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Article

Reinforcement of Grammatical Structures through Explicit Instruction in Palenquero Creole: A Pilot Study

Department of Spanish, Italian and Portuguese, The Pennsylvania State University, 442 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Received: 27 November 2020 / Revised: 19 February 2021 / Accepted: 23 February 2021 / Published: 4 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instructed Heritage Language Acquisition in Diverse Contexts)
The Afro-Hispanic creole, Palenquero, has been spoken (together with Spanish) in the village of San Basilio de Palenque, Colombia, for centuries. Until recently, Palenquero was endangered due to prejudice, but language revitalization efforts are underway, and younger speakers are learning Palenquero, but with little reinforcement out of school. The school instruction involves no grammatical explanations, almost no student production, or critical feedback. Adult speakers usually do not address younger speakers in Palenquero, thus leaving school-acquired forms suspended without reinforcement. This represents a unique scenario of heritage acquisition of a language with no bidirectional communication between younger and adult speakers. The present study focuses on the use of preverbal particles and prenominal plural marker by heritage speakers of Palenquero before and after explicit instruction. Communication activities explicitly presented the prenominal plural ma and preverbal particles, such as zero morpheme (simple present), asé (habitual), ta (progressive), a (perfective/simple past) and tan (future). Participants performed better at the post-test and results suggest that explicit explanation of grammatical rules, practice, repetition, and corrective feedback improved the usage of ma and tan. This result lines up with previous studies that posit the amount of time and exposure that learners need in order to acquire complex morphology. View Full-Text
Keywords: Palenquero Creole; explicit instruction; reinforcement of grammatical features; plural marking; preverbal particles Palenquero Creole; explicit instruction; reinforcement of grammatical features; plural marking; preverbal particles
MDPI and ACS Style

Cassiani Obeso, E.M. Reinforcement of Grammatical Structures through Explicit Instruction in Palenquero Creole: A Pilot Study. Languages 2021, 6, 41. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/languages6010041

AMA Style

Cassiani Obeso EM. Reinforcement of Grammatical Structures through Explicit Instruction in Palenquero Creole: A Pilot Study. Languages. 2021; 6(1):41. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/languages6010041

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cassiani Obeso, Estilita M. 2021. "Reinforcement of Grammatical Structures through Explicit Instruction in Palenquero Creole: A Pilot Study" Languages 6, no. 1: 41. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/languages6010041

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