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Article

Analysis of Urban Greening Scenarios for Improving Outdoor Thermal Comfort in Neighbourhoods of Lecce (Southern Italy)

1
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, University of Salento, 73100 Lecce, Italy
2
Atmospheric Pollution Division, Environmental Department, Research Center for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), 28040 Madrid, Spain
3
Faculty of Technology, LAB University of Applied Sciences, Mukkulankatu 19, 15210 Lahti, Finland
4
School of Computing, Engineering and Built Environment, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow G4 0BA, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jennifer A. Holm, David A. Lutz and Luxon Nhamo
Received: 27 May 2021 / Revised: 2 July 2021 / Accepted: 9 July 2021 / Published: 12 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest-Climate Ecosystem Interactions)
This study analyses the interactions and impacts between multiple factors i.e., urban greening, building layout, and meteorological conditions that characterise the urban microclimate and thermal comfort in the urban environment. The focus was on two neighbourhoods of Lecce city (southern Italy) characterised through field campaigns and modelling simulations on a typical hot summer day. Field campaigns were performed to collect greening, building geometry, and microclimate data, which were employed in numerical simulations of several greening scenarios using the Computational Fluid Dynamics-based and microclimate model ENVI-met. Results show that, on a typical summer day, trees may lead to an average daily decrease of air temperature by up to 1.00 °C and an improvement of thermal comfort in terms of Mean Radiant Temperature (MRT) by up to 5.53 °C and Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) by up to 0.53. This decrease is more evident when the urban greening (in terms of green surfaces and trees) is increased by 1266 m2 in the first neighbourhood and 1988 m2 in the second one, with respect to the current scenario, proving that shading effect mainly contributes to improving the urban microclimate during daytime. On the contrary, the trapping effect of heat, stored by the surfaces during the day and released during the evening, induces an increase of the spatially averaged MRT by up to 2 °C during the evenings and a slight deterioration of thermal comfort, but only locally where the concentration of high LAD trees is higher. This study contributes to a better understanding of the ecosystem services provided by greening with regard to microclimate and thermal comfort within an urban environment for several hours of the day. It adds knowledge about the role of green areas in a Mediterranean city, an important hot spot of climate change, and thus it can be a guide for important urban regeneration plans. View Full-Text
Keywords: numerical modelling; ENVI-met; air temperature; urban greening; Lecce numerical modelling; ENVI-met; air temperature; urban greening; Lecce
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gatto, E.; Ippolito, F.; Rispoli, G.; Carlo, O.S.; Santiago, J.L.; Aarrevaara, E.; Emmanuel, R.; Buccolieri, R. Analysis of Urban Greening Scenarios for Improving Outdoor Thermal Comfort in Neighbourhoods of Lecce (Southern Italy). Climate 2021, 9, 116. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9070116

AMA Style

Gatto E, Ippolito F, Rispoli G, Carlo OS, Santiago JL, Aarrevaara E, Emmanuel R, Buccolieri R. Analysis of Urban Greening Scenarios for Improving Outdoor Thermal Comfort in Neighbourhoods of Lecce (Southern Italy). Climate. 2021; 9(7):116. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9070116

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gatto, Elisa, Fabio Ippolito, Gennaro Rispoli, Oliver S. Carlo, Jose L. Santiago, Eeva Aarrevaara, Rohinton Emmanuel, and Riccardo Buccolieri. 2021. "Analysis of Urban Greening Scenarios for Improving Outdoor Thermal Comfort in Neighbourhoods of Lecce (Southern Italy)" Climate 9, no. 7: 116. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9070116

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