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Article

Dynamical Downscaling of Surface Air Temperature and Wind Field Variabilities over the Southeastern Levantine Basin, Mediterranean Sea

1
Maritime Postgraduate Studies Institute (MPI), Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport (AASTMT), Abu-Qir, Alexandria 1029, Egypt
2
College of Maritime Transport and Technology, Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport, Alexandria 1209, Egypt
3
Oceanography Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21526, Egypt
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ademe Mekonnen and Jing Zhang
Received: 11 August 2021 / Revised: 23 September 2021 / Accepted: 5 October 2021 / Published: 11 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sub-Regional Scale Climate Change)
The characteristics of near surface air temperature and wind field over the Southeastern Levantine (SEL) sub-basin during the period 1979–2018 were simulated. The simulation was carried out using a dynamical downscaling approach, which requires running a regional climate model system (RegCM-SVN6994) on the study domain, using lower-resolution climate data (i.e., the fifth generation of ECMWF atmospheric reanalysis of the global climate ERA5 datasets) as boundary conditions. The quality of the RegCM-SVN simulation was first verified by comparing its simulations with ERA5 for the studied region from 1979 to 2018, and then with the available five WMO weather stations from 2007 to 2018. The dynamical downscaling results proved that RegCM-SVN in its current configuration successfully simulated the observed surface air temperature and wind field. Moreover, RegCM-SVN was proved to provide similar or even better accuracy (during extreme events) than ERA5 in simulating both surface air temperature and wind speed. The simulated annual mean T2m by RegCM-SVN (from 1979 to 2018) was 20.9 °C, with a positive warming trend of 0.44 °C/decade over the study area. Moreover, the annual mean wind speed by RegCM-SVN was 4.17 m/s, demonstrating an annual negative trend of wind speed over 92% of the study area. Surface air temperatures over SEL mostly occurred within the range of 4–31 °C; however, surface wind speed rarely exceeded 10 m/s. During the study period, the seasonal features of T2m showed a general warming trend along the four seasons and showed a wind speed decreasing trend during spring and summer. The results of the RegCM-SVN simulation constitute useful information that could be utilized to fully describe the study area in terms of other atmospheric parameters. View Full-Text
Keywords: dynamical downscaling; Mediterranean Sea; Levantine; RegCM-SVN; surface air temperature; surface wind; climate; trend analysis dynamical downscaling; Mediterranean Sea; Levantine; RegCM-SVN; surface air temperature; surface wind; climate; trend analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

ElBessa, M.; Abdelrahman, S.M.; Tonbol, K.; Shaltout, M. Dynamical Downscaling of Surface Air Temperature and Wind Field Variabilities over the Southeastern Levantine Basin, Mediterranean Sea. Climate 2021, 9, 150. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9100150

AMA Style

ElBessa M, Abdelrahman SM, Tonbol K, Shaltout M. Dynamical Downscaling of Surface Air Temperature and Wind Field Variabilities over the Southeastern Levantine Basin, Mediterranean Sea. Climate. 2021; 9(10):150. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9100150

Chicago/Turabian Style

ElBessa, Mohamed, Saad M. Abdelrahman, Kareem Tonbol, and Mohamed Shaltout. 2021. "Dynamical Downscaling of Surface Air Temperature and Wind Field Variabilities over the Southeastern Levantine Basin, Mediterranean Sea" Climate 9, no. 10: 150. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9100150

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