloud . Then, these points found within the searched points are selected as the corresponding points.
- Calculate the transformation matrix between the corresponding points, and then evaluate the performance of the coordinate transformation based on the sum of the distance error after using the corresponding points for transformation. In this paper, the sum function of the distance errors can be expressed as the Huber penalty measure as follows:
4.4. Fine Registration Based on SICP
- Step 1: the correlation is established by the current transformation . The calculation can be expressed as Equation (5).
- Step 2: make , and calculate the new transformation . The calculation can be expressed as Equation (6).
- Step 3: repeat step 1 and step 2 until the changed amount = is less than the threshold or the iteration number is more than the maximum iteration number. Figure 7d shows the result of fine registration.
5. A Case Study: A Classic Official-Style Architecture
5.1. Historical Background
5.2. Data Collection
5.3. From the Point Cloud to the 3D Model
Conflicts of Interest
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|Study||Object Type||Basis for Library||Software/Tools||Method of Application||Analysis|
|Zdeněk Poloprutský ||Coaching inn in Kostelec nad Vltavou (Písek District, Czech Republic)||Surveying data (Photo documentation, point cloud and drawings)||Autodesk Revit software||/||This modeling method can design a library usable for detailed BIM models.|
|European classical architecture||Vitruvius to the 17th and 18th century Architectural Pattern Books||GDL embedded in the Graphisoft ArchiCAD. Decoration and non-uniform shapes based on NURBS, meshing and Boolean operations||The library is designed as a plug-in for existing software platforms for mapping these objects onto point clouds and image surveys.||Placing a construction element or GDL object, the default parameters need to be manually edited in order to correspond with the survey data.|
|Old Jeddah historical buildings||Laser scanning point clouds and photogrammetric survey||Modeling library elements in 3D modeling software such as Autodesk Revit and Rhinoceros||The library is used as plug-in of existing BIM software platforms such as Autodesk Revit.||Determining the accurate position of the object’s elements requires preprocessing.|
|Building facades||Laser scanning, photogrammetric data, and references to Vitruvius to Palladio to the architectural pattern books of the eighteenth century||Parametric objects were built using GDL embedded in the ArchiCAD BIM software||Automatically position library components based on architectural rules and proportions, but manually resize and plot the components.||Users have a full control over the global and local facade for simple structure components.|
|Level of Details||Accuracy of Planar/Elevation||Scale|
|LoD 200||0.05 m/0.05 m||1:500|
|LoD 300||0.02 m/0.02 m||1:200|
|LoD 400||0.01 m/0.01 m||1:100|
|LoD 500||0.005 m/0.005 m||1:50|
|Chui shou||The Chui shou is behind the Zou shou.||The Chui shou is also used to cover and decorate the iron nails that prevent the vertical ridge tiles from slipping and reinforce the roof ridges||Both the levels of Zou shou and Chui shou are the same. The height of the Chui shou is 1.5 times to the height of the forehead height, and the width to height ratio is 1~1.2 to 1.||/|
|Tao shou||The Tao shou is located at the top of the wing corner beam or corner beam.||The Tao shou is responsible for waterproofing and decoration.||The Tao shou has a height-to-length ratio of 1 to 1.4, and its thickness is consistent with height. The shape usually is a lion or the head of a dragon.||According to ancient Chinese legend, Tao shou can protect homes from fire.|
|Wen shou||The Wen shou is located above the midline of the ridge, and at the ends of the main ridge||Seal the gap of the tile ridge to avoid water seepage, enhance the stability of the main ridge, and promoted the Tenon-and-mortise structure to be tightly joined.||The levels of the wen shou and the main ridge are the same. When the architecture has double eaves, the level of the wen shou can be one level higher than the main ridge. The width to height ratio of the Wen shou is 7 to 10.||The moral of the Wen shou is to protect the family rich in food and clothes and has a large population, and Wen shou can also keep their homes safe in legend.|
|Zou shou||Zou shou is distributed in the lower half of the vertical ridge. Celestial being is usually located above the hooks at the corners of the roof, with Zou shou behind it.||The tiles of the vertical ridge are fixed with iron nails to prevent slipping, and the Zou shou is used to cover and decorate the iron nails.||The width to height ratio of the Zou shou is about 4 to 10 more than 6 to 10, and the ratio of thickness to eyebrow height is 3 to 10. According to the social hierarchy of the occupants to determine the number of placements. The total number is usually singular (not containing the Celestial man). The order of arrangement is Dragon, Phoenix, Lion, Tian ma, Hai ma, Suan ni, Xia yu, Xie zhi, Dou niu, and Xingshi.||Dragon, a legendary creature that can thrive in clouds and rain, and is a symbol of imperial power;|
Phoenix, a metaphor for a person with virtue, is also the name of a queen;
Lion, the guardian of Buddhism, a symbol of bravery and majesty.
Tian Ma, a loyal beast, chasing the wind;
Hai Ma, the brave beast, enters the sea and enters the abyss.
Suan Ni, playing the role of the mighty beast;
Xia Yu, strange beast in the sea, making clouds rain, firefighting, and disaster prevention;
Xie Zhi, brave and fair, implying justice and fairness;
Dou Niu, a mascot for disaster elimination;
Xing Shi, a bi-winged monkey statue, magic reduction, and lightning protection, is the last beast.
|Others||Wa dang, Xuan yu and tiles.||It not only reinforces the roof structure; they also deemed to be an important carrier of Chinese folklore.||/||People place their hopes on decorative components, looking forward to every family’s peace, and prosperity, health, and happiness.|
|Type of Roof||Code||Type of Roof||Code|
|double-eave hip roof||DH||pyramidal roof||SP|
|double-eave gable-and-hip roof||DG||overhanging gable roof||SO|
|double-eave pyramidal roof||DP||gable roof||SG|
|hip roof||SH||flush gable roof||SF|
|First-Level Code||Second Level-Code||Third-Level Code|
|Platform or Stylobate||P||Intermediate pier||IP||…|
|Column or Wall||C||Corner column||CC||…|
|general bay column||GB|
|Decorative element||DE||Wen shou||WS|
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