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Volume 9, November

Climate, Volume 9, Issue 12 (December 2021) – 17 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Atmospheric energetics are investigated under four different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). The RCPs rcp26, rcp45, rcp60, and rcp85, which represent projections for the period of 2006–2100, were explored. The zonal and eddy components of the available potential and kinetic energies were the four energy forms that are postulated in Lorenz energy cycle. Additionally, this energy cycle embraces the physical processes that are necessary for energy conversion, generation, and dissipation. The overall strength of the energy cycle represents a climate system’s “rate of working”, with climate cycles being contemplated to operate as heat engines. Different future climate scenarios were found to demonstrate different impacts on the components of the energy cycle, influencing the working efficiency of the atmospheric climate system. View this paper.
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Article
The Solar Radiation Climate of Greece
Climate 2021, 9(12), 183; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9120183 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 412
Abstract
The solar radiation climate of Greece is investigated by using typical meteorological years (TMYs) at 43 locations in Greece based on a period of 10 years (2007–2016). These TMYs include hourly values of global, Hg, and diffuse, Hd, horizontal [...] Read more.
The solar radiation climate of Greece is investigated by using typical meteorological years (TMYs) at 43 locations in Greece based on a period of 10 years (2007–2016). These TMYs include hourly values of global, Hg, and diffuse, Hd, horizontal irradiances from which the direct, Hb, horizontal irradiance is estimated. Use of the diffuse fraction, kd, and the definition of the direct-beam fraction, kb, is made. Solar maps of annual mean Hg, Hd, kd, and kb are prepared over Greece under clear and all skies, which show interesting but explainable patterns. Additionally, the intra-annual and seasonal variabilities of these parameters are presented and regression equations are provided. It is found that Hb has a negative linear relationship with kd; the same applies to Hg with respect to kd or with respect to the latitude of the site. It is shown that kd (kb) can reflect the scattering (absorption) effects of the atmosphere on solar radiation, and, therefore, this parameter can be used as a scattering (absorption) index. An analysis shows that the influence of solar variability (sunspot cycle) on the Hg levels over Athens in the period 1953–2018 was less dominant than the anthropogenic (air-pollution) footprint that caused the global dimming effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Solar Variability)
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Article
The Incredible and Sad Story of Boca de Cachón: How a Rural Community in the Hispaniola Is in a Prolonged, Heartless, and Predictable Climate Crisis
Climate 2021, 9(12), 182; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9120182 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 579
Abstract
This article aims to briefly review the socio-economic impact caused by the flooding of Lake Enriquillo on the inhabitants of Boca Cachón due to the complex local phenomenon related to climate variability. Between 2003 and 2014, Boca de Cachón and the communities surrounding [...] Read more.
This article aims to briefly review the socio-economic impact caused by the flooding of Lake Enriquillo on the inhabitants of Boca Cachón due to the complex local phenomenon related to climate variability. Between 2003 and 2014, Boca de Cachón and the communities surrounding Lake Enriquillo were deeply affected by flooding of the Lake’s rising waters. Lake Enriquillo is the largest wetland in the Caribbean and the first designated RAMSAR site. In turn, Boca de Cachón could be considered the first human settlement formally displaced because of climate variability in the Dominican Republic and probably one of the first in the Americas in the twenty-first century. Boca de Cachón is a rural Municipal District located to the northwest of the municipality of Jimaní, with a population of around 3000 inhabitants on the southwest border with the Republic of Haiti and located in the Biosphere Reserve Jaragua-Bahoruco-Enriquillo. Given the future climatic scenarios for the Dominican Republic and the possible climate change that could exacerbate by excess or, by default, the socio-environmental problems in the Lake’s belt, it is necessary to support the communities in their capacity-building processes. The lessons learned from Boca de Cachón can serve as a learning space for adaptation processes in rural environments in the Caribbean region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Ecosystems Nexus)
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Article
Verification and Bias Adjustment of ECMWF SEAS5 Seasonal Forecasts over Europe for Climate Service Applications
Climate 2021, 9(12), 181; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9120181 - 10 Dec 2021
Viewed by 558
Abstract
This work discusses the ability of a bias-adjustment method using empirical quantile mapping to improve the skills of seasonal forecasts over Europe for three key climate variables, i.e., temperature, precipitation and wind speed. In particular, the suitability of the approach to be integrated [...] Read more.
This work discusses the ability of a bias-adjustment method using empirical quantile mapping to improve the skills of seasonal forecasts over Europe for three key climate variables, i.e., temperature, precipitation and wind speed. In particular, the suitability of the approach to be integrated in climate services and to provide tailored predictions for local applications was evaluated. The workflow was defined in order to allow a flexible implementation and applicability while providing accurate results. The scheme adjusted monthly quantities from the seasonal forecasting system SEAS5 of the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts (ECMWF) by using ERA5 reanalysis as reference. Raw and adjusted forecasts were verified through several metrics analyzing different aspects of forecast skills. The applied method reduced model biases for all variables and seasons even though more limited improvements were obtained for precipitation. In order to further assess the benefits and limitations of the procedure, the results were compared with those obtained by the ADAMONT method, which calibrates daily quantities by empirical quantile mapping conditioned by weather regimes. The comparable performances demonstrated the overall suitability of the proposed method to provide end users with calibrated predictions of monthly and seasonal quantities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seasonal Forecasting Climate Services for the Energy Industry)
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Article
Lorenz Atmospheric Energy Cycle in Climatic Projections
Climate 2021, 9(12), 180; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9120180 - 10 Dec 2021
Viewed by 442
Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate whether different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), as they are determined in the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), lead to different regimes in the energetics components of the Lorenz [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to investigate whether different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), as they are determined in the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), lead to different regimes in the energetics components of the Lorenz energy cycle. The four energy forms on which this investigation is based are the zonal and eddy components of the available potential and kinetic energies. The corresponding transformations between these forms of energy are also studied. RCPs are time-dependent, consistent scenarios of concentrations of radiatively active gases and particles. In the present study, four RCPs are explored, namely, rcp26, rcp45, rcp60, rcp85; these represent projections (for the future period 2006–2100) that result in radiative forcing of approximately 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5 Wm−2 at year 2100, respectively, relative to pre-industrial conditions. The results are presented in terms of time projections of the energetics components from 2020 to 2100 and show that the different RCPs yield diverse energetics regimes, consequently impacting the Lorenz energy cycle. In this respect, projections under different RCPs of the Lorenz energy cycle are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climate Dynamics and Modelling)
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Article
Recent Climate Change in the Lake Kyoga Basin, Uganda: An Analysis Using Short-Term and Long-Term Data with Standardized Precipitation and Anomaly Indexes
Climate 2021, 9(12), 179; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9120179 - 08 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 457
Abstract
Climate change (CC) is now a global challenge due to uncertainties on the drivers and the multifaceted nature of its impacts. It impacts many sectors such as agriculture, water supply, and global economies through temperature and precipitation, affecting many livelihoods. Although there are [...] Read more.
Climate change (CC) is now a global challenge due to uncertainties on the drivers and the multifaceted nature of its impacts. It impacts many sectors such as agriculture, water supply, and global economies through temperature and precipitation, affecting many livelihoods. Although there are global, regional, and national studies on CC, their application to determine local CC occurence mitigation and adaptation measures is not ideal. Therefore, this study aimed to determine climate change trends in Lake Kyoga Basin using standardized precipitation and anomaly indexes. Short-term (39 years, 1981–2020) and long-term (59 years, 1961–2020) monthly data from eight strategic meteorological stations were acquired from the Uganda National Meteorological Authority and supplemented with satellite and model reanalysis climate datasets. Change in precipitation was determined by SPI-6, while SAI determined change in temperature. The Mann–Kendall test was used to determine the trend significance. Whereas two (Serere and Lira) long-term data stations showed significant changes in precipitation, all the short-term data stations showed a significant increasing trend. Decadal relative rainfall anomaly increased from 85.6–105 in 1981–1990 to 92.0–120.9 in 2011–2020, while mean temperature anomaly increased from 0.2–0.6 °C to 1.0–1.6 °C in the same period. The frequency of severe wet weather events was more than for dry weather events in many stations, indicating an increase in precipitation. Maximum, mean, and minimum temperatures increased, with resultant warmer nights. The findings showed that the Lake Kyoga basin is experiencing climate change, with both temperature and rainfall increasing spatially and temporarily. Climate change affects agriculture, which is the main economic activity, and causes the destruction of infrastructure from floods, landslides, and mudslides. The results of this study are helpful in pointing out climate change-affected areas, and hence for designing mitigation and adaption strategies for local communities by policy and decision-makers from relevant stakeholders. Full article
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Article
Is Drought Increasing in Maine and Hurting Wild Blueberry Production?
Climate 2021, 9(12), 178; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9120178 - 08 Dec 2021
Viewed by 464
Abstract
A few severe drought events occurred in the Northeast (NE) USA in recent decades and caused significant economic losses, but the temporal pattern of drought incidents and their impacts on agricultural systems have not been well assessed. Here, we analyzed historical changes and [...] Read more.
A few severe drought events occurred in the Northeast (NE) USA in recent decades and caused significant economic losses, but the temporal pattern of drought incidents and their impacts on agricultural systems have not been well assessed. Here, we analyzed historical changes and patterns of drought using a drought index (standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI)), and assessed drought impacts on remotely sensed vegetation indices (enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)) and production (yield) of the wild blueberry fields in Maine, USA. We also analyzed the impact of short- and long-term water conditions of the growing season on the wild blueberry vegetation condition and production. No significant changes in the SPEI were found in the past 71 years, despite a significant warming pattern. There was also a significant relationship between the relatively long-term SPEI and the vegetation indices (EVI and NDVI), but not the short-term SPEI (one year). This suggests that the crop vigor of wild blueberries is probably determined by water conditions over a relatively long term. There were also significant relationships between 1-year water conditions (SPEI) and yield for a non-irrigated field, and between 4-year-average SPEI and the yield of all fields in Maine. The vegetation indices (EVI and NDVI) are not good predictors of wild blueberry yield, possibly because wild blueberry yield does not only depend on crop vigor, but also on other important variables such as pollination. We also compared an irrigated and a non-irrigated wild blueberry field at the same location (Deblois, Maine) where we found that irrigation decoupled the relationship between the SPEI and NDVI or EVI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Food Insecurity)
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Article
Uncertainty, Complexity and Constraints: How Do We Robustly Assess Biological Responses under a Rapidly Changing Climate?
Climate 2021, 9(12), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9120177 - 07 Dec 2021
Viewed by 707
Abstract
How robust is our assessment of impacts to ecosystems and species from a rapidly changing climate during the 21st century? We examine the challenges of uncertainty, complexity and constraints associated with applying climate projections to understanding future biological responses. This includes an [...] Read more.
How robust is our assessment of impacts to ecosystems and species from a rapidly changing climate during the 21st century? We examine the challenges of uncertainty, complexity and constraints associated with applying climate projections to understanding future biological responses. This includes an evaluation of how to incorporate the uncertainty associated with different greenhouse gas emissions scenarios and climate models, and constraints of spatiotemporal scales and resolution of climate data into impact assessments. We describe the challenges of identifying relevant climate metrics for biological impact assessments and evaluate the usefulness and limitations of different methodologies of applying climate change to both quantitative and qualitative assessments. We discuss the importance of incorporating extreme climate events and their stochastic tendencies in assessing ecological impacts and transformation, and provide recommendations for better integration of complex climate–ecological interactions at relevant spatiotemporal scales. We further recognize the compounding nature of uncertainty when accounting for our limited understanding of the interactions between climate and biological processes. Given the inherent complexity in ecological processes and their interactions with climate, we recommend integrating quantitative modeling with expert elicitation from diverse disciplines and experiential understanding of recent climate-driven ecological processes to develop a more robust understanding of ecological responses under different scenarios of future climate change. Inherently complex interactions between climate and biological systems also provide an opportunity to develop wide-ranging strategies that resource managers can employ to prepare for the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate System Uncertainty and Biodiversity Conservation)
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Article
Overall Warming with Reduced Seasonality: Temperature Change in New England, USA, 1900–2020
Climate 2021, 9(12), 176; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9120176 - 06 Dec 2021
Viewed by 4052
Abstract
The ecology, economy, and cultural heritage of New England is grounded in its seasonal climate, and this seasonality is now changing as the world warms due to human activity. This research uses temperature data from the U.S. Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) to analyze [...] Read more.
The ecology, economy, and cultural heritage of New England is grounded in its seasonal climate, and this seasonality is now changing as the world warms due to human activity. This research uses temperature data from the U.S. Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) to analyze annual and seasonal temperature changes in the New England region of the United States from 1900 to 2020 at the regional and state levels. Results show four broad trends: (1) New England and each of the states (annually and seasonally) have warmed considerably between 1900 and 2020; (2) all of the states and the region as a whole show three general periods of change (warming, cooling, and then warming again); (3) the winter season is experiencing the greatest warming; and (4) the minimum temperatures are generally warming more than the average and maximum temperatures, especially since the 1980s. The average annual temperature (analyzed at the 10-year and the five-year average levels) for every state, and New England as a whole, has increased greater than 1.5 °C from 1900 to 2020. This warming is diminishing the distinctive four-season climate of New England, resulting in changes to the region’s ecology and threatening the rural economies throughout the region. Full article
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Article
Opportunity for GNSS Reflectometry in Sensing the Regional Climate and Soil Moisture Instabilities in Myanmar
Climate 2021, 9(12), 175; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9120175 - 03 Dec 2021
Viewed by 499
Abstract
The climate crisis is happening globally, and the consequent process has revealed soil evolution and meteorological interactions. The GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R) technique recently encompassed sea surface monitoring, land changes, and snow sensing in addition to position, navigation, and timing. After the launch of [...] Read more.
The climate crisis is happening globally, and the consequent process has revealed soil evolution and meteorological interactions. The GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R) technique recently encompassed sea surface monitoring, land changes, and snow sensing in addition to position, navigation, and timing. After the launch of NASA’s eight CYGNSS satellites, spaceborne soil moisture retrieval has become more opportune in a global and regional investigation. The research carried out by the CYGNSS DDM SNR with SMAP data to correlate diurnal mean soil moisture sensing was analyzed in the regional study of Myanmar, which is prone to climatic and weather conditions. The results showed that spaceborne GNSS-R soil moisture sensitivity was very useful during seasonal changes in regional observation. The DDM SNR surface reflectivity was strongly correlated with soil moisture according to surface temperature variations prepared from SMAP passive reflectometry. Sentinel SAR-1 data included the validation and verification of flood-prone areas affected by tropical storm surges or weather depressions in the monsoon season. The availability of surface reflectivity primarily relied on the surface roughness, surface temperature, and vegetation opacity for soil moisture retrieval. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Impacts on Soil Processes and Ecosystem)
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Article
On the Use of Ensemble Predictions for Parametric Typhoon Insurance
Climate 2021, 9(12), 174; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9120174 - 01 Dec 2021
Viewed by 481
Abstract
Parametric typhoon insurances are an increasingly used financial tool to mitigate the enormous impact of tropical cyclones, as they can quickly distribute much-needed resources, e.g., for post-disaster recovery. In order to optimise the reliability and efficiency of parametric insurance, it is essential to [...] Read more.
Parametric typhoon insurances are an increasingly used financial tool to mitigate the enormous impact of tropical cyclones, as they can quickly distribute much-needed resources, e.g., for post-disaster recovery. In order to optimise the reliability and efficiency of parametric insurance, it is essential to have well-defined trigger points for any post-disaster payout. This requires a robust localised hazard assessment for a given region. However, due to the rarity of severe, landfalling tropical cyclones, it is difficult to obtain a robust hazard assessment based on historical observations. A recent approach makes use of unrealised, high impact tropical cyclones from state-of-the-art ensemble prediction systems to build a physically consistent event set, which would be equivalent to about 10,000 years of observations. In this study, we demonstrate that (1) alternative trigger points of parametric typhoon insurance can be constructed from a local perspective and the added value of such trigger points can be analysed by comparing with an experimental set-up informed by current practice; (2) the estimation of the occurrence of tropical cyclone-related losses on the provincial level can be improved. We further discuss the potential future development of a general tropical cyclone compound parametric insurance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change, Sustainable Development and Disaster Risks)
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Article
Sea State Decadal Variability in the North Atlantic: A Review
Climate 2021, 9(12), 173; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9120173 - 01 Dec 2021
Viewed by 556
Abstract
Long-term changes of wind-generated ocean waves have important consequences for marine engineering, coastal management, ship routing, and marine spatial planning. It is well-known that the multi-annual variability of wave parameters in the North Atlantic is tightly linked to natural fluctuations of the atmospheric [...] Read more.
Long-term changes of wind-generated ocean waves have important consequences for marine engineering, coastal management, ship routing, and marine spatial planning. It is well-known that the multi-annual variability of wave parameters in the North Atlantic is tightly linked to natural fluctuations of the atmospheric circulation, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation. However, anthropogenic climate change is also expected to influence sea states over the long-term through the modification of atmospheric and ocean circulation and melting of sea ice. Due to the relatively short duration of historical sea state observations and the significant multi-decadal variability in the sea state signal, disentangling the anthropogenic signal from the natural variability is a challenging task. In this article, the literature on inter-annual to multi-decadal variability of sea states in the North Atlantic is reviewed using data from both observations and model reanalysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave Climate)
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Review
Do Invasive Mammal Eradications from Islands Support Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation?
Climate 2021, 9(12), 172; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9120172 - 30 Nov 2021
Viewed by 611
Abstract
Climate change represents a planetary emergency that is exacerbating the loss of native biodiversity. In response, efforts promoting climate change adaptation strategies that improve ecosystem resilience and/or mitigate climate impacts are paramount. Invasive Alien Species are a key threat to islands globally, where [...] Read more.
Climate change represents a planetary emergency that is exacerbating the loss of native biodiversity. In response, efforts promoting climate change adaptation strategies that improve ecosystem resilience and/or mitigate climate impacts are paramount. Invasive Alien Species are a key threat to islands globally, where strategies such as preventing establishment (biosecurity), and eradication, especially invasive mammals, have proven effective for reducing native biodiversity loss and can also advance ecosystem resilience and create refugia for native species at risk from climate change. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that successful eradications may also contribute to mitigating climate change. Given the cross-sector potential for eradications to reduce climate impacts alongside native biodiversity conservation, we sought to understand when conservation managers and funders explicitly sought to use or fund the eradication of invasive mammals from islands to achieve positive climate outcomes. To provide context, we first summarized available literature of the synergistic relationship between invasive species and climate change, including case studies where invasive mammal eradications served to meet climate adaptation or mitigation solutions. Second, we conducted a systematic review of the literature and eradication-related conference proceedings to identify when these synergistic effects of climate and invasive species were explicitly addressed through eradication practices. Third, we reviewed projects from four large funding entities known to support climate change solutions and/or native biodiversity conservation efforts and identified when eradications were funded in a climate change context. The combined results of our case study summary paired with systematic reviews found that, although eradicating invasive mammals from islands is an effective climate adaptation strategy, island eradications are poorly represented within the climate change adaptation and mitigation funding framework. We believe this is a lost opportunity and encourage eradication practitioners and funders of climate change adaptation to leverage this extremely effective nature-based tool into positive conservation and climate resilience solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate System Uncertainty and Biodiversity Conservation)
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Article
Physical Modeling of Snow Gliding: A Case Study in the NW Italian Alps
Climate 2021, 9(12), 171; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9120171 - 30 Nov 2021
Viewed by 495
Abstract
Snow gliding, a slow movement downhill of snow cover, is complex to forecast and model and yet is extremely important, because it drives snowpack dynamics in the pre-avalanching phase. Despite recent interest in this process and the development of some studies therein, this [...] Read more.
Snow gliding, a slow movement downhill of snow cover, is complex to forecast and model and yet is extremely important, because it drives snowpack dynamics in the pre-avalanching phase. Despite recent interest in this process and the development of some studies therein, this phenomenon is poorly understood and represents a major point of uncertainty for avalanche forecasting. This study presents a data-driven, physically based, time-dependent 1D model, Poli-Glide, able to predict the slow movement of snowpacks along a flow line at the daily scale. The objective of the work was to create a useful snow gliding model, requiring few, relatively easily available input data, by (i) modeling snowpack evolution from measured precipitation and air temperature, (ii) evaluating the rate and extent of movement of the snowpack in the gliding phase, and (iii) assessing fracture (i.e., avalanching) timing. Such a model could be then used to provide hazard assessment in areas subject to gliding, thereby, and subsequent avalanching. To do so, some simplifying assumptions were introduced, namely that (i) negligible traction stress occurs within soil, (ii) water percolation into snow occurs at a fixed rate, and (iii) the micro topography of soil is schematized according to a sinusoidal function in the absence of soil erosion. The proposed model was then applied to the “Torrent des Marais-Mont de La Saxe” site in Aosta Valley, monitored during the winters of 2010 and 2011, featuring different weather conditions. The results showed an acceptable capacity of the model to reproduce snowpack deformation patterns and the final snowpack’s displacement. Correlation analysis based upon observed glide rates further confirmed dependence against the chosen variables, thus witnessing the goodness of the model. The results could be a valuable starting point for future research aimed at including more complex parameterizations of the different processes that affect gliding. Full article
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Article
The Multi-Scale Dynamics Organizing a Favorable Environment for Convective Density Currents That Redirected the Yarnell Hill Fire
Climate 2021, 9(12), 170; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9120170 - 29 Nov 2021
Viewed by 489
Abstract
The deadly shift of the Yarnell Hill, Arizona wildfire was associated with an environment exhibiting gusty wind patterns in response to organized convectively driven circulations. The observed synoptic (>2500 km) through meso-β (approximately 100 km) scale precursor environment that organized a mid-upper tropospheric [...] Read more.
The deadly shift of the Yarnell Hill, Arizona wildfire was associated with an environment exhibiting gusty wind patterns in response to organized convectively driven circulations. The observed synoptic (>2500 km) through meso-β (approximately 100 km) scale precursor environment that organized a mid-upper tropospheric cross-mountain mesoscale jet streak circulation and upslope thermally direct flow was examined. Numerical simulations and observations indicated that both circulations played a key role in focusing the upper-level divergence, ascent, downdraft potential, vertical wind shear favoring mobile convective gust fronts, and a microburst. This sequence was initiated at the synoptic scale by a cyclonic Rossby Wave Break (RWB) 72 h prior, followed by an anticyclonic RWB. These RWBs combined to produce a mid-continent baroclinic trough with two short waves ushering in cooler air with the amplifying polar jet. Cool air advection with the second trough and surface heating across the Intermountain West (IW) combined to increase the mesoscale pressure gradient, forcing a mid-upper tropospheric subsynoptic jet around the periphery of the upstream ridge over Southern Utah and Northern New Mexico. Convection was triggered by an unbalanced secondary jetlet circulation within the subsynoptic jet in association with a low-level upslope flow accompanying a mountain plains solenoidal circulation above the Mogollon Rim (MR) and downstream mountains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Weather Events)
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Article
Site Selection for a Network of Weather Stations Using AHP and Near Analysis in a GIS Environment in Amazonas, NW Peru
Climate 2021, 9(12), 169; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9120169 - 28 Nov 2021
Viewed by 737
Abstract
Meteorological observations play a major role in land management; thus, it is vital to properly plan the monitoring network of weather stations (WS). This study, therefore, selected ‘highly suitable’ sites with the objective of replanning the WS network in Amazonas, NW Peru. A [...] Read more.
Meteorological observations play a major role in land management; thus, it is vital to properly plan the monitoring network of weather stations (WS). This study, therefore, selected ‘highly suitable’ sites with the objective of replanning the WS network in Amazonas, NW Peru. A set of 11 selection criteria for WS sites were identified and mapped in a Geographic Information System, as well as their importance weights were determined using Analytic Hierarchy Process and experts. A map of the suitability of the territory for WS sites was constructed by weighted superimposition of the criteria maps. On this map, the suitability status of the 20 existing WS sites was then assessed and, if necessary, relocated. New ‘highly suitable’ sites were determined by the Near Analysis method using existing WS (some relocated). The territory suitability map for WS showed that 0.3% (108.55 km2) of Amazonas has ‘highly suitable’ characteristics to establish WS. This ‘highly suitable’ territory corresponds to 26,683 polygons (of ≥30 × 30 m each), from which 100 polygons were selected in 11 possible distributions of new WS networks in Amazonas, with different number and distance of new WS in each distribution. The implementation of this methodology will be a useful support tool for WS network planning. Full article
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Article
Coastal Wave Extremes around the Pacific and Their Remote Seasonal Connection to Climate Modes
Climate 2021, 9(12), 168; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9120168 - 26 Nov 2021
Viewed by 506
Abstract
At first order, wind-generated ocean surface waves represent the dominant forcing of open-coast morpho-dynamics and associated vulnerability over a wide range of time scales. It is therefore paramount to improve our understanding of the regional coastal wave variability, particularly the occurrence of extremes, [...] Read more.
At first order, wind-generated ocean surface waves represent the dominant forcing of open-coast morpho-dynamics and associated vulnerability over a wide range of time scales. It is therefore paramount to improve our understanding of the regional coastal wave variability, particularly the occurrence of extremes, and to evaluate how they are connected to large-scale atmospheric regimes. Here, we propose a new “2-ways wave tracking algorithm” to evaluate and quantify the open-ocean origins and associated atmospheric forcing patterns of coastal wave extremes all around the Pacific basin for the 1979–2020 period. Interestingly, the results showed that while extreme coastal events tend to originate mostly from their closest wind-forcing regime, the combined influence from all other remote atmospheric drivers is similar (55% local vs. 45% remote) with, in particular, ~22% coming from waves generated remotely in the opposite hemisphere. We found a strong interconnection between the tropical and extratropical regions with around 30% of coastal extremes in the tropics originating at higher latitudes and vice-versa. This occurs mostly in the boreal summer through the increased seasonal activity of the southern jet-stream and the northern tropical cyclone basins. At interannual timescales, we evidenced alternatingly increased coastal wave extremes between the western and eastern Pacific that emerge from the distinct seasonal influence of ENSO in the Northern and SAM in the Southern Hemisphere on their respective paired wind-wave regimes. Together these results pave the way for a better understanding of the climate connection to wave extremes, which represents the preliminary step toward better regional projections and forecasts of coastal waves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Dynamics and Modeling: Future Perspectives)
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Article
Assessing Farmers’ Typologies of Perception for Adopting Sustainable Adaptation Strategies in Bangladesh
Climate 2021, 9(12), 167; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9120167 - 23 Nov 2021
Viewed by 707
Abstract
The implementation of sustainable adaptation strategies (SASs) is crucial to mitigate climate change impact as well as reduce the loss of natural disasters and increase agricultural crop production. However, current policies and programs based on agricultural incentives are mostly inadequate to increase SASs [...] Read more.
The implementation of sustainable adaptation strategies (SASs) is crucial to mitigate climate change impact as well as reduce the loss of natural disasters and increase agricultural crop production. However, current policies and programs based on agricultural incentives are mostly inadequate to increase SASs practices at the farm level. Hence, a deeper understanding of farmers’ ‘perceived typologies to the environmental issue and climate change’ is necessary for implementing SASs to enhance farmers’ ability to adapt at the farm level. This research intends to demarcate farmers in various categories, according to their perceptions on environmental and climate change issues in the northern part of Bangladesh. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were employed to analyze the survey data collected from 501 households in the study area. Farmers were clustered into three types, ‘Ecocentric’, ‘Worried’, and ‘Anthropocentric’, based on their perceived knowledge regarding environmental issues and climate change, which guides the adoption of SASs. The ‘Worried’ cluster showed a high sense of perceived risk of climate change and a significant positive association with the adoption of SASs. By contrast, ‘Ecocentric’ and ‘Anthropocentric’ groups showed a low sense of awareness of climate change and a significant negative association with the adoption of SASs. The findings can assist policymakers in promoting the adoption of SASs based on the farmers’ cluster and thus enhance their resilience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Adaptation and Mitigation Practices and Frameworks)
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