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Article

Improved Estimations of Nitrate and Sediment Concentrations Based on SWAT Simulations and Annual Updated Land Cover Products from a Deep Learning Classification Algorithm

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School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
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School of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry, and Natural Environment, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54123 Thessaloniki, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(10), 576; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100576
Received: 28 July 2020 / Revised: 12 September 2020 / Accepted: 28 September 2020 / Published: 30 September 2020
The agricultural sector and natural resources are heavily interdependent, comprising a coherent but complex system. The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) is widely used in assessing these interdependencies for regional watershed management. However, long-term simulations of agricultural watersheds are considered as not realistic since they have often been performed assuming constant land use over time and are based on the coarse resolution of the existing global or national data. This work presents the first insights of the synergy among SWAT model and deep learning classification algorithms to provide annually updated and realistic model’s parameterization and simulations. The proposed hybrid modelling approach couples the physical process SWAT model with the versatility of Earth observation data-driven non-linear deep learning algorithms for land use classification (Overall Accuracy (OA) = 79.58% and Kappa = 0.79), giving a strong advantage to decision makers for efficient management planning. A validation case at an agricultural watershed located in Northern Greece is provided to demonstrate their synergistic use to estimate nitrate and sediment concentrations that load in Zazari Lake. The SWAT model has been implemented under two different simulations; one with the use of a static coarse land use map and the other with the use of the annual updated land use maps for three consecutive years (2017–2019). The results indicate that the land use changes affect the final estimations resulting to an enhanced prediction performance of 1% and 2% for sediment and nitrate, respectively, when the annual land use maps are incorporated into SWAT simulations. In this context, a hybrid approach could further contribute to addressing challenges and support a data-centric scheme for informed decision making with regard to environmental and agricultural issues on the river basin scale. View Full-Text
Keywords: land cover; earth observation data integration; swat; Sentinel-2; deep learning classifiers land cover; earth observation data integration; swat; Sentinel-2; deep learning classifiers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Samarinas, N.; Tziolas, N.; Zalidis, G. Improved Estimations of Nitrate and Sediment Concentrations Based on SWAT Simulations and Annual Updated Land Cover Products from a Deep Learning Classification Algorithm. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9, 576. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100576

AMA Style

Samarinas N, Tziolas N, Zalidis G. Improved Estimations of Nitrate and Sediment Concentrations Based on SWAT Simulations and Annual Updated Land Cover Products from a Deep Learning Classification Algorithm. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2020; 9(10):576. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100576

Chicago/Turabian Style

Samarinas, Nikiforos, Nikolaos Tziolas, and George Zalidis. 2020. "Improved Estimations of Nitrate and Sediment Concentrations Based on SWAT Simulations and Annual Updated Land Cover Products from a Deep Learning Classification Algorithm" ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 9, no. 10: 576. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100576

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