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Review

Extended Reality in Spatial Sciences: A Review of Research Challenges and Future Directions

1
Institute of Interactive Technologies (IIT), University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland FHNW, Bahnhofstrasse 6, 5210 Brugg-Windisch, Switzerland
2
Spatial Interface Research Lab, Department of Geography, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada
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Department of Geography, University of Georgia, Geog-Geol Bldg, 210 Field Street, Athens, GA 30602, USA
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LASTIG Lab, University Gustave Eiffel, IGN ENSG, 73 avenue de Paris, F-94160 Saint Mande, France
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City Futures Research Centre. Level 3, Red Centre West Wing, Faculty of Built Environment, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
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Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation, ITC, University of Twente, Hengelosestraat 99, 7514 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
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Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, 61137 Brno, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 439; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9070439
Received: 22 February 2020 / Revised: 22 June 2020 / Accepted: 7 July 2020 / Published: 15 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art in Spatial Information Science)
This manuscript identifies and documents unsolved problems and research challenges in the extended reality (XR) domain (i.e., virtual (VR), augmented (AR), and mixed reality (MR)). The manuscript is structured to include technology, design, and human factor perspectives. The text is visualization/display-focused, that is, other modalities such as audio, haptic, smell, and touch, while important for XR, are beyond the scope of this paper. We further narrow our focus to mainly geospatial research, with necessary deviations to other domains where these technologies are widely researched. The main objective of the study is to provide an overview of broader research challenges and directions in XR, especially in spatial sciences. Aside from the research challenges identified based on a comprehensive literature review, we provide case studies with original results from our own studies in each section as examples to demonstrate the relevance of the challenges in the current research. We believe that this paper will be of relevance to anyone who has scientific interest in extended reality, and/or uses these systems in their research. View Full-Text
Keywords: extended reality (XR); virtual reality (VR); augmented reality (AR); mixed reality (MR); virtual environments (VE); GIScience; research challenges extended reality (XR); virtual reality (VR); augmented reality (AR); mixed reality (MR); virtual environments (VE); GIScience; research challenges
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MDPI and ACS Style

Çöltekin, A.; Lochhead, I.; Madden, M.; Christophe, S.; Devaux, A.; Pettit, C.; Lock, O.; Shukla, S.; Herman, L.; Stachoň, Z.; Kubíček, P.; Snopková, D.; Bernardes, S.; Hedley, N. Extended Reality in Spatial Sciences: A Review of Research Challenges and Future Directions. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9, 439. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9070439

AMA Style

Çöltekin A, Lochhead I, Madden M, Christophe S, Devaux A, Pettit C, Lock O, Shukla S, Herman L, Stachoň Z, Kubíček P, Snopková D, Bernardes S, Hedley N. Extended Reality in Spatial Sciences: A Review of Research Challenges and Future Directions. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2020; 9(7):439. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9070439

Chicago/Turabian Style

Çöltekin, Arzu, Ian Lochhead, Marguerite Madden, Sidonie Christophe, Alexandre Devaux, Christopher Pettit, Oliver Lock, Shashwat Shukla, Lukáš Herman, Zdeněk Stachoň, Petr Kubíček, Dajana Snopková, Sergio Bernardes, and Nicholas Hedley. 2020. "Extended Reality in Spatial Sciences: A Review of Research Challenges and Future Directions" ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 9, no. 7: 439. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9070439

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