Next Issue
Volume 11, June
Previous Issue
Volume 10, December

J. Sens. Actuator Netw., Volume 11, Issue 1 (March 2022) – 19 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): IoT applications impose reliable and timely operation and connectivity between fixed and mobile “objects”, which is challenging since most of these devices tend to be resource-constrained due to scalability and cost limitations, i.e., most of these “objects” are expected to be equipped with low-cost and low-power processing and communication HW and operate in uncontrolled/harsh indoor or outdoor environments (e.g., obstacles, EMI, climate conditions). In this context, we present SDMob, a lightweight SDN-based mobility management architecture. A centralized SDN controller exploits its global view of the network to quickly re-adapt it upon topological changes. Analytical modeling and simulations show that SDMob outperforms the SOTA with minimal overhead, guaranteeing sub-meter localization accuracy under different mobility patterns and network topologies. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Review
Wearable Sensors for Vital Signs Measurement: A Survey
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(1), 19; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jsan11010019 - 11 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1140
Abstract
With the outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) worldwide, developments in the medical field have aroused concerns within society. As science and technology develop, wearable medical sensors have become the main means of medical data acquisition. To analyze the intelligent development status of wearable [...] Read more.
With the outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) worldwide, developments in the medical field have aroused concerns within society. As science and technology develop, wearable medical sensors have become the main means of medical data acquisition. To analyze the intelligent development status of wearable medical sensors, the current work classifies and prospects the application status and functions of wireless communication wearable medical sensors, based on human physiological data acquisition in the medical field. By understanding its working principles, data acquisition modes and action modes, the work chiefly analyzes the application of wearable medical sensors in vascular infarction, respiratory intensity, body temperature, blood oxygen concentration, and sleep detection, and reflects the key role of wearable medical sensors in human physiological data acquisition. Further exploration and prospecting are made by investigating the improvement of information security performance of wearable medical sensors, the improvement of biological adaptability and biodegradability of new materials, and the integration of wearable medical sensors and intelligence-assisted rehabilitation. The research expects to provide a reference for the intelligent development of wearable medical sensors and real-time monitoring of human health in the follow-up medical field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Network Services and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
ELBA-IoT: An Ensemble Learning Model for Botnet Attack Detection in IoT Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(1), 18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jsan11010018 - 09 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1186
Abstract
Due to the prompt expansion and development of intelligent systems and autonomous, energy-aware sensing devices, the Internet of Things (IoT) has remarkably grown and obstructed nearly all applications in our daily life. However, constraints in computation, storage, and communication capabilities of IoT devices [...] Read more.
Due to the prompt expansion and development of intelligent systems and autonomous, energy-aware sensing devices, the Internet of Things (IoT) has remarkably grown and obstructed nearly all applications in our daily life. However, constraints in computation, storage, and communication capabilities of IoT devices has led to an increase in IoT-based botnet attacks. To mitigate this threat, there is a need for a lightweight and anomaly-based detection system that can build profiles for normal and malicious activities over IoT networks. In this paper, we propose an ensemble learning model for botnet attack detection in IoT networks called ELBA-IoT that profiles behavior features of IoT networks and uses ensemble learning to identify anomalous network traffic from compromised IoT devices. In addition, our IoT-based botnet detection approach characterizes the evaluation of three different machine learning techniques that belong to decision tree techniques (AdaBoosted, RUSBoosted, and bagged). To evaluate ELBA-IoT, we used the N-BaIoT-2021 dataset, which comprises records of both normal IoT network traffic and botnet attack traffic of infected IoT devices. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed ELBA-IoT can detect the botnet attacks launched from the compromised IoT devices with high detection accuracy (99.6%) and low inference overhead (40 µ-seconds). We also contrast ELBA-IoT results with other state-of-the-art results and demonstrate that ELBA-IoT is superior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Network Services and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Bio-Signals in Medical Applications and Challenges Using Artificial Intelligence
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(1), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jsan11010017 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1213
Abstract
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has broadly connected the medical field at various levels of diagnosis based on the congruous data generated. Different types of bio-signal can be used to monitor a patient’s condition and in decision making. Medical equipment uses signals to communicate information [...] Read more.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has broadly connected the medical field at various levels of diagnosis based on the congruous data generated. Different types of bio-signal can be used to monitor a patient’s condition and in decision making. Medical equipment uses signals to communicate information to care staff. AI algorithms and approaches will help to predict health problems and check the health status of organs, while AI prediction, classification, and regression algorithms are helping the medical industry to protect from health hazards. The early prediction and detection of health conditions will guide people to stay healthy. This paper represents the scope of bio-signals using AI in the medical area. It will illustrate possible case studies relevant to bio-signals generated through IoT sensors. The bio-signals that retrospectively occur are discussed, and the new challenges of medical diagnosis using bio-signals are identified. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Combining 10 Matrix Pressure Sensor to Read Human Body’s Pressure in Sleeping Position in Relation with Decubitus Patients
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(1), 16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jsan11010016 - 25 Feb 2022
Viewed by 991
Abstract
This work uses piezoresistive matrix pressure sensors to map the human body’s pressure profile in a sleeping position. This study aims to detect the area with the highest pressure, to visualize the pressure profile into a heatmap, and to reduce decubitus by alerting [...] Read more.
This work uses piezoresistive matrix pressure sensors to map the human body’s pressure profile in a sleeping position. This study aims to detect the area with the highest pressure, to visualize the pressure profile into a heatmap, and to reduce decubitus by alerting the subject to changes in position. This research combines ten matrix pressure sensors to read a larger area. This work uses a Raspberry Pi 4 Model B with 8 GB memory as the data processor, and every sensor sheet uses ATMEGA 2560 as the sensor controller for data acquisition. Sensor calibration is necessary because each output must have the same value for the same weight value; the accuracy between different sensors is around 95%. After the calibration process, the output data must be smoothed to make visual representations more distinguishable. The areas with the highest pressure are the heel, tailbone, back, and head. When the subject’s weight increases, pressure on the tailbone and back increases, but that on the heel and head does not. The results of this research can be used to monitor people’s sleeping positions so that they can reduce the risk of decubitus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Wireless Sensor Networks)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Novel Road Maintenance Prioritisation System Based on Computer Vision and Crowdsourced Reporting
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(1), 15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jsan11010015 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1269
Abstract
The maintenance of critical infrastructure is a costly necessity that developing countries often struggle to deliver timely repairs. The transport system acts as the arteries of any economy in development, and the formation of potholes on roads can lead to injuries and the [...] Read more.
The maintenance of critical infrastructure is a costly necessity that developing countries often struggle to deliver timely repairs. The transport system acts as the arteries of any economy in development, and the formation of potholes on roads can lead to injuries and the loss of lives. Recently, several countries have enabled pothole reporting platforms for their citizens, so that repair work data can be centralised and visible for everyone. Nevertheless, many of these platforms have been interrupted because of the rapid growth of requests made by users. Not only have these platforms failed to filter duplicate or fake reports, but they have also failed to classify their severity, albeit that this information would be key in prioritising repair work and improving the safety of roads. In this work, we aimed to develop a prioritisation system that combines deep learning models and traditional computer vision techniques to automate the analysis of road irregularities reported by citizens. The system consists of three main components. First, we propose a processing pipeline that segments road sections of repair requests with a UNet-based model that integrates a pretrained Resnet34 as the encoder. Second, we assessed the performance of two object detection architectures—EfficientDet and YOLOv5—in the task of road damage localisation and classification. Two public datasets, the Indian Driving Dataset (IDD) and the Road Damage Detection Dataset (RDD2020), were preprocessed and augmented to train and evaluate our segmentation and damage detection models. Third, we applied feature extraction and feature matching to find possible duplicated reports. The combination of these three approaches allowed us to cluster reports according to their location and severity using clustering techniques. The results showed that this approach is a promising direction for authorities to leverage limited road maintenance resources in an impactful and effective way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Learning in IoT Networking and Communications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Utilizing B-Spline Curves and Neural Networks for Vehicle Trajectory Prediction in an Inverse Reinforcement Learning Framework
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(1), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jsan11010014 - 10 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1010
Abstract
The ability to accurately predict vehicle trajectories is essential in infrastructure-based safety systems that aim to identify critical events such as near-crash situations and traffic violations. In a connected environment, important information about these critical events can be communicated to road users or [...] Read more.
The ability to accurately predict vehicle trajectories is essential in infrastructure-based safety systems that aim to identify critical events such as near-crash situations and traffic violations. In a connected environment, important information about these critical events can be communicated to road users or the infrastructure to avoid or mitigate potential crashes. Intersections require special attention in this context because they are hotspots for crashes and involve numerous and complex interactions between road users. In this work, we developed an advanced machine learning method for trajectory prediction using B-spline curve representations of vehicle trajectories and inverse reinforcement learning (IRL). B-spline curves were used to represent vehicle trajectories; a neural network model was trained to predict the coefficients of these curves. A conditional variational autoencoder (CVAE) was used to generate candidate trajectories from these predicted coefficients. These candidate trajectories were then ranked according to a reward function that was obtained by training an IRL model on the (spline smoothed) vehicle trajectories and the surroundings of the vehicles. In our experiments we found that the neural network model outperformed a Kalman filter baseline and the addition of the IRL ranking module further improved the performance of the overall model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS))
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
An AI-Empowered Home-Infrastructure to Minimize Medication Errors
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(1), 13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jsan11010013 - 09 Feb 2022
Viewed by 957
Abstract
This article presents an Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based infrastructure to reduce medication errors while following a treatment plan at home. The system, in particular, assists patients who have some cognitive disability. The AI-based system first learns the skills of a patient using the Actor–Critic [...] Read more.
This article presents an Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based infrastructure to reduce medication errors while following a treatment plan at home. The system, in particular, assists patients who have some cognitive disability. The AI-based system first learns the skills of a patient using the Actor–Critic method. After assessing patients’ disabilities, the system adopts an appropriate method for the monitoring process. Available methods for monitoring the medication process are a Deep Learning (DL)-based classifier, Optical Character Recognition, and the barcode technique. The DL model is a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier that is able to detect a drug even when shown in different orientations. The second technique is an OCR based on Tesseract library that reads the name of the drug from the box. The third method is a barcode based on Zbar library that identifies the drug from the barcode available on the box. The GUI demonstrates that the system can assist patients in taking the correct drug and prevent medication errors. This integration of three different tools to monitor the medication process shows advantages as it decreases the chance of medication errors and increases the chance of correct detection. This methodology is more useful when a patient has mild cognitive impairment. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Discrete-Time Takagi-Sugeno Stabilization Approach Applied in Autonomous Vehicles
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(1), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jsan11010012 - 09 Feb 2022
Viewed by 895
Abstract
This paper deals with a new robust control design for autonomous vehicles. The goal is to perform lane-keeping under various constraints, mainly unknown curvature and lateral wind force. To reach this goal, a new formulation of Parallel Distributed Compensation (PDC) law is given. [...] Read more.
This paper deals with a new robust control design for autonomous vehicles. The goal is to perform lane-keeping under various constraints, mainly unknown curvature and lateral wind force. To reach this goal, a new formulation of Parallel Distributed Compensation (PDC) law is given. The quadratic Lyapunov stability and stabilization conditions of the discrete-time Takagi–Sugeno (T-S) model representing the autonomous vehicles are discussed. Sufficient design conditions expressed in terms of strict Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs) extracted from the linearization of the Bilinear Matrix Inequalities (BMIs) are proposed. An illustrative example is provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks: 10th Year Anniversary)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of JSAN in 2021
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(1), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jsan11010011 - 29 Jan 2022
Viewed by 723
Abstract
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Article
Seamless Handover Scheme for MEC/SDN-Based Vehicular Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(1), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jsan11010009 - 27 Jan 2022
Viewed by 986
Abstract
With the recent advances in the fifth-generation cellular system (5G), enabling vehicular communications has become a demand. The vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is a promising paradigm that enables the communication and interaction between vehicles and other surrounding devices, e.g., vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and [...] Read more.
With the recent advances in the fifth-generation cellular system (5G), enabling vehicular communications has become a demand. The vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is a promising paradigm that enables the communication and interaction between vehicles and other surrounding devices, e.g., vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications. However, enabling such networks faces many challenges due to the mobility of vehicles. One of these challenges is the design of handover schemes that manage the communications at the intersection of coverage regions. To this end, this work considers developing a novel seamless and efficient handover scheme for V2X-based networks. The developed scheme manages the handover process while vehicles move between two neighboring roadside units (RSU). The developed mechanism is introduced for multilane bidirectional roads. The developed scheme is implemented by multiple-access edge computing (MEC) units connected to the RSUs to improve the implementation time and make the handover process faster. The considered MEC platform deploys an MEC controller that implements a control scheme of the software-defined networking (SDN) controller that manages the network. The SDN paradigm is introduced to make the handover process seamless; however, implementing such a controlling scheme by the introduction of an MEC controller achieves the process faster than going through the core network. The developed handover scheme was evaluated over the reliable platform of NS-3, and the results validated the developed scheme. The results obtained are presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks: 10th Year Anniversary)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Uncoupled Wi-Fi Body CoM Acceleration for the Analysis of Lightweight Glass Slabs under Random Walks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jsan11010010 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 919
Abstract
The vibration serviceability assessment of slender and/or lightweight pedestrian systems with high sensitivity to walk-induced effects is rather challenging. In the same way, laminated glass (LG) is used in buildings for structural applications but still represents a not well known and vulnerable material. [...] Read more.
The vibration serviceability assessment of slender and/or lightweight pedestrian systems with high sensitivity to walk-induced effects is rather challenging. In the same way, laminated glass (LG) is used in buildings for structural applications but still represents a not well known and vulnerable material. For pedestrian LG systems, the characterization of dynamic and mechanical parameters may require specific procedures which do not adapt from other constructional typologies. Among others, the mass of pedestrians is generally high compared with LG structural components. Size and restraints in LG may also lead to more pronounced vibration effects. For existing LG systems, moreover, knowledge of residual capacity may be rather difficult. In this paper, an original uncoupled experimental investigation is proposed to numerically address the accuracy and potential of low-cost laboratory body measures for vibration analysis of LG slabs to support (or even replace) field tests or more complex calculation approaches. A total of 40 experimental records are taken into account, in the form of body center of mass (CoM) acceleration time histories for an adult volunteer walking on a rigid concrete slab and equipped with a single high-precision, Wi-Fi triaxial sensor based on micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Body CoM records are elaborated and used as input for finite element (FE) nonlinear dynamic analysis in the time domain (WL1) of two LG slab configurations (GS1 and GS2) with identical geometry but different boundaries. A third reinforced concrete slab of literature (CS3) is also investigated for further assessment. Numerical parametric results from a total of 120 WL1-based nonlinear dynamic analyses are compared with FE numerical results based on a conventional deterministic approach (WL2) to describe walk-induced effects, as well as towards past field experiments (GS2). The accuracy and potential of the proposed procedure are discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
SDMob: SDN-Based Mobility Management for IoT Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jsan11010008 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1145
Abstract
Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications are envisaged to evolve to support mobility of devices while providing quality of service in the system. To keep the connectivity of the constrained nodes upon topological changes, it is of vital importance to enhance the standard protocol stack, including [...] Read more.
Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications are envisaged to evolve to support mobility of devices while providing quality of service in the system. To keep the connectivity of the constrained nodes upon topological changes, it is of vital importance to enhance the standard protocol stack, including the Routing Protocol for Lossy Low-power Networks (RPL), with accurate and real-time control decisions. We argue that devising a centralized mobility management solution based on a lightweight Software Defined Networking (SDN) controller provides seamless handoff with reasonable communication overhead. A centralized controller can exploit its global view of the network, computation capacity, and flexibility, to predict and significantly improve the responsiveness of the network. This approach requires the controller to be fed with the required input and to get involved in the distributed operation of the standard RPL. We present SDMob, which is a lightweight SDN-based mobility management architecture that integrates an external controller within a constrained IoT network. SDMob lifts the burden of computation-intensive filtering algorithms away from the resource-constrained nodes to achieve seamless handoffs upon nodes’ mobility. The current work extends our previous work, by supporting multiple mobile nodes, networks with a high density of anchors, and varying hop-distance from the controller, as well as harsh and realistic mobility patterns. Through analytical modeling and simulations, we show that SDMob outperforms the baseline RPL and the state-of-the-art ARMOR in terms of packet delivery ratio and end-to-end delay, with an adjustable and tolerable overhead. With SDMob, the network provides close to 100% packet delivery ratio (PDR) for a limited number of mobile nodes, and maintains sub-meter accuracy in localization under random mobility patterns and varying network topologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks: 10th Year Anniversary)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Sentiment Analysis of Social Survey Data for Local City Councils
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jsan11010007 - 12 Jan 2022
Viewed by 932
Abstract
Big data analytics can be used by smart cities to improve their citizens’ liveability, health, and wellbeing. Social surveys and also social media can be employed to engage with their communities, and these can require sophisticated analysis techniques. This research was focused on [...] Read more.
Big data analytics can be used by smart cities to improve their citizens’ liveability, health, and wellbeing. Social surveys and also social media can be employed to engage with their communities, and these can require sophisticated analysis techniques. This research was focused on carrying out a sentiment analysis from social surveys. Data analysis techniques using RStudio and Python were applied to several open-source datasets, which included the 2018 Social Indicators Survey dataset published by the City of Melbourne (CoM) and the Casey Next short survey 2016 dataset published by the City of Casey (CoC). The qualitative nature of the CoC dataset responses could produce rich insights using sentiment analysis, unlike the quantitative CoM dataset. RStudio analysis created word cloud visualizations and bar charts for sentiment values. These were then used to inform social media analysis via the Twitter application programming interface. The R codes were all integrated within a Shiny application to create a set of user-friendly interactive web apps that generate sentiment analysis both from the historic survey data and more immediately from the Twitter feeds. The web apps were embedded within a website that provides a customisable solution to estimate sentiment for key issues. Global sentiment was also compared between the social media approach and the 2016 survey dataset analysis and showed some correlation, although there are caveats on the use of social media for sentiment analysis. Further refinement of the methodology is required to improve the social media app and to calibrate it against analysis of recent survey data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Sensor Networks and Systems in Smart Cities)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Towards a Lightweight Intrusion Detection Framework for In-Vehicle Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jsan11010006 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 963
Abstract
With the emergence of networked devices, from the Internet of Things (IoT) nodes and cellular phones to vehicles connected to the Internet, there has been an ever-growing expansion of attack surfaces in the Internet of Vehicles (IoV). In the past decade, there has [...] Read more.
With the emergence of networked devices, from the Internet of Things (IoT) nodes and cellular phones to vehicles connected to the Internet, there has been an ever-growing expansion of attack surfaces in the Internet of Vehicles (IoV). In the past decade, there has been a rapid growth in the automotive industry as network-enabled and electronic devices are now integral parts of vehicular ecosystems. These include the development of automobile technologies, namely, Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAV) and electric vehicles. Attacks on IoV may lead to malfunctioning of Electronic Control Unit (ECU), brakes, control steering issues, and door lock issues that can be fatal in CAV. To mitigate these risks, there is need for a lightweight model to identify attacks on vehicular systems. In this article, an efficient model of an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is developed to detect anomalies in the vehicular system. The dataset used in this study is an In-Vehicle Network (IVN) communication protocol, i.e., Control Area Network (CAN) dataset generated in a real-time environment. The model classifies different types of attacks on vehicles into reconnaissance, Denial of Service (DoS), and fuzzing attacks. Experimentation with performance metrics of accuracy, precision, recall, and F-1 score are compared across a variety of classification models. The results demonstrate that the proposed model outperforms other classification models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS))
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Blockchain-Based Security Model for LoRaWAN Firmware Updates
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jsan11010005 - 07 Jan 2022
Viewed by 870
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) is changing the way consumers, businesses, and governments interact with the physical and cyber worlds. More often than not, IoT devices are designed for specific functional requirements or use cases without paying too much attention to security. Consequently, [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is changing the way consumers, businesses, and governments interact with the physical and cyber worlds. More often than not, IoT devices are designed for specific functional requirements or use cases without paying too much attention to security. Consequently, attackers usually compromise IoT devices with lax security to retrieve sensitive information such as encryption keys, user passwords, and sensitive URLs. Moreover, expanding IoT use cases and the exponential growth in connected smart devices significantly widen the attack surface. Despite efforts to deal with security problems, the security of IoT devices and the privacy of the data they collect and process are still areas of concern in research. Whenever vulnerabilities are discovered, device manufacturers are expected to release patches or new firmware to fix the vulnerabilities. There is a need to prioritize firmware attacks, because they enable the most high-impact threats that go beyond what is possible with traditional attacks. In IoT, delivering and deploying new firmware securely to affected devices remains a challenge. This study aims to develop a security model that employs Blockchain and the InterPlanentary File System (IPFS) to secure firmware transmission over a low data rate, constrained Long-Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN). The proposed security model ensures integrity, confidentiality, availability, and authentication and focuses on resource-constrained low-powered devices. To demonstrate the utility and applicability of the proposed model, a proof of concept was implemented and evaluated using low-powered devices. The experimental results show that the proposed model is feasible for constrained and low-powered LoRaWAN devices. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Survey of Outlier Detection Techniques in IoT: Review and Classification
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jsan11010004 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1216
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a fact today where a high number of nodes are used for various applications. From small home networks to large-scale networks, the aim is the same: transmitting data from the sensors to the base station. However, these [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a fact today where a high number of nodes are used for various applications. From small home networks to large-scale networks, the aim is the same: transmitting data from the sensors to the base station. However, these data are susceptible to different factors that may affect the collected data efficiency or the network functioning, and therefore the desired quality of service (QoS). In this context, one of the main issues requiring more research and adapted solutions is the outlier detection problem. The challenge is to detect outliers and classify them as either errors to be ignored, or important events requiring actions to prevent further service degradation. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive literature review of recent outlier detection techniques used in the IoTs context. First, we provide the fundamentals of outlier detection while discussing the different sources of an outlier, the existing approaches, how we can evaluate an outlier detection technique, and the challenges facing designing such techniques. Second, comparison and discussion of the most recent outlier detection techniques are presented and classified into seven main categories, which are: statistical-based, clustering-based, nearest neighbour-based, classification-based, artificial intelligent-based, spectral decomposition-based, and hybrid-based. For each category, available techniques are discussed, while highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each of them. The related works for each of them are presented. Finally, a comparative study for these techniques is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks: 10th Year Anniversary)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
New Multipath OLSR Protocol Version for Heterogeneous Ad Hoc Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jsan11010003 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 803
Abstract
From a basic refrigerator to a self-driving car, emerging technologies are increasingly involving various facets of our daily lives. These bring together many regularly used devices, each with its own characteristics, to communicate and collaborate within the same system. Computer network experts regard [...] Read more.
From a basic refrigerator to a self-driving car, emerging technologies are increasingly involving various facets of our daily lives. These bring together many regularly used devices, each with its own characteristics, to communicate and collaborate within the same system. Computer network experts regard this so-called structure as a heterogeneous network made up of several connected objects that do not speak the same language. Communication is therefore ensured by additional types of nodes, such as gateways or converters. In this case, we can detect an increased complexity and a decreased level of security. And thus, the need to adopt a common slang for these kinds of networks has been brought to life. In this work, we compare two different routing protocols: optimized link-state routing (OLSR) and the multipath heterogeneous ad hoc network OLSR (MHAR-OLSR). The latter is an OLSR extension with new functionalities: nodes identification, paths calculation, paths classification, and paths choice that we designed for heterogeneous ad hoc networks composed of MANET, VANET, and FANET devices; it ensures direct communication between these diverse components. We verify and explain all the elements of our solution using colored Petri nets. We also present a global evaluation of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), End-To-End Delay, and energy consumption as QoS measures with different numbers of nodes in a heterogeneous scenario. To do this, we use NS-3 and BonnMotion as a tool-set of simulation. Experimental results show improvement in performance when compared to the classical routing protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks: 10th Year Anniversary)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Dynamic Light-Weight Symmetric Encryption Algorithm for Secure Data Transmission via BLE Beacons
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jsan11010002 - 27 Dec 2021
Viewed by 917
Abstract
Pervasive sensing with Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) is a promising technology for continuous health monitoring. Since the sensor nodes are resource-limited, on-node processing and advertisement of digested information via BLE beacon is a promising technique that can enable a node gateway to communicate [...] Read more.
Pervasive sensing with Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) is a promising technology for continuous health monitoring. Since the sensor nodes are resource-limited, on-node processing and advertisement of digested information via BLE beacon is a promising technique that can enable a node gateway to communicate with more sensor nodes and extend the sensor node’s lifetime before requiring recharging. This study proposes a Dynamic Light-weight Symmetric (DLS) encryption algorithm designed and developed to address the challenges in data protection and real-time secure data transmission via message advertisement. The algorithm uses a unique temporal encryption key to encrypt each transmitting packet with a simple function such as XOR. With small additional overhead on computational resources, DLS can significantly enhance security over existing baseline encryption algorithms. To evaluate its performance, the algorithm was utilized on beacon data encryption over advertising channels. The experiments demonstrated the use of the DLS encryption algorithm on top of various light-weight symmetric encryption algorithms (i.e., TEA, XTEA, PRESENT) and a MD5 hash function. The experimental results show that DLS can achieve acceptable results for avalanche effect, key sensitivity, and randomness in ciphertexts with a marginal increase in the resource usage. The proposed DLS encryption algorithm is suitable for implementation at the application layer, is light and energy efficient, reduces/removes the need for secret key exchange between sensor nodes and the server, is applicable to dynamic message size, and also protects against attacks such as known plaintext attack, brute-force attack, replaying attack, and differential attack. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Development of a Design Methodology for Cloud Distributed Control Systems of Mobile Robots
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jsan11010001 - 26 Dec 2021
Viewed by 870
Abstract
This article addresses the problem of cloud distributed control systems development for mobile robots. The authors emphasize the lack of a design methodology to guide the process of the development in accordance with specific technical and economic requirements for the robot. On the [...] Read more.
This article addresses the problem of cloud distributed control systems development for mobile robots. The authors emphasize the lack of a design methodology to guide the process of the development in accordance with specific technical and economic requirements for the robot. On the analysis of various robots architectures, the set of the nine most significant parameters are identified to direct the development stage by stage. Based on those parameters, the design methodology is proposed to build a scalable three-level cloud distributed control system for a robot. The application of the methodology is demonstrated on the example of AnyWalker open source robotics platform. The developed methodology is also applied to two other walking robots illustrated in the article. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop