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Article

A Continuous, Semi-Automated Workflow: From 3D City Models with Geometric Optimization and CFD Simulations to Visualization of Wind in an Urban Environment

Hochschule für Technik Stuttgart, Fakultät Vermessung, Informatik und Mathematik, Schellingstr. 24, 70174 Stuttgart, Germany
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Current address: Beuth Hochschule für Technik Berlin, Fachbereich II, Mathematik-Physik-Chemie, Lütticher Straße 38,13353 Berlin, Germany.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(11), 657; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9110657
Received: 31 August 2020 / Revised: 14 October 2020 / Accepted: 27 October 2020 / Published: 31 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Applications of 3D-City Models in Urban Studies)
The concept and implementation of Smart Cities is an important approach to improve decision making as well as quality of life of the growing urban population. An essential part of this is the presentation of data from different sources within a digital city model. Wind flow at building scale has a strong impact on many health and energy issues in a city. For the analysis of urban wind, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become an established tool, but requires specialist knowledge to prepare the geometric input during a time-consuming process. Results are available only as predefined selections of pictures or videos. In this article, a continuous, semi-automated workflow is presented, which ❶ speeds-up the preparation of CFD simulation models using a largely automated geometry optimization; and ❷ enables web-based interactive exploration of urban wind simulations to a large and diverse audience, including experts and layman. Results are evaluated based on a case study using a part of a district in Stuttgart in terms of: ➀ time saving of the CFD model preparation workflow (85% faster than the manual method), ➁ response time measurements of different data formats within the Smart City platform (3D Tiles loaded 30% faster than geoJSON using the same data representations) and ➂ protocols (3DPS provided much higher flexibility than static and 3D container API), as well as ➃ subjective user experience analysis of various visualization schemes of urban wind. Time saving for the model optimization may, however, vary depending on the data quality and the extent of the study area. View Full-Text
Keywords: smart city; urban environment; computational fluid dynamics; computational wind engineering; open geospatial consortium; environmental simulation; 3D visualization; web services; automated workflow; CityGML smart city; urban environment; computational fluid dynamics; computational wind engineering; open geospatial consortium; environmental simulation; 3D visualization; web services; automated workflow; CityGML
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MDPI and ACS Style

Deininger, M.E.; von der Grün, M.; Piepereit, R.; Schneider, S.; Santhanavanich, T.; Coors, V.; Voß, U. A Continuous, Semi-Automated Workflow: From 3D City Models with Geometric Optimization and CFD Simulations to Visualization of Wind in an Urban Environment. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9, 657. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9110657

AMA Style

Deininger ME, von der Grün M, Piepereit R, Schneider S, Santhanavanich T, Coors V, Voß U. A Continuous, Semi-Automated Workflow: From 3D City Models with Geometric Optimization and CFD Simulations to Visualization of Wind in an Urban Environment. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2020; 9(11):657. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9110657

Chicago/Turabian Style

Deininger, Martina E., Maximilian von der Grün, Raul Piepereit, Sven Schneider, Thunyathep Santhanavanich, Volker Coors, and Ursula Voß. 2020. "A Continuous, Semi-Automated Workflow: From 3D City Models with Geometric Optimization and CFD Simulations to Visualization of Wind in an Urban Environment" ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 9, no. 11: 657. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9110657

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