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Volume 9, September

Climate, Volume 9, Issue 10 (October 2021) – 7 articles

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Article
Geospatial Assessment of Flood-Tolerant Rice Varieties to Guide Climate Adaptation Strategies in India
Climate 2021, 9(10), 151; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9100151 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 167
Abstract
Rice is the most important food crop. With the largest rain-fed lowland area in the world, flooding is considered as the most important abiotic stress to rice production in India. With climate change, it is expected that the frequency and severity of the [...] Read more.
Rice is the most important food crop. With the largest rain-fed lowland area in the world, flooding is considered as the most important abiotic stress to rice production in India. With climate change, it is expected that the frequency and severity of the floods will increase over the years. These changes will have a severe impact on the rain-fed agriculture production and livelihoods of millions of farmers in the flood affected region. There are numerous flood risk adaptation and mitigation options available for rain-fed agriculture in India. Procuring, maintaining and distributing the newly developed submergence-tolerant rice variety called Swarna-Sub1 could play an important role in minimizing the effect of flood on rice production. This paper assesses the quantity and cost of a flood-tolerant rice seed variety- Swarna-Sub1, that would be required during the main cropping season of rice i.e., kharif at a district level for 17 major Indian states. The need for SS1 seeds for rice production was assessed by developing a geospatial framework using remote sensing to map the suitability of SS1, to help stakeholders prepare better in managing the flood risks. Results indicate that districts of Bihar, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh will require the highest amount of SS1 seeds for flood adaptation strategies. The total estimated seed requirement for these 17 states would cost around 370 crores INR, less than 0.01 percent of Indian central government’s budget allocation for agriculture sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Food Insecurity)
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Article
Dynamical Downscaling of Surface Air Temperature and Wind Field Variabilities over the Southeastern Levantine Basin, Mediterranean Sea
Climate 2021, 9(10), 150; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9100150 - 11 Oct 2021
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Abstract
The characteristics of near surface air temperature and wind field over the Southeastern Levantine (SEL) sub-basin during the period 1979–2018 were simulated. The simulation was carried out using a dynamical downscaling approach, which requires running a regional climate model system (RegCM-SVN6994) on the [...] Read more.
The characteristics of near surface air temperature and wind field over the Southeastern Levantine (SEL) sub-basin during the period 1979–2018 were simulated. The simulation was carried out using a dynamical downscaling approach, which requires running a regional climate model system (RegCM-SVN6994) on the study domain, using lower-resolution climate data (i.e., the fifth generation of ECMWF atmospheric reanalysis of the global climate ERA5 datasets) as boundary conditions. The quality of the RegCM-SVN simulation was first verified by comparing its simulations with ERA5 for the studied region from 1979 to 2018, and then with the available five WMO weather stations from 2007 to 2018. The dynamical downscaling results proved that RegCM-SVN in its current configuration successfully simulated the observed surface air temperature and wind field. Moreover, RegCM-SVN was proved to provide similar or even better accuracy (during extreme events) than ERA5 in simulating both surface air temperature and wind speed. The simulated annual mean T2m by RegCM-SVN (from 1979 to 2018) was 20.9 °C, with a positive warming trend of 0.44 °C/decade over the study area. Moreover, the annual mean wind speed by RegCM-SVN was 4.17 m/s, demonstrating an annual negative trend of wind speed over 92% of the study area. Surface air temperatures over SEL mostly occurred within the range of 4–31 °C; however, surface wind speed rarely exceeded 10 m/s. During the study period, the seasonal features of T2m showed a general warming trend along the four seasons and showed a wind speed decreasing trend during spring and summer. The results of the RegCM-SVN simulation constitute useful information that could be utilized to fully describe the study area in terms of other atmospheric parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sub-Regional Scale Climate Change)
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Article
Road Salt Damage to Historical Milestones Indicates Adaptation of Winter Roads to Future Climate Change May Damage Arctic Cultural Heritage
Climate 2021, 9(10), 149; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9100149 - 09 Oct 2021
Viewed by 185
Abstract
There is no doubt that anthropogenic global warming is accelerating damage to cultural heritage. Adaptation measures are required to reduce the loss of sites, monuments and remains. However, little research has been directed towards understanding potential impacts of climate adaptation measures in other [...] Read more.
There is no doubt that anthropogenic global warming is accelerating damage to cultural heritage. Adaptation measures are required to reduce the loss of sites, monuments and remains. However, little research has been directed towards understanding potential impacts of climate adaptation measures in other governmental sectors on cultural heritage. We provide a case study demonstrating that winter road salt, used to reduce ice related accidents, damages historical iron milestones. As the climate warms, road salt use will move north into areas where sites have been protected by contiguous winter snow cover. This will expose Artic/sub-Arctic cultural heritage, including Viking graves and Sami sites, to a new anthropogenic source of damage. Research and planning should therefore include the evaluation of secondary impacts when choosing climate adaptation strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Landscape Approaches and Climate Change Policy)
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Case Report
Non-Conventional Agricultural Spaces and Climate Change: The Cases of Le Grenier boréal and Lufa Farms in Quebec, Canada
Climate 2021, 9(10), 148; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9100148 - 02 Oct 2021
Viewed by 389
Abstract
The objective of this text is to present a reflection on the link between local initiatives to combat food insecurity and actions adapting to climate change. To this end, two case studies of ongoing experiments in the Canadian province of Quebec will be [...] Read more.
The objective of this text is to present a reflection on the link between local initiatives to combat food insecurity and actions adapting to climate change. To this end, two case studies of ongoing experiments in the Canadian province of Quebec will be presented and compared. While these two cases are very different in terms of location, production and people involved, they share the objective of bringing fresh and healthy food, produced locally, to the population of their territory and of rethinking the relationship of the community to nature through food production. Despite their significant differences, each of these two cases features actions for responding to problems that have a common cause: an agro-industrial food system that, by decoupling the locations of production and consumption, in order to maximize the economic profitability of the capital invested, has compromised both the health of citizens and the ecological balance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Food Insecurity)
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Review
Potential for More Sustainable Energy Usage in the Postharvest Handling of Horticultural Produce through Management of Ethylene
Climate 2021, 9(10), 147; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9100147 - 28 Sep 2021
Viewed by 339
Abstract
The perishable nature of fruit and vegetables requires some technological intervention to maintain quality during handling and marketing. The technology of choice for many years has been use of low temperatures as it is effective in reducing metabolism and hence extend postharvest life. [...] Read more.
The perishable nature of fruit and vegetables requires some technological intervention to maintain quality during handling and marketing. The technology of choice for many years has been use of low temperatures as it is effective in reducing metabolism and hence extend postharvest life. However, refrigerated storage is energy intensive and the growing urgency to reduce international greenhouse gas emissions has created a need for technologies that are more environmentally sustainable but still acceptable to consumers. Ethylene is well known to promote ripening and senescence of fruit and vegetables. This presentation will review the existing data that support the potential for managing the concentration of ethylene in the atmosphere around produce in postharvest situations to allow a reduced reliance on refrigeration and thus reduce energy consumption. Methods for managing ethylene levels around produce, and barriers that need to be overcome in order to move from a temperature-based mindset are discussed. Full article
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Article
What Drives Climate Action in Canada’s Provincial North? Exploring the Role of Connectedness to Nature, Climate Worry, and Talking with Friends and Family
Climate 2021, 9(10), 146; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9100146 - 28 Sep 2021
Viewed by 313
Abstract
Despite widespread calls to action from the scientific community and beyond, a concerning climate action gap exists. This paper aims to enhance our understanding of the role of connectedness to nature in promoting individual-level climate action in a unique setting where climate research [...] Read more.
Despite widespread calls to action from the scientific community and beyond, a concerning climate action gap exists. This paper aims to enhance our understanding of the role of connectedness to nature in promoting individual-level climate action in a unique setting where climate research and action are lacking: Canada’s Provincial North. To begin to understand possible pathways, we also examined whether climate worry and talking about climate change with family and friends mediate the relationship between connectedness to nature and climate action. We used data collected via postal surveys in two Provincial North communities, Thunder Bay (Ontario), and Prince George (British Columbia) (n = 628). Results show that connectedness to nature has a direct positive association with individual-level climate action, controlling for gender and education. Results of parallel mediation analyses further show that connectedness to nature is indirectly associated with individual-level climate action, mediated by both climate worry and talking about climate change with family and friends. Finally, results suggest that climate worry and talking about climate change with family and friends serially mediate the relationship between connectedness to nature and with individual-level climate action. These findings are relevant for climate change engagement and action, especially across Canada’s Provincial North, but also in similar settings characterized by marginalization, heightened vulnerability to climate change, urban islands within vast rural and remote landscapes, and economies and social identities tied to resource extraction. Drawing on these findings, we argue that cultivating stronger connections with nature in the places where people live, learn, work, and play is an important and currently underutilized leverage point for promoting individual-level climate action. This study therefore adds to the current and increasingly relevant calls for (re-)connecting with nature that have been made by others across a range of disciplinary and sectoral divides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthropogenic Climate Change: Social Science Perspectives)
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Article
The Effect of Climate Variability on Maize Production in the Ejura-Sekyedumase Municipality, Ghana
Climate 2021, 9(10), 145; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9100145 - 26 Sep 2021
Viewed by 395
Abstract
Agriculture is one of the sectors most susceptible to changes in climatic conditions. The impact is even stronger in Africa, where rain-fed agriculture is vital for daily subsistence, but where adaptive capacity is low. It is therefore crucial to increase the understanding of [...] Read more.
Agriculture is one of the sectors most susceptible to changes in climatic conditions. The impact is even stronger in Africa, where rain-fed agriculture is vital for daily subsistence, but where adaptive capacity is low. It is therefore crucial to increase the understanding of the actual climate change dynamics on agricultural productivity. This study examined the effects of changes in climatic variables such as rainfall and temperature on maize production in the Ejura-Sekyedumase Municipality, Ghana. Regression, chi-square and trend analyses were used to establish the relationship between climate variables (rainfall and temperature) and maize yield in the study area. This was supplemented with participatory household interviews with 120 farmers to understand the perception of farmers on rainfall and temperature patterns. The results from the study respondents and trend analysis show that rainfall is shorter in terms of duration and less predictable, whilst temperature has increased. The findings suggest that the general relationship between rainfall, temperature and maize yield is such that maize yield increased with increasing rainfall of the right amount and distribution pattern and decreased with increasing temperature. The study concludes that climate variability and/or change is evident in the study area and its effect on maize yield is severe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climate Adaptation and Mitigation)
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