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Measuring Spatial Accessibility of Urban Fire Services Using Historical Fire Incidents in Nanjing, China

1
College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
2
School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(10), 585; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100585
Received: 11 August 2020 / Revised: 27 September 2020 / Accepted: 4 October 2020 / Published: 6 October 2020
The measurement of spatial accessibility of fire services is a key task in enhancing fire response efficiency and minimizing property losses and deaths. Recently, the two-step floating catchment area method and its modified versions have been widely applied. However, the circle catchment areas used in these methods are not suitable for measuring the accessibility of fire services because each fire station is often responsible for the fire incidents within its coverage. Meanwhile, most existing methods take the demographic data and their centroids of residential areas as the demands and locations, respectively, which makes it difficult to reflect the actual demands and locations of fire services. Thus, this paper proposes a fixed-coverage-based two-step floating catchment area (FC2SFCA) method that takes the fixed service coverage of fire stations as the catchment area and the locations and dispatched fire engines of historical fire incidents as the demand location and size, respectively, to measure the spatial accessibility of fire services. Using a case study area in Nanjing, China, the proposed FC2SFCA and enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) are employed to measure and compare the spatial accessibility of fire incidents and fire stations. The results show that (1) the spatial accessibility across Nanjing, China is unbalanced, with relatively high spatial accessibility in the areas around fire stations and the southwest and northeast at the city center area and relatively low spatial accessibility in the periphery and boundary of the service coverage areas and the core of the city center; (2) compared with E2SFCA, FC2SFCA is less influenced by other fire stations and provides greater actual fire service accessibility; (3) the spatial accessibility of fire services is more strongly affected by the number of fire incidents than firefighting capabilities, the area of service coverage, or the average number of crossroads (per kilometer). Suggestions are then made to improve the overall spatial access to fire services. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban fire service; spatial accessibility; two-step floating catchment area; fixed service coverage; historical fire incidents urban fire service; spatial accessibility; two-step floating catchment area; fixed service coverage; historical fire incidents
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mao, K.; Chen, Y.; Wu, G.; Huang, J.; Yang, W.; Xia, Z. Measuring Spatial Accessibility of Urban Fire Services Using Historical Fire Incidents in Nanjing, China. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9, 585. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100585

AMA Style

Mao K, Chen Y, Wu G, Huang J, Yang W, Xia Z. Measuring Spatial Accessibility of Urban Fire Services Using Historical Fire Incidents in Nanjing, China. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2020; 9(10):585. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100585

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mao, Kainan, Yuehong Chen, Guohao Wu, Junwang Huang, Wanying Yang, and Zelong Xia. 2020. "Measuring Spatial Accessibility of Urban Fire Services Using Historical Fire Incidents in Nanjing, China" ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 9, no. 10: 585. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100585

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