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Article

A 3D Geodatabase for Urban Underground Infrastructures: Implementation and Application to Groundwater Management in Milan Metropolitan Area

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza Della Scienza 1, 20126 Milan, Italy
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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(10), 609; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100609
Received: 16 September 2020 / Revised: 11 October 2020 / Accepted: 19 October 2020 / Published: 21 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measuring, Mapping, Modeling, and Visualization of Cities)
The recent rapid increase in urbanization has led to the inclusion of underground spaces in urban planning policies. Among the main subsurface resources, a strong interaction between underground infrastructures and groundwater has emerged in many urban areas in the last few decades. Thus, listing the underground infrastructures is necessary to structure an urban conceptual model for groundwater management needs. Starting from a municipal cartography (Open Data), thus making the procedure replicable, a GIS methodology was proposed to gather all the underground infrastructures into an updatable 3D geodatabase (GDB) for the metropolitan city of Milan (Northern Italy). The underground volumes occupied by three categories of infrastructures were included in the GDB: (a) private car parks, (b) public car parks and (c) subway lines and stations. The application of the GDB allowed estimating the volumes lying below groundwater table in four periods, detected as groundwater minimums or maximums from the piezometric trend reconstructions. Due to groundwater rising or local hydrogeological conditions, the shallowest, non-waterproofed underground infrastructures were flooded in some periods considered. This was evaluated in a specific pilot area and qualitatively confirmed by local press and photographic documentation reviews. The methodology emerged as efficient for urban planning, particularly for urban conceptual models and groundwater management plans definition. View Full-Text
Keywords: Milan; underground structures and infrastructures; 3D geodatabase; geographic information systems; urban underground; groundwater management; groundwater modelling; Topographic Database Milan; underground structures and infrastructures; 3D geodatabase; geographic information systems; urban underground; groundwater management; groundwater modelling; Topographic Database
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sartirana, D.; Rotiroti, M.; Zanotti, C.; Bonomi, T.; Fumagalli, L.; De Amicis, M. A 3D Geodatabase for Urban Underground Infrastructures: Implementation and Application to Groundwater Management in Milan Metropolitan Area. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9, 609. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100609

AMA Style

Sartirana D, Rotiroti M, Zanotti C, Bonomi T, Fumagalli L, De Amicis M. A 3D Geodatabase for Urban Underground Infrastructures: Implementation and Application to Groundwater Management in Milan Metropolitan Area. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2020; 9(10):609. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100609

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sartirana, Davide, Marco Rotiroti, Chiara Zanotti, Tullia Bonomi, Letizia Fumagalli, and Mattia De Amicis. 2020. "A 3D Geodatabase for Urban Underground Infrastructures: Implementation and Application to Groundwater Management in Milan Metropolitan Area" ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 9, no. 10: 609. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100609

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