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Volume 9, September

Int. J. Financial Stud., Volume 9, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 7 articles

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Article
Supply Chain Finance: Cost–Benefit Differentials under Reverse Factoring with Extended Payment Terms
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Int. J. Financial Stud. 2021, 9(4), 59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs9040059 (registering DOI) - 25 Oct 2021
Abstract
This article studies the effects of reverse factoring in a supply chain when the buyer company facilitates its lower short-term borrowing rates to the supplier corporation in return for extended payment terms. We explore the role of interest rate changes, rating changes, and [...] Read more.
This article studies the effects of reverse factoring in a supply chain when the buyer company facilitates its lower short-term borrowing rates to the supplier corporation in return for extended payment terms. We explore the role of interest rate changes, rating changes, and the business cycle position on the cost and benefit trade-off from a supplier perspective. We utilize a combined empirical approach consisting of an event study in Step 1 and a simulation model in Step 2. The event study identifies the quantitative magnitude of central bank decisions and rating changes on the interest rate differential. The simulation computes with a rolling-window methodology the daily cost and benefits of reverse factoring from 2010 to 2018 under the assumption of the efficient market hypothesis. Our major finding is that changes of crucial financial variables such as interest rates, ratings, or news alerts will turn former win–win into win–lose situations for the supplier contingent to the business cycle. Overall, our results exhibit sophisticated trade-offs under reverse factoring and consequently require a careful evaluation in managerial decisions. Full article
Article
Artificial Intelligence Approach to Momentum Risk-Taking
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2021, 9(4), 58; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs9040058 (registering DOI) - 21 Oct 2021
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Abstract
We propose a mathematical model of momentum risk-taking, which is essentially real-time risk management focused on short-term volatility. Its implementation, a fully automated momentum equity trading system, is systematically discussed in this paper. It proved to be successful in extensive historical and real-time [...] Read more.
We propose a mathematical model of momentum risk-taking, which is essentially real-time risk management focused on short-term volatility. Its implementation, a fully automated momentum equity trading system, is systematically discussed in this paper. It proved to be successful in extensive historical and real-time experiments. Momentum risk-taking is one of the key components of general decision-making, a challenge for artificial intelligence and machine learning. We begin with a new mathematical approach to news impact on share prices, which models well their power-type growth, periodicity, and the market phenomena like price targets and profit-taking. This theory generally requires Bessel and hypergeometric functions. Its discretization results in some tables of bids, basically, expected returns for main investment horizons, the key in our trading system. A preimage of our approach is a new contract card game. There are relations to random processes and the fractional Brownian motion. The ODE we obtained, especially those of Bessel-type, appeared to give surprisingly accurate modeling of the spread of COVID-19. Full article
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Article
Did Financial Consumers Benefit from the Digital Transformation? An Empirical Investigation
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2021, 9(4), 57; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs9040057 - 18 Oct 2021
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Abstract
This study aimed to test, through empirical investigation, how the rapid advancement of digital transformation (DT) has impacted the price of financial services. To this end, we compiled a set of macro-level indicators on the aggregate outcomes of the financial services sector in [...] Read more.
This study aimed to test, through empirical investigation, how the rapid advancement of digital transformation (DT) has impacted the price of financial services. To this end, we compiled a set of macro-level indicators on the aggregate outcomes of the financial services sector in Korea over the last three decades and conducted an analysis to gauge the effects of DT on the country using those indicators. Using the ARDL-ECM (autoregressive distributed lag error-correction model), we show that, over time, the unit cost of financial intermediation in Korea has tended to move in tandem with the growth in economic output, although the profit portion of the unit cost has not exhibited a long-term relationship with the GDP trend. The long-term effect of the DT trend is negative (i.e., cost-saving) for labor input, capital expenditure, and the total unit cost of financial intermediation, which are all shown to be statistically significant. Consequently, we conclude that DT contributed to enhancing consumer benefit, mainly by achieving the operational efficiency of labor and capital, from 1990 to 2019 in Korea. From a policy perspective, our finding implies that DT-driven innovation in the sector can benefit financial customers if excessive levels of profit are restrained through market competition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Financial Industry 4.0 Part 2)
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Article
The Effect of Quantitative Easing through Google Metrics on US Stock Indices
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2021, 9(4), 56; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs9040056 - 03 Oct 2021
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Abstract
The purpose of this study is to investigate the fluctuations that occur in stock returns of US stock indices when there is an increase in the volume of Google internet searches for the phrase “quantitative easing” in the US. The exponential generalized autoregressive [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the fluctuations that occur in stock returns of US stock indices when there is an increase in the volume of Google internet searches for the phrase “quantitative easing” in the US. The exponential generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity model (EGARCH) was applied based on weekly data of stock indices using the three-factor model of Fama and French for the period of 1 January 2006 to 30 October 2020. The existence of a statistically significant relationship between searches and financial variables, especially in the stock market, is evident. The result is strong in three of the four stock indices studied. Specifically, the SVI index was statistically significant, with a positive trend for the S&P 500 and Dow Jones indices and a negative trend for the VIX index. Investor focus on quantitative easing (QE), as determined by Google metrics, seems to calm stock market volatility and increase stock returns. Although there is a large body of research using Google Trends as a crowdsourcing method of forecasting stock returns, this paper is the first to examine the relationship between the increase in internet searches of “quantitative easing” and stock market returns. Full article
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Article
Buy Now and Pay (Dearly) Later: Unraveling Consumer Financial Spinning
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2021, 9(4), 55; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs9040055 - 29 Sep 2021
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Abstract
In this challenging and innovative article, we propose a framework for the consumer behavior named “consumer financial spinning”. It occurs when borrowers-consumers of products with high financial stakes accumulate unsustainable debt and disconnect from their initial financial hierarchy of needs, wealth-related goals, and [...] Read more.
In this challenging and innovative article, we propose a framework for the consumer behavior named “consumer financial spinning”. It occurs when borrowers-consumers of products with high financial stakes accumulate unsustainable debt and disconnect from their initial financial hierarchy of needs, wealth-related goals, and preferences over their household portfolio of assets. Three behaviors characterize daredevil consumers as they spin their wheel of misfortune, which together form a dark financial triangle: overconfidence, use of rationed rationality, and deceitfulness. We provokingly adapt some of the tenets of the Markowitz and Capital Asset Pricing models in the context of the predatory paradigm that consumer financial spinning entails and use modeling principles from the data percolation methodology. We partially test the proposed framework and show under what realistic conditions the relationship between expected returns and risk may depart from linearity. Our analysis and results appear timely and important because a better understanding of the psychological conditions that fuel intense speculation may restrain market frictions, which historically have kept reappearing and are likely to reoccur on a regular basis. Full article
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Article
Corporate Social Practices and Firm Financial Performance: Empirical Evidence from France
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2021, 9(4), 54; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs9040054 - 28 Sep 2021
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Abstract
The present work aimed to examine the association between Corporate Social performance (CSP) and corporate financial performance (CFP) taking into account corporate social irresponsibility. Here, we used a sample of French non-financial firms listed on SBF 120 between 2011 and 2016. Our findings [...] Read more.
The present work aimed to examine the association between Corporate Social performance (CSP) and corporate financial performance (CFP) taking into account corporate social irresponsibility. Here, we used a sample of French non-financial firms listed on SBF 120 between 2011 and 2016. Our findings provided evidence that corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate social irresponsibility (CSI) exert opposite effects on the CFP. Using an estimation of the vector autoregressive (VAR) model for panel data, we showed that the CSI has a greater and more lasting impact on CFP than CSR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Corporate Social Responsibility)
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Article
Uncovering Real Earnings Management: Pay Attention to Risk-Taking Behavior
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2021, 9(4), 53; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs9040053 - 23 Sep 2021
Viewed by 444
Abstract
We examine the impact of corporate risk-taking on firm-level real earnings management. We find that firms with higher risk-taking engage in higher real earnings management. Our results are robust to a series of robustness tests, including simultaneous least squares approach, firm fixed effect, [...] Read more.
We examine the impact of corporate risk-taking on firm-level real earnings management. We find that firms with higher risk-taking engage in higher real earnings management. Our results are robust to a series of robustness tests, including simultaneous least squares approach, firm fixed effect, change analysis, and pseudo difference-in-difference analysis. Additional analyses reveal that the impact of risk-taking on real earnings management is more pronounced among firms that experience prior-year loss and are run by top-echelons who are risk lovers. Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) regulation does not attenuate the positive effect of risk-taking on real earnings management. However, external monitoring by institutional investors and takeover susceptibility curb the relation between risk-taking and real earnings management. Our study highlights that outsider, such as investors and regulators, should pay close attention to a firm’s risk-taking behavior to unravel the extent of real earnings management in the firm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Studies in Corporate Finance)
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