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Plants, Volume 11, Issue 10 (May-2 2022) – 113 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Flavonoids are secondary but essential compounds that are widespread in plants. Among flavonoids, anthocyanin precursors are synthesised in the cytoplasm, transported to the tonoplast, then imported into the vacuole for modifications and storage. In Medicago truncatula, loss-of-function of GSTF7, a putative ortholog of the Arabidopsis glutathione S-transferase TT19, abolishes the accumulation of anthocyanins in leaves, while enhancing the accumulation of insoluble tannins in seeds. MtrGSTF7 expression in tt19 mutant restores the presence of anthocyanins in seedlings but not that of tannins in Arabidopsis seeds. It is likely that, in M. truncatula, the transport of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidins is carried out by different GSTs belonging to the phi-class. View this paper
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Review
Ethnopharmacological Study of Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases and Their Associated Risk Factors in sub-Saharan Africa
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1387; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101387 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 563
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of global mortality, including deaths arising from non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Consequently, this study aimed to provide details of medicinal plants (MPs) employed in SSA for the treatment of CVDs and their related risk [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of global mortality, including deaths arising from non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Consequently, this study aimed to provide details of medicinal plants (MPs) employed in SSA for the treatment of CVDs and their related risk factors to open new avenues for the discovery of novel drugs. The extensive ethnopharmacological literature survey of these MPs in 41 SSA countries was based on studies from 1982 to 2021. It revealed 1,085 MPs belonging to 218 botanical families, with Fabaceae (9.61%), Asteraceae (6.77%), Apocynaceae (3.93%), Lamiaceae (3.75%), and Rubiaceae (3.66%) being the most represented. Meanwhile, Allium sativum L., Persea americana Mill., Moringa oleifera Lam., Mangifera indica L., and Allium cepa L. are the five most utilised plant species. The preferred plant parts include the leaves (36%), roots (21%), barks (14%), fruits (7%), and seeds (5%), which are mostly prepared by decoction. Benin, Mauritius, Nigeria, South Africa, and Togo had the highest reported use while most of the investigations were on diabetes and hypertension. Despite the nutraceutical advantages of some of these MPs, their general toxicity potential calls for caution in their human long-term use. Overall, the study established the need for governments of SSA countries to validate the efficacy/safety of these MPs as well as provide affordable, accessible, and improved modern healthcare services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates on African Traditional Medicinal Plants Research)
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Review
Helichrysum Genus and Compound Activities in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1386; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101386 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 499
Abstract
The global management of diabetes mellitus (DM) involves the administration of recommended anti-diabetic drugs in addition to a non-sedentary lifestyle upon diagnosis. Despite the success recorded from these synthetic drugs, the traditional method of treatment using medicinal plants is increasingly accepted by the [...] Read more.
The global management of diabetes mellitus (DM) involves the administration of recommended anti-diabetic drugs in addition to a non-sedentary lifestyle upon diagnosis. Despite the success recorded from these synthetic drugs, the traditional method of treatment using medicinal plants is increasingly accepted by the locals due to its low cost and the perceived no side effects. Helichrysum species are used in folk medicine and are documented for the treatment of DM in different regions of the world. This study reviews Helichrysum species and its compounds’ activities in the management of DM. An extensive literature search was carried out, utilizing several scientific databases, ethnobotanical books, theses, and dissertations. About twenty-two Helichrysum species were reported for the treatment of diabetes in different regions of the world. Among these Helichrysum species, only fifteen have been scientifically investigated for their antidiabetic activities, and twelve compounds were identified as bioactive constituents for diabetes. This present review study will be a useful tool for scientists and health professionals working in the field of pharmacology and therapeutics to develop potent antidiabetic drugs that are devoid of side effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates on African Traditional Medicinal Plants Research)
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Article
Role of Spermidine in Photosynthesis and Polyamine Metabolism in Lettuce Seedlings under High-Temperature Stress
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1385; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101385 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 455
Abstract
High temperature is a huge threat to lettuce production in the world, and spermidine (Spd) has been shown to improve heat tolerance in lettuce, but the action mechanism of Spd and the role of polyamine metabolism are still unclear. The effects of Spd [...] Read more.
High temperature is a huge threat to lettuce production in the world, and spermidine (Spd) has been shown to improve heat tolerance in lettuce, but the action mechanism of Spd and the role of polyamine metabolism are still unclear. The effects of Spd and D-arginine (D-arg) on hydroponic lettuce seedlings under high-temperature stress by foliar spraying of Spd and D-arg were investigated. The results showed that high-temperature stress significantly inhibited the growth of lettuce seedlings, with a 33% decrease in total fresh weight and total dry weight; photosynthesis of lettuce seedlings was inhibited by high-temperature stress, and the inhibition was greater in the D-arg treatment, while the Spd recovery treatment increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal limit value (Ls), and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci). High-temperature stress significantly reduced the maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), electron transport rate (ETR), and photochemical efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII), increased the non-photochemical burst coefficient (NPQ) and reduced the use of light energy, which was alleviated by exogenous Spd. The increase in polyamine content may be due to an increase in polyamine synthase activity and a decrease in polyamine oxidase activity, as evidenced by changes in the expression levels of genes related to polyamine synthesis and metabolism enzymes. This evidence suggested that D-arg suppressed endogenous polyamine levels in lettuce and reduced its tolerance, whereas exogenous Spd promoted the synthesis and accumulation of polyamines in lettuce and increased its photosynthetic and oxidative stress levels, which had an impact on the tolerance of lettuce seedlings. Full article
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Article
Selenium Nanoparticles (Se-NPs) Alleviates Salinity Damages and Improves Phytochemical Characteristics of Pineapple Mint (Mentha suaveolens Ehrh.)
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1384; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101384 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 402
Abstract
The present study examined the effects of foliar spray of selenium nanoparticles (0, 10 and 20 mg/L) on the yield, phytochemicals and essential oil content and composition of pineapple mint (Mentha suaveolens Ehrh.) under salinity stress (0, 30, 60 and 90 mM [...] Read more.
The present study examined the effects of foliar spray of selenium nanoparticles (0, 10 and 20 mg/L) on the yield, phytochemicals and essential oil content and composition of pineapple mint (Mentha suaveolens Ehrh.) under salinity stress (0, 30, 60 and 90 mM NaCl). Obtained results demonstrated that severe salinity stress reduced the fresh weight (FW) and plant height (PH) by 16.40% and 19.10%, respectively compared with normal growth condition. On the other hands, under sever salinity stress relative water content (RWC) and chlorophyll index were reduced by 18.05% and 3.50%, respectively. Interestingly, selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs; 10 mg/L) application improved the pineapple mint growth. Based on GC-FID and GC-MS analysis, 19 compounds were identified in pineapple mint essential oil. Foliar application of Se-NPs and salinity did not change the essential oil content of pineapple mint, however, the essential oil compounds were significantly affected by salinity and Se-NPs- applications. Foliar application of Se-NPs- had a significant effect on piperitenone oxide, limonene, jasmone, viridiflorol and β-myrsene under different salinity levels. The highest percentage of piperitenone oxide (79.4%) as the major essential oil component was recorded in the no salinity treatment by applying 10 mg/L of nanoparticle. Interestingly, application of 10 mg L−1 Se-NPs- under 60 mM NaCl increased the piperitenone oxide content by 9.1% compared with non-sprayed plants. Finally, the obtained results demonstrated that foliar application of Se-NPs (10 mg L−1) can improve the pineapple mint growth and secondary metabolites profile under saline conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Nanotechnology)
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Article
In Vitro Anti-Photoaging and Skin Protective Effects of Licania macrocarpa Cuatrec Methanol Extract
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1383; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101383 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 532
Abstract
The Licania genus has been used in the treatment of dysentery, diabetes, inflammation, and diarrhea in South America. Of these plants, the strong anti-inflammatory activity of Licania macrocarpa Cuatrec (Chrysobalanaceae) has been reported previously. However, the beneficial activities of this plant on skin [...] Read more.
The Licania genus has been used in the treatment of dysentery, diabetes, inflammation, and diarrhea in South America. Of these plants, the strong anti-inflammatory activity of Licania macrocarpa Cuatrec (Chrysobalanaceae) has been reported previously. However, the beneficial activities of this plant on skin health have remained unclear. This study explores the protective activity of a methanol extract (50–100 μg/mL) in the aerial parts of L. macrocarpa Cuatrec (Lm-ME) and its mechanism, in terms of its moisturizing/hydration factors, skin wrinkles, UV radiation-induced cell damage, and radical generation (using RT/real-time PCR, carbazole assays, flowcytometry, DPPH/ABTS, and immunoblotting analysis). The anti-pigmentation role of Lm-ME was also tested by measuring levels of melanin, melanogenesis-related genes, and pigmentation-regulatory proteins. Lm-ME decreased UVB-irradiated death in HaCaT cells by suppressing apoptosis and inhibited matrix metalloproteinases 1/2 (MMP1/2) expression by enhancing the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38. It was confirmed that Lm-ME displayed strong antioxidative activity. Lm-ME upregulated the expression of hyaluronan synthases-2/3 (HAS-2/3) and transglutaminase-1 (TGM-1), as well as secreted levels of hyaluronic acid (HA) via p38 and JNK activation. This extract also significantly inhibited the production of hyaluronidase (Hyal)-1, -2, and -4. Lm-ME reduced the melanin expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, and tyrosinase-related protein-1/2 (TYRP-1/2) in α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-treated B16F10 cells via the reduction of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and p38 activation. These results suggest that Lm-ME plays a role in skin protection through antioxidative, moisturizing, cytoprotective, and skin-lightening properties, and may become a new and promising cosmetic product beneficial for the skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Capacity of Plant Extracts)
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Article
ZmLBD5 Increases Drought Sensitivity by Suppressing ROS Accumulation in Arabidopsis
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1382; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101382 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 498
Abstract
Drought stress is known to significantly limit crop growth and productivity. Lateral organ boundary domain (LBD) transcription factors—particularly class-I members—play essential roles in plant development and biotic stress. However, little information is available on class-II LBD genes related to abiotic stress in maize. [...] Read more.
Drought stress is known to significantly limit crop growth and productivity. Lateral organ boundary domain (LBD) transcription factors—particularly class-I members—play essential roles in plant development and biotic stress. However, little information is available on class-II LBD genes related to abiotic stress in maize. Here, we cloned a maize class-II LBD transcription factor, ZmLBD5, and identified its function in drought stress. Transient expression, transactivation, and dimerization assays demonstrated that ZmLBD5 was localized in the nucleus, without transactivation, and could form a homodimer or heterodimer. Promoter analysis demonstrated that multiple drought-stress-related and ABA response cis-acting elements are present in the promoter region of ZmLBD5. Overexpression of ZmLBD5 in Arabidopsis promotes plant growth under normal conditions, and suppresses drought tolerance under drought conditions. Furthermore, the overexpression of ZmLBD5 increased the water loss rate, stomatal number, and stomatal apertures. DAB and NBT staining demonstrated that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) decreased in ZmLBD5-overexpressed Arabidopsis. A physiological index assay also revealed that SOD and POD activities in ZmLBD5-overexpressed Arabidopsis were higher than those in wild-type Arabidopsis. These results revealed the role of ZmLBD5 in drought stress by regulating ROS levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress Signaling and Responses in Plants)
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Review
Biflavonoids: Important Contributions to the Health Benefits of Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.)
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1381; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101381 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 831
Abstract
Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) is one of the most distinctive plants, characterized by excellent resistance to various environmental conditions. It is used as an ornamental plant and is recognized as a medicinal plant in both traditional and Western medicine. Its bioactive potential [...] Read more.
Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) is one of the most distinctive plants, characterized by excellent resistance to various environmental conditions. It is used as an ornamental plant and is recognized as a medicinal plant in both traditional and Western medicine. Its bioactive potential is associated with the presence of flavonoids and terpene trilactones, but many other compounds may also have synergistic effects. Flavonoid dimers—biflavonoids—are important constituents of ginkgophytopharmaceuticals. Currently, the presence of 13 biflavonoids has been reported in ginkgo, of which amentoflavone, bilobetin, sciadopitysin, ginkgetin and isoginkgetin are the most common. Their role in plants remains unknown, but their bioactivity and potential role in the management of human health are better investigated. In this review, we have provided an overview of the chemistry, diversity and biological factors that influence the presence of biflavonoids in ginkgo, as well as their bioactive and health-related properties. We have focused on their antioxidant, anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities as well as their potential role in the treatment of cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. We also highlighted their potential toxicity and pointed out further research directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Polyphenols - from Plants to Human Health Volume II)
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Communication
Evidence That 2n Eggs Explain Partial Hybrids between Medicago sativa and Medicago arborea
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1380; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101380 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 404
Abstract
Selected genotypes of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) produce partial hybrids in sexual crosses with Medicago arborea, as reported in Plants (2013). The hybrids contain mostly alfalfa DNA and traits, but also contain DNA and traits from M. arborea. It was [...] Read more.
Selected genotypes of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) produce partial hybrids in sexual crosses with Medicago arborea, as reported in Plants (2013). The hybrids contain mostly alfalfa DNA and traits, but also contain DNA and traits from M. arborea. It was proposed in 2008 that the partial hybrids could be explained by fertilization of 2n eggs in alfalfa by normal pollen from M. arborea, followed by partial loss of M. arborea chromosomes during embryogenesis. In this paper, we confirm the presence of 2n eggs in the first alfalfa parents that produced hybrids. The test for 2n eggs involved pollinating 4x alfalfa with pollen from 8x alfalfa. The production of 8x progeny in the cross proved that selected alfalfa parents produced 2n eggs. Thus, 2n eggs appear to explain how the partial hybrids (hereafter hybrids) contain mostly alfalfa DNA and traits. However, two of the six alfalfa plants that did not hybridize with M. arborea also had 2n eggs. Thus, although 2n eggs explain the alfalfa content of hybrids, 2n eggs are not the only factor involved in weakening the hybridization barrier, and in transferring genes to alfalfa from M. arborea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Breeding, Genetics and Genomics)
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Article
Plant-Derived Smoke Solution Alleviates Cellular Oxidative Stress Caused by Arsenic and Mercury by Modulating the Cellular Antioxidative Defense System in Wheat
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1379; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101379 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 496
Abstract
Heavy metal stress is a significant factor in diminishing crop yield. Plant-derived smoke (PDS) has been used as a growth promoter and abiotic stress alleviator for the last two decades. Although the roles of PDS have been determined in various plants, its role [...] Read more.
Heavy metal stress is a significant factor in diminishing crop yield. Plant-derived smoke (PDS) has been used as a growth promoter and abiotic stress alleviator for the last two decades. Although the roles of PDS have been determined in various plants, its role in ameliorating heavy metal stress in wheat has not been reported so far. Therefore, the present work was conducted to investigate the effect of smoke solution extracted from a wild lemongrass Cymbopogon jwarancusa (C. jwarncusa) on physiological and biochemical features of wheat under arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) stress. The results showed that higher concentrations of As and Hg pose inhibitory effects on wheat seed germination and seedling growth, including shoot/root length and shoot/root fresh weight. Photosynthetic pigments, such as chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids, were significantly decreased under As and Hg stress. Importantly, the levels of H2O2, lipid peroxidation, and TBARS were increased in wheat seedlings. The activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT, was decreased by As and Hg stress, while the levels of SOD, POD, and APX antioxidant enzymes were increased in root and shoot. Interestingly, the application of PDS (2000 ppm), individually or in combination with either As or Hg stress, enhanced wheat seed germination rate, shoot/root length, and shoot/root fresh weight. However, the levels of H2O2, lipid peroxidation, and TBARS were decreased. Similarly, the levels of SOD, POD, and APX were decreased by PDS under As and Hg stress, while the level of CAT was enhanced by PDS under As and Hg stress. Interestingly, the levels of chlorophyll a and b, and total carotenoids were increased with the application of PDS under As and Hg stress. It is concluded that PDS has the capability to alleviate the phytotoxic effects of As and Hg stress in wheat by modulating the antioxidative defense system and could be an economical solution to reduce the heavy metal stress in crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal and Metalloid Toxicity in Plants)
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Article
Vine Irrigation through Two Shoot Densities in Flavonoid and Non-Flavonoid Compounds in ‘Tempranillo’ Grapes
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1378; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101378 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 492
Abstract
This study aims to analyze the effects of non-limiting irrigation (I) vs. rainfed (R) through two different shoot densities, high-load (H) and low-load (L), on vegetative growth, agronomic parameters, flavonoid and non-flavonoid polyphenol substances of [...] Read more.
This study aims to analyze the effects of non-limiting irrigation (I) vs. rainfed (R) through two different shoot densities, high-load (H) and low-load (L), on vegetative growth, agronomic parameters, flavonoid and non-flavonoid polyphenol substances of cv. Tempranillo grown in a semi-arid climate during three consecutive seasons (2014–2016). Under these conditions, in the 2015 and 2016 seasons, irrigation showed significant increases in berry weight (14.7% and 13.4% in H and L, respectively, in 2015, and 35.6% and 23.5% in the same treatments in 2016) and yield (66.7% and 48.5 in 2015; 27.9% and 177.5% in 2016). Additionally, a general decreasing trend is observed in anthocyanins with the exception of peonidin derivates, almost all flavonol compounds, cinnamic acid and resveratrol values with different degrees and statistical significance depending on the shoot density of the vines. A slight variation is observed in 2014 in these parameters. On the other hand, no general trends are established either in flavanol compounds or hydroxybenzoic acid. Thus, the effect of irrigation depends on the parameter considered, the shoot density of the vine and the season considered. Full article
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Article
Polyphenolic Profile, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Nociceptive Activities of Some African Medicinal Plants
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1377; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101377 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 427
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the polyphenolic profile and the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of four traditionally used medicinal plants from Burkina Faso: Parkia biglobosa, Detarium microcarpum, Vitellaria paradoxa and Sclerocarya birrea. The analysis of the [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the polyphenolic profile and the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of four traditionally used medicinal plants from Burkina Faso: Parkia biglobosa, Detarium microcarpum, Vitellaria paradoxa and Sclerocarya birrea. The analysis of the main phenolic compounds was performed by the HPLC-UV-MS method. The anti-inflammatory effect of the aqueous bark extracts was investigated by the λ-carrageenan-induced rat paw edema test. The anti-nociceptive activity was evaluated by the Randall–Selitto test under inflammatory conditions. Seven phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic, vanillic, p-coumaric, ferulic, and syringic acids), and three flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, and quercitrin) were identified in the plant samples. High contents of gallic acid were determined in the D. microcarpum, P. biglobosa and S. birrea extracts (190–300 mg/100 g), and V. paradoxa extract was the richest in epicatechin (173.86 mg/100 g). The λ-carrageenan-induced inflammation was significantly reduced (p < 0.001) by the P. biglobosa and D. microcarpum extracts (400 mg/kg p.o.). Under the inflammatory conditions, a significant anti-nociceptive activity (p < 0.001) was obtained after 2–3 h from the induction of inflammation. The effects of the tested extracts could be related to the presence of polyphenols and could be useful in the management of certain inflammatory diseases. Full article
Article
Bioremoval of Yttrium (III), Cerium (III), Europium (III), and Terbium (III) from Single and Quaternary Aqueous Solutions Using the Extremophile Galdieria sulphuraria (Galdieriaceae, Rhodophyta)
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1376; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101376 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 399
Abstract
The lanthanides are among the rare earth elements (REEs), which are indispensable constituents of modern technologies and are often challenging to acquire from natural resources. The demand for REEs is so high that there is a clear need to develop efficient and environmentally-friendly [...] Read more.
The lanthanides are among the rare earth elements (REEs), which are indispensable constituents of modern technologies and are often challenging to acquire from natural resources. The demand for REEs is so high that there is a clear need to develop efficient and environmentally-friendly recycling methods. In the present study, living cells of the extremophile Galdieria sulphuraria were used to remove four REEs, Yttrium, Cerium, Europium, and Terbium, from single- and quaternary-metal aqueous solutions. Two different strains, SAG 107.79 and ACUF 427, were exposed to solutions buffered at pH 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5. Our data demonstrated that the removal performances were strain and pH dependent for all metal ions. At lower pH, ACUF 427 outperformed SAG 107.79 considerably. By increasing the pH of the solutions, there was a significant surge in the aqueous removal performance of both strains. The same trend was highlighted using quaternary-metal solutions, even if the quantities of metal removed were significantly lower. The present study provided the first insight into the comparative removal capacity of the Galdieria sulphuraria strains. The choice of the appropriate operational conditions such as the pH of the metal solutions is an essential step in developing efficient, rapid, and straightforward biological methods for recycling REEs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyanobacteria, Algae, and Plants; from Biology to Biotechnology)
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Article
Enhancement of the Plant Grafting Technique with Dielectric Barrier Discharge Cold Atmospheric Plasma and Plasma-Treated Solution
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1373; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101373 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 418
Abstract
A garden plant grafting technique enhanced by cold plasma (CAP) and plasma-treated solutions (PTS) is described for the first time. It has been shown that CAP created by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and PTS makes it possible to increase the growth of [...] Read more.
A garden plant grafting technique enhanced by cold plasma (CAP) and plasma-treated solutions (PTS) is described for the first time. It has been shown that CAP created by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and PTS makes it possible to increase the growth of Pyrus communis L. by 35–44%, and the diameter of the root collar by 10–28%. In this case, the electrical resistivity of the graft decreased by 20–48%, which indicated the formation of a more developed vascular system at the rootstock–scion interface. The characteristics of DBD CAP and PTS are described in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-thermal Plasma a Powerful Tool in Agrofood Quality Management)
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Article
DNA Barcoding Medicinal Plant Species from Indonesia
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1375; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101375 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 450
Abstract
Over the past decade, plant DNA barcoding has emerged as a scientific breakthrough and is often used to help with species identification or as a taxonomical tool. DNA barcoding is very important in medicinal plant use, not only for identification purposes but also [...] Read more.
Over the past decade, plant DNA barcoding has emerged as a scientific breakthrough and is often used to help with species identification or as a taxonomical tool. DNA barcoding is very important in medicinal plant use, not only for identification purposes but also for the authentication of medicinal products. Here, a total of 61 Indonesian medicinal plant species from 30 families and a pair of ITS2, matK, rbcL, and trnL primers were used for a DNA barcoding study consisting of molecular and sequence analyses. This study aimed to analyze how the four identified DNA barcoding regions (ITS2, matK, rbcL, and trnL) aid identification and conservation and to investigate their effectiveness for DNA barcoding for the studied species. This study resulted in 212 DNA barcoding sequences and identified new ones for the studied medicinal plant species. Though there is no ideal or perfect region for DNA barcoding of the target species, we recommend matK as the main region for Indonesian medicinal plant identification, with ITS2 and rbcL as alternative or complementary regions. These findings will be useful for forensic studies that support the conservation of medicinal plants and their national and global use. Full article
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Article
Investigations on Fungi Isolated from Apple Trees with Die-Back Symptoms from Basilicata Region (Southern Italy)
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1374; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101374 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 457
Abstract
Val d’Agri is an important orchard area located in the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy). A phenomenon affecting cv. “Golden Delicious” apples which lead to tree death has been observed in the past several years in this area. This phenomenon has already been detected [...] Read more.
Val d’Agri is an important orchard area located in the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy). A phenomenon affecting cv. “Golden Delicious” apples which lead to tree death has been observed in the past several years in this area. This phenomenon has already been detected in about 20 hectares and is rapidly expanding. The symptoms observed were “scaly bark” and extensive cankers, mainly located in the lower part of the trunk, associated with wood decay. Dead plants ranged from 20% to 80% and, in many cases, trees were removed by farmers. In order to identify the causes of this phenomenon, investigations were started in autumn/winter 2019. In order to determine the possible causal agents, fungal and bacterial isolations, from symptomatic tissues, were performed in laboratory. Bacterial isolations gave negative results, whereas pure fungal cultures (PFCs) were obtained after 3–4 passages on potato dextrose agar (PDA) media. Genetic material was extracted from each PFC and amplified by PCR using three pairs of primers: ITS5/4, Bt2a/Bt2b and ACT-512F/ACT-783R. The amplicons were directly sequenced, and nucleotide sequences were compared with those already present in the NCBI GenBank nucleotide database. All isolated fungi were identified based on morphological features and multilocus molecular analyses. Neofusicoccum parvum, Diaporthe eres and Trametes versicolor were most frequently isolated, while Pestalotiopsis funerea, Phomopsis spp. and Diaporthe foeniculina were less frequently isolated. All nucleotide sequences obtained in this study have been deposited into the EMBL database. Pathogenicity tests showed that N. parvum was the most pathogenic and aggressive fungus, while Phomopsis sp. was demonstrated to be the less virulent one. All the investigated fungi were repeatedly reisolated from artificially inoculated twigs of 2-year-old apple trees, cv. “Golden Delicious”, and subsequently morphologically and molecularly identified. The role played by the above-mentioned fungi in the alterations observed in field is also discussed. Full article
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Article
An Identification System Targeting the SRK Gene for Selecting S-Haplotypes and Self-Compatible Lines in Cabbage
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1372; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101372 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 367
Abstract
Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) self-incompatibility is important for heterosis. However, the seed production of elite hybrid cannot be facilitated by honey bees due to the cross-incompatibility of the two parents. In this study, the self-compatibility of 58 winter cabbage [...] Read more.
Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) self-incompatibility is important for heterosis. However, the seed production of elite hybrid cannot be facilitated by honey bees due to the cross-incompatibility of the two parents. In this study, the self-compatibility of 58 winter cabbage inbred lines was identified by open-flower self-pollination (OS) and molecular techniques. Based on the NCBI database, a new class I S-haplotype-specific marker, PKC6F/PKC6R, was developed. Verification analyses revealed 9 different S-haplotypes in the 58 cabbage inbred lines; of these lines, 46 and 12 belonged to class I (S6, S7, S12, S14, S33, S45, S51, S68) and class II (S15) S-haplotypes, respectively. The coincidence rate between the self-compatibility index and S-haplotype was 91%. This study developed a Tri-Primer-PCR amplification method to rapidly select plants with specific S-haplotypes in biased segregated S-locus populations. Furthermore, it established an S-haplotype identification system based on these nine S-haplotypes. To overcome parental cross-incompatibility (18-503 and 18-512), an inbred line (18-2169) with the S15 haplotype was selected from the sister lines of self-incompatible 18-512 (S68, class I S-haplotype). The inbred line (18-2169) showed self-compatibility and cross-compatibility with 18-503. This study provides guidance for self-compatibility breeding in cabbage and predicts parental cross-incompatibility in elite combinations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Breeding for Environmental Stress Resistance in Vegetables)
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Article
Chlorophyll Fluorescence Imaging as a Tool for Evaluating Disease Resistance of Common Bean Lines in the Western Amazon Region of Colombia
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1371; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101371 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 565
Abstract
The evaluation of disease resistance is considered an important aspect of phenotyping for crop improvement. Identification of advanced lines of the common bean with disease resistance contributes to improved grain yields. This study aimed to determine the response of the photosynthetic apparatus to [...] Read more.
The evaluation of disease resistance is considered an important aspect of phenotyping for crop improvement. Identification of advanced lines of the common bean with disease resistance contributes to improved grain yields. This study aimed to determine the response of the photosynthetic apparatus to natural pathogen infection by using chlorophyll (Chla) fluorescence parameters and their relationship to the agronomic performance of 59 common bean lines and comparing the photosynthetic responses of naturally infected vs. healthy leaves. The study was conducted over two seasons under acid soil and high temperature conditions in the western Amazon region of Colombia. A disease susceptibility index (DSI) was developed and validated using chlorophyll a (Chla) fluorescence as a tool to identify Mesoamerican and Andean lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that are resistant to pathogens. A negative effect on the functional status of the photosynthetic apparatus was found with the presence of pathogen infection, a situation that allowed the identification of four typologies based on the DSI values ((i) moderately resistant; (ii) moderately susceptible; (iii) susceptible; and (iv) highly susceptible). Moderately resistant lines, five of them from the Mesoamerican gene pool (ALB 350, SMC 200, BFS 10, SER 16, SMN 27) and one from the Andean gene pool (DAB 295), allocated a higher proportion of energy to photochemical processes, which increased the rate of electron transfer resulting in a lower sensitivity to disease stress. This photosynthetic response was associated with lower values of DSI, which translated into an increase in the accumulation of dry matter accumulation in different plant organs (leaves, stem, pods and roots). Thus, DSI values based on chlorophyll fluorescence response to pathogen infection could serve as a phenotyping tool for evaluating advanced common bean lines. Six common bean lines (ALB 350, BFS 10, DAB 295, SER 16, SMC 200 and SMN 27) were identified as less sensitive to disease stress under field conditions in the western Amazon region of Colombia, and these could serve as useful parents for improving the common bean for multiple stress resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Cell Biology)
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Article
Plant Species Complementarity in Low-Fertility Degraded Soil
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1370; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101370 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 401
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the compatibility of plants with contrasting root systems, in terms of procurement of limiting soil nutrients. Paired combinations of species of proteas and grasses were grown in a pot experiment using soil from a site [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the compatibility of plants with contrasting root systems, in terms of procurement of limiting soil nutrients. Paired combinations of species of proteas and grasses were grown in a pot experiment using soil from a site with impoverished vegetation and degraded soil. The soil contained sufficient N but was low to deficient in P, Mn, S, Fe, and B. The uptake of chemical elements into the foliage differed significantly according to whether the plants were growing as single or mixed species. When two species of Grevillea and grasses with evolutionary origins in low fertility soils were growing together, there was an enhanced uptake of P and Mn, in one or both species, in addition to other elements that were in low concentrations in the experimental soil. In contrast to this, Protea neriifolia that probably originated from a more fertile soil procured lesser amounts of the six elements from the soil when growing together with grasses. Two grasses tolerant of less fertile soils (Dactylis glomerata and Poa cita) obtained more nutrients when they grew together with proteas; this was a much stronger neighbour effect than was measured in Lolium perenne which is better adapted to high fertility soils. The findings illustrate both the functional compatibility and competition for plant nutrients in mixed-species rhizospheres. Species combinations substantially increased the acquisition of key elements from the soil nutrient pool. Full article
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Article
The R2R3 MYB Transcription Factor MYB71 Regulates Abscisic Acid Response in Arabidopsis
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1369; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101369 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 452
Abstract
Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant responses to abiotic stresses via regulating the expression of downstream genes, yet the functions of many ABA responsive genes remain unknown. We report here the characterization of MYB71, a R2R3 MYB transcription factor in regulating ABA responses [...] Read more.
Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant responses to abiotic stresses via regulating the expression of downstream genes, yet the functions of many ABA responsive genes remain unknown. We report here the characterization of MYB71, a R2R3 MYB transcription factor in regulating ABA responses in Arabidopsis. RT-PCR results show that the expression level of MYB71 was increased in response to ABA treatment. Arabidopsis protoplasts transfection results show that MYB71 was specifically localized in nucleus and it activated the Gal4:GUS reporter gene when recruited to the Gal4 promoter by a fused DNA binding domain GD. Roles of MYB71 in regulating plant response to ABA were analyzed by generating Arabidopsis transgenic plants overexpression MYB71 and gene edited mutants of MYB71. The results show that ABA sensitivity was increased in the transgenic plants overexpression MYB71, but decreased in the MYB71 mutants. By using a DEX inducible system, we further identified genes are likely regulated by MYB71, and found that they are enriched in biological process to environmental stimuli including abiotic stresses, suggesting that MYB71 may regulate plant response to abiotic stresses. Taken together, our results suggest that MYB71 is an ABA responsive gene, and MYB71 functions as a transcription activator and it positively regulates ABA response in Arabidopsis. Full article
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Article
Identification of Metabolites Changes and Quality in Strawberry Fruit: Effect of Cultivation in High Tunnel and Open Field
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1368; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101368 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 486
Abstract
Strawberry has gained increasing popularity all over the world due to its fruit properties. This popularity is due to the phytochemicals that strawberries have. The aim of this study is to reveal the effect of cultivation in open field and high tunnel on [...] Read more.
Strawberry has gained increasing popularity all over the world due to its fruit properties. This popularity is due to the phytochemicals that strawberries have. The aim of this study is to reveal the effect of cultivation in open field and high tunnel on agromorphological and biochemical properties of strawberries. In this study, fruit yield and fruit quality characteristics of some strawberry varieties grown in open field and high tunnel were investigated. The highest fruit yield, fruit weight and titratable acidity were obtained in high tunnel grown Albion cultivar (542.743 g/plant, 14.927 g/fruit and 1.047%, respectively). While there was no statistical difference between cultivars and treatments in terms of soluble solids content and pH, fruit count was higher in Albion and Kabarla cultivars in both treatments compared to other cultivars (p < 0.05). Among the phenolic compounds, gallic acid was determined to be higher (between 9.246–31.680 mg/100 g) than other phenolics. Considering the organic acid content, malic acid was determined as the dominant organic acid in Kabarla cultivar (870.729 mg/100 g). In addition, in terms of vitamin C content, Rubygem cultivar stood out in both applications. Phenolic compound and organic acid contents varied in terms of varieties and applications. As a result, strawberry fruit, which is an important fruit in terms of fruit quality and consumption diversity, has been found to have high phenolic compounds and organic acid content, although it varies in all varieties and applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctionality of Phenolic Compounds in Plants)
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Review
Cold Stress, Freezing Adaptation, Varietal Susceptibility of Olea europaea L.: A Review
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1367; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101367 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 462
Abstract
Olive (Olea europaea L.) is an evergreen xerophytic tree characterizing vegetative landscape and historical-cultural identity of the Mediterranean Basin. More than 2600 cultivars constitute the rich genetic patrimony of the species cultivated in approximately 60 countries. As a subtropical species, the olive [...] Read more.
Olive (Olea europaea L.) is an evergreen xerophytic tree characterizing vegetative landscape and historical-cultural identity of the Mediterranean Basin. More than 2600 cultivars constitute the rich genetic patrimony of the species cultivated in approximately 60 countries. As a subtropical species, the olive tree is quite sensitive to low temperatures, and air temperature is the most critical environmental factor limiting olive tree growth and production. In this present review, we explored the detrimental effects caused of low temperatures on olive cultivars, and analyzed the most frequently experimental procedures used to evaluate cold stress. Then, current findings freezing stress physiology and gene are summarized in olive tree, with an emphasis on adaptive mechanisms for cold tolerance. This review might clear the way for new research on adaptive mechanisms for cold acclimation and for improvement of olive growing management. Full article
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Article
Decontamination and Germination of Buckwheat Grains upon Treatment with Oxygen Plasma Glow and Afterglow
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1366; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101366 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 407
Abstract
Buckwheat is an alternative crop known for its many beneficial effects on our health. Fungi are an important cause of plant diseases and food spoilage, often posing a threat to humans and animals. This study reports the effects of low-pressure cold plasma treatment [...] Read more.
Buckwheat is an alternative crop known for its many beneficial effects on our health. Fungi are an important cause of plant diseases and food spoilage, often posing a threat to humans and animals. This study reports the effects of low-pressure cold plasma treatment on decontamination and germination of common (CB) and Tartary buckwheat (TB) grains. Both plasma glow and afterglow were applied. The glow treatment was more effective in decontamination: initial contamination was reduced to less than 30% in CB and 10% in TB. Fungal diversity was also affected as only a few genera persisted after the glow treatment; however, it also significantly reduced or even ceased the germination capacity of both buckwheat species. Detailed plasma characterisation by optical spectroscopy revealed extensive etching of outer layers as well as cotyledons. Afterglow treatment resulted in a lower reduction of initial fungal contamination (up to 30% in CB and up to 50% in TB) and had less impact on fungal diversity but did not drastically affect germination: 60–75% of grains still germinated even after few minutes of treatment. The vacuum conditions alone did not affect the fungal population or the germination despite an extensive release of water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breeding Buckwheat for Nutritional Quality Volume II)
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Article
Combining Ability and Heterotic Patterns of Tropical Early-Maturing Maize Inbred Lines under Individual and Combined Heat and Drought Environments
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1365; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101365 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 474
Abstract
Information on combining ability and heterotic patterns of multiple stress-tolerant inbred lines are fundamental prerequisites for devising appropriate breeding strategies for the development of climate-resilient maize hybrids. In the present study, we evaluated 150 single cross hybrids derived from the North Carolina Design [...] Read more.
Information on combining ability and heterotic patterns of multiple stress-tolerant inbred lines are fundamental prerequisites for devising appropriate breeding strategies for the development of climate-resilient maize hybrids. In the present study, we evaluated 150 single cross hybrids derived from the North Carolina Design II (NCD II) along with six commercial checks under terminal drought stress (TDS), heat stress (HS), and combined drought and heat stress (CHDS)conditions. The objectives of the study were to: (i) determine the combining ability of the inbred lines and identify the best testers across the stresses; (ii) classify the inbred lines into heterotic groups (HGs) based on the general combining ability of multiple traits (HGCAMT) and sequencing-based diversity array technology (DArTseq) and (iii) assess the performance and stability of the lines in hybrid combinations. The inbred lines showed significantly (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05) positive and negative general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) effects for grain yield (GY) and most other measured traits. The inbred line TZEI 135 displayed relatively larger positive GCA effects for GY when mated either as male or female and was identified as the best tester. TZEI 135 × TZEI 182 was identified as the best single-cross tester across environments. Results of the assessment of the relative importance of GCA and SCA effects revealed the predominance of additive gene action over the non-additive. Six HGs of inbreds were identified using the HGCAMT and three, based on the DArTseq marker genetic distance method, were the most efficient. The best hybrids in this study significantly out-yielded the best checks by 21, 46, and 70% under CHDS, HS, and TDS, respectively. These hybrids should be extensively tested in on-farm trials for possible commercialization in sub-Saharan Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Breeding, Genetics and Genomics)
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Article
The Effect of Cold Stress on the Root-Specific Lipidome of Two Wheat Varieties with Contrasting Cold Tolerance
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1364; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101364 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 492
Abstract
Complex glycerolipidome analysis of wheat upon low temperature stress has been reported for above-ground tissues only. There are no reports on the effects of cold stress on the root lipidome nor on tissue-specific responses of cold stress wheat roots. This study aims to [...] Read more.
Complex glycerolipidome analysis of wheat upon low temperature stress has been reported for above-ground tissues only. There are no reports on the effects of cold stress on the root lipidome nor on tissue-specific responses of cold stress wheat roots. This study aims to investigate the changes of lipid profiles in the different developmental zones of the seedling roots of two wheat varieties with contrasting cold tolerance exposed to chilling and freezing temperatures. We analyzed 273 lipid species derived from 21 lipid classes using a targeted profiling approach based on MS/MS data acquired from schedule parallel reaction monitoring assays. For both the tolerant Young and sensitive Wyalkatchem species, cold stress increased the phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine compositions, but decreased the monohexosyl ceramide compositions in the root zones. We show that the difference between the two varieties with contrasting cold tolerance could be attributed to the change in the individual lipid species, rather than the fluctuation of the whole lipid classes. The outcomes gained from this study may advance our understanding of the mechanisms of wheat adaptation to cold and contribute to wheat breeding for the improvement of cold-tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Responses to Temperature in Plants)
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Article
Productiveness and Berry Quality of New Wine Grape Genotypes Grown under Drought Conditions in a Semi-Arid Wine-Producing Mediterranean Region
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1363; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101363 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 337
Abstract
One alternative for adapting viticulture to high temperatures and the scarcity of water is the development of new varieties adapted to such conditions. This work describes six new genotypes, derived from “Monastrell” × “Cabernet Sauvignon” (MC16, MC19, MC72, MC80) and “Monastrell” × “Syrah” [...] Read more.
One alternative for adapting viticulture to high temperatures and the scarcity of water is the development of new varieties adapted to such conditions. This work describes six new genotypes, derived from “Monastrell” × “Cabernet Sauvignon” (MC16, MC19, MC72, MC80) and “Monastrell” × “Syrah” (MS104, MS49) crosses, grown under deficit irrigation and rainfed conditions in a semi-arid wine-producing area (Murcia, southeastern Spain). The effect of genotype, year, and irrigation treatment on the phenological, productiveness, morphological, and grape quality data was evaluated. The study material was obtained and selected as part of a breeding program run by the Instituto Murciano de Investigación y Desarollo Agrario y Medioambiental (IMIDA). The results obtained show that under rainfed conditions, the values for productive variables decreased, while those referring to the phenolic content increased. Notable variation in the parameters evaluated was also seen for the different genotypes studied. The behavior of the genotypes MC80 and MS104 under rainfed conditions was noteworthy. In addition to maintaining very adequate yields, phenolic contents, must pH, and total acidity values, MC80 fell into the best ‘phenolic quality group’ and MS104 returned a low º°Baumé value, ideal for the production of low-alcohol-content wines. These genotypes could favor the development of sustainable quality viticulture in dry and hot areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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Article
Genome-Wide Associations with Resistance to Bipolaris Leaf Spot (Bipolaris oryzae (Breda de Haan) Shoemaker) in a Northern Switchgrass Population (Panicum virgatum L.)
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1362; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101362 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a northern native perennial grass, suffers from yield reduction from Bipolaris leaf spot caused by Bipolaris oryzae (Breda de Haan) Shoemaker. This study aimed to determine the resistant populations via multiple phenotyping approaches and identify potential resistance genes [...] Read more.
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a northern native perennial grass, suffers from yield reduction from Bipolaris leaf spot caused by Bipolaris oryzae (Breda de Haan) Shoemaker. This study aimed to determine the resistant populations via multiple phenotyping approaches and identify potential resistance genes from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in the switchgrass northern association panel. The disease resistance was evaluated from both natural (field evaluations in Ithaca, New York and Phillipsburg, Philadelphia) and artificial inoculations (detached leaf and leaf disk assays). The most resistant populations based on a combination of three phenotyping approaches—detached leaf, leaf disk, and mean from two locations—were ‘SW788’, ‘SW806’, ‘SW802’, ‘SW793’, ‘SW781’, ‘SW797’, ‘SW798’, ‘SW803’, ‘SW795’, ‘SW805’. The GWAS from the association panel showed 27 significant SNPs on 12 chromosomes: 1K, 2K, 2N, 3K, 3N, 4N, 5K, 5N, 6N, 7K, 7N, and 9N. These markers accumulatively explained the phenotypic variance of the resistance ranging from 3.28 to 26.52%. Within linkage disequilibrium of 20 kb, these SNP markers linked with the potential resistance genes included the genes encoding for NBS-LRR, PPR, cell-wall related proteins, homeostatic proteins, anti-apoptotic proteins, and ABC transporter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breeding of Crop Disease-Resistant Cultivars)
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Article
Application of CRISPR/Cas9 System for Efficient Gene Editing in Peanut
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1361; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101361 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 497
Abstract
Peanuts are an economically important crop cultivated worldwide. However, several limitations restrained its productivity, including biotic/abiotic stresses. CRISPR/Cas9-based gene-editing technology holds a promising approach to developing new crops with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Its application has been successful in many important crops. [...] Read more.
Peanuts are an economically important crop cultivated worldwide. However, several limitations restrained its productivity, including biotic/abiotic stresses. CRISPR/Cas9-based gene-editing technology holds a promising approach to developing new crops with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Its application has been successful in many important crops. However, the application of this technology in peanut research is limited, probably due to the lack of suitable constructs and protocols. In this study, two different constructs were generated to induce insertion/deletion mutations in the targeted gene for a loss of function study. The first construct harbors the regular gRNA scaffold, while the second construct has the extended scaffold plus terminator. The designed gRNA targeting the coding sequence of the FAD2 genes was cloned into both constructs, and their functionality and efficiency were validated using the hairy root transformation system. Both constructs displayed insertions and deletions as the types of edits. The construct harboring the extended plus gRNA terminator showed a higher editing efficiency than the regular scaffold for monoallelic and biallelic mutations. These two constructs can be used for gene editing in peanuts and could provide tools for improving peanut lines for the benefit of peanut breeders, farmers, and industry. Full article
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Review
Antidiabetic Potential of Plants from the Caribbean Basin
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1360; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101360 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 560
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin insufficiency or insulin resistance, and many issues, including vascular complications, glycative stress and lipid metabolism dysregulation. Natural products from plants with antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic, pancreatic protective, antioxidative, and insulin-like properties complement [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin insufficiency or insulin resistance, and many issues, including vascular complications, glycative stress and lipid metabolism dysregulation. Natural products from plants with antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic, pancreatic protective, antioxidative, and insulin-like properties complement conventional treatments. Throughout this review, we summarize the current status of knowledge of plants from the Caribbean basin traditionally used to manage DM and treat its sequelae. Seven plants were chosen due to their use in Caribbean folk medicine. We summarize the antidiabetic properties of each species, exploring the pharmacological mechanisms related to their antidiabetic effect reported in vitro and in vivo. We propose the Caribbean flora as a source of innovative bioactive phytocompounds to treat and prevent DM and DM-associated complications. Full article
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Communication
SNF1-Related Protein Kinase 1 Activity Represses the Canonical Translational Machinery
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1359; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101359 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 355
Abstract
Protein biosynthesis is achieved through translation, which consumes enormous energy. Therefore, under conditions of limited energy supply, translation progress should be strictly coordinated. Sucrose non-fermenting kinase1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase 1 (SnRK1) is an evolutionarily conserved master regulator of cellular energy stress signaling in [...] Read more.
Protein biosynthesis is achieved through translation, which consumes enormous energy. Therefore, under conditions of limited energy supply, translation progress should be strictly coordinated. Sucrose non-fermenting kinase1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase 1 (SnRK1) is an evolutionarily conserved master regulator of cellular energy stress signaling in plants. Rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SnRK1 enhance hypoxia tolerance and induce the expression of stress-related genes. However, whether SnRK1 modulates protein synthesis in plants is unknown. In this study, using translational reporter constructs transfected in Arabidopsis protoplasts we showed that the expression of OsSnRK1A and AtSnRK1.1 decreases the abundance of canonical proteins without affecting their encoding transcript levels and protein stability. Moreover, the loading of total mRNAs and GFP mRNAs into the heavy polysome fraction which is normally translated was attenuated in transgenic Arabidopsis lines constitutively expressing OsSnRK1A or AtSnRK1.1. Taken together, these results suggest that OsSnRK1A and AtSnRK1.1 suppress protein translation to maintain energy homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cellular Homeostasis and Reprogramming during Stress)
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Article
Virulence Structure and Genetic Diversity of Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae from Different Regions of Europe
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1358; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/plants11101358 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 322
Abstract
The structure and dynamics of changes in pathogen populations can be analysed by assessing the level of virulence and genetic diversity. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity of Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae populations. Diversity and virulence of [...] Read more.
The structure and dynamics of changes in pathogen populations can be analysed by assessing the level of virulence and genetic diversity. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity of Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae populations. Diversity and virulence of B. graminis f. sp. avenae was assessed based on 80 single-spore isolates collected in different European countries such as Poland (40 isolates), Germany (10), Finland (10), Czech Republic (10) and Ireland (10) using ISSR (Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats) and SCoT (Start Codon Targeted) markers. This work demonstrated differences in virulence of B. graminis f. sp. avenae isolates sampled from different countries. Molecular analysis showed that both systems were useful for assessing genetic diversity, but ISSR markers were superior and generated more polymorphic products, as well as higher PIC and RP values. UPMGA and PCoA divided the isolates into groups corresponding with their geographical origin. In conclusion, the low level of genetic differentiation of the analysed isolates has suggested that the evolution of B. graminis f. sp. Avenae population is slow, and thus the evolutionary potential of the pathogen is low. This work paves the way for future studies on B. graminis f. sp. Avenae population structure and dynamics based on genetic variability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Fungal Diseases: Etiology, Breeding, and Integrated Management)
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