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Technologies, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2016) – 8 articles

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Article
Designing Closed-Loop Brain-Machine Interfaces Using Model Predictive Control
Technologies 2016, 4(2), 18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/technologies4020018 - 22 Jun 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3100
Abstract
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are broadly defined as systems that establish direct communications between living brain tissue and external devices, such as artificial arms. By sensing and interpreting neuronal activities to actuate an external device, BMI-based neuroprostheses hold great promise in rehabilitating motor disabled [...] Read more.
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are broadly defined as systems that establish direct communications between living brain tissue and external devices, such as artificial arms. By sensing and interpreting neuronal activities to actuate an external device, BMI-based neuroprostheses hold great promise in rehabilitating motor disabled subjects, such as amputees. In this paper, we develop a control-theoretic analysis of a BMI-based neuroprosthetic system for voluntary single joint reaching task in the absence of visual feedback. Using synthetic data obtained through the simulation of an experimentally validated psycho-physiological cortical circuit model, both the Wiener filter and the Kalman filter based linear decoders are developed. We analyze the performance of both decoders in the presence and in the absence of natural proprioceptive feedback information. By performing simulations, we show that the performance of both decoders degrades significantly in the absence of the natural proprioception. To recover the performance of these decoders, we propose two problems, namely tracking the desired position trajectory and tracking the firing rate trajectory of neurons which encode the proprioception, in the model predictive control framework to design optimal artificial sensory feedback. Our results indicate that while the position trajectory based design can only recover the position and velocity trajectories, the firing rate trajectory based design can recover the performance of the motor task along with the recovery of firing rates in other cortical regions. Finally, we extend our design by incorporating a network of spiking neurons and designing artificial sensory feedback in the form of a charged balanced biphasic stimulating current. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain-Machine Interface Technology)
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Article
Correlation Plenoptic Imaging With Entangled Photons
Technologies 2016, 4(2), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/technologies4020017 - 07 Jun 2016
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3033
Abstract
Plenoptic imaging is a novel optical technique for three-dimensional imaging in a single shot. It is enabled by the simultaneous measurement of both the location and the propagation direction of light in a given scene. In the standard approach, the maximum spatial and [...] Read more.
Plenoptic imaging is a novel optical technique for three-dimensional imaging in a single shot. It is enabled by the simultaneous measurement of both the location and the propagation direction of light in a given scene. In the standard approach, the maximum spatial and angular resolutions are inversely proportional, and so are the resolution and the maximum achievable depth of focus of the 3D image. We have recently proposed a method to overcome such fundamental limits by combining plenoptic imaging with an intriguing correlation remote-imaging technique: ghost imaging. Here, we theoretically demonstrate that correlation plenoptic imaging can be effectively achieved by exploiting the position-momentum entanglement characterizing spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) photon pairs. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we shall show that correlation plenoptic imaging with entangled photons may enable the refocusing of an out-of-focus image at the same depth of focus of a standard plenoptic device, but without sacrificing diffraction-limited image resolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Imaging)
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Communication
Latest Advances in the Generation of Single Photons in Silicon Carbide
Technologies 2016, 4(2), 16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/technologies4020016 - 02 Jun 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2613
Abstract
The major barrier for optical quantum information technologies is the absence of reliable single photons sources providing non-classical light states on demand which can be easily and reliably integrated with standard processing protocols for quantum device fabrication. New methods of generation at room [...] Read more.
The major barrier for optical quantum information technologies is the absence of reliable single photons sources providing non-classical light states on demand which can be easily and reliably integrated with standard processing protocols for quantum device fabrication. New methods of generation at room temperature of single photons are therefore needed. Heralded single photon sources are presently being sought based on different methods built on different materials. Silicon Carbide (SiC) has the potentials to serve as the preferred material for quantum applications. Here, we review the latest advances in single photon generation at room temperatures based on SiC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Technologies)
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Article
A Preliminary Assessment of the Initial Compression Power Requirement in CO2 Pipeline “Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technologies”
Technologies 2016, 4(2), 15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/technologies4020015 - 23 May 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2459
Abstract
CO2 captured from fossil-fueled power generation plants is said to be economically transported via pipelines over long distances. The CO2 must be compressed to pipeline specifications using compressors and pumps that are driven by gas turbine (GT) or other prime movers. [...] Read more.
CO2 captured from fossil-fueled power generation plants is said to be economically transported via pipelines over long distances. The CO2 must be compressed to pipeline specifications using compressors and pumps that are driven by gas turbine (GT) or other prime movers. This paper presents the evaluation of actual work transfer or required prime power by modeling the governing equations of compression using the Peng–Robinson equation of state (PR-EOS). A computer code was developed to carry out the modeling and subsequent simulation of the compression power requirement. The simulation of prime mover power was carried out for different technology (head per stage) of the compressor ranging from 10-staged compression to double stage compression. The results show that the current technology of the centrifugal compressor could require as much as 23MW of prime mover power to compress 1.5 million tonnes per year of CO2—a projected equivalent CO2 released from a 530MW combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power generation plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technologies)
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Article
Membrane-Cryogenic Post-Combustion Carbon Capture of Flue Gases from NGCC
Technologies 2016, 4(2), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/technologies4020014 - 22 Apr 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3307
Abstract
Membrane gas separation for carbon capture has traditionally been focused on high pressure applications, such as pre-combustion capture and natural gas sweetening. Recently a membrane-cryogenic combined process has been shown to be cost competitive for post-combustion capture from coal fired power stations. Here, [...] Read more.
Membrane gas separation for carbon capture has traditionally been focused on high pressure applications, such as pre-combustion capture and natural gas sweetening. Recently a membrane-cryogenic combined process has been shown to be cost competitive for post-combustion capture from coal fired power stations. Here, the membrane-cryogenic combined process is investigated for application to post-combustion carbon capture from the flue gas of a Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) process. This process involves a three-membrane process, where the combustion air is used as the sweep gas on the second membrane stage to recycle CO2 through the turbine. This ensures high CO2 recovery and also increases the CO2 partial pressure in the flue gas. The three-CO2-selective membrane process with liquefaction and O2-enrichment was found to have a cost of capture higher than the corresponding process for coal post-combustion capture. This was attributed to the large size and energy duty of the gas handling equipment, especially the feed blower, because of the high gas throughput in the system caused by significant CO2 recycling. In addition, the economics were uncompetitive compared to a modelled solvent absorption processes for NGCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technologies)
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Article
Dry Separation of Palm Kernel and Palm Shell Using a Novel Five-Stage Winnowing Column System
Technologies 2016, 4(2), 13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/technologies4020013 - 20 Apr 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4414
Abstract
The conventional separation system for the recovery of palm kernel from its palm shell–kernel mixture using water as process media generates a considerable amount of waste effluent that harms the environment. The aim of this study is to develop a dry separation process [...] Read more.
The conventional separation system for the recovery of palm kernel from its palm shell–kernel mixture using water as process media generates a considerable amount of waste effluent that harms the environment. The aim of this study is to develop a dry separation process for the recovery of palm kernel by using winnowing columns. A commercial system consisting of a series of five winnowing columns was developed and installed at a local palm oil mill. The system parameters, including column height, blower capacity, airflow rate and mesh screen size for shell removal, were studied and optimized to ensure good separation of kernel and shell in the column to enable collection of different sizes of kernel and shell at each column outlet. The performance of the separation process was evaluated in terms of its kernel losses, dirt content and kernel recovery rate. The average kernel losses based on oil palm fresh fruit bunches processed were found to vary from 0.11 to 0.30 wt %, with most of the values obtained being below the targeted limit of 0.30 wt %. The dirt content was in the range 4.56–6.03 wt %, which was mostly below the targeted limit of 5.5 wt %. The kernel recovery rate was in the range 5.69–6.89 wt %, with most of the values achieving the minimum targeted limit of 6.00 wt %. The system operates under completely dry conditions and, therefore, produces zero waste effluent. Full article
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Article
Magnetic Resonance Lithography with Nanometer Resolution
Technologies 2016, 4(2), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/technologies4020012 - 18 Apr 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2192
Abstract
We propose an approach for super-resolution optical lithography which is based on the inverse of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The technique uses atomic coherence in an ensemble of spin systems whose final state population can be optically detected. In principle, our method is [...] Read more.
We propose an approach for super-resolution optical lithography which is based on the inverse of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The technique uses atomic coherence in an ensemble of spin systems whose final state population can be optically detected. In principle, our method is capable of producing arbitrary one and two dimensional high-resolution patterns with high contrast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Imaging)
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Article
The Effects of Thermal Treatment and Steam Addition on Integrated CuO/CaO Chemical Looping Combustion for CO2 Capture
Technologies 2016, 4(2), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/technologies4020011 - 07 Apr 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2725
Abstract
The combination of Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) with Calcium Looping (CaL) using integrated pellets is an alternative CO2 capture process to the current amine-based sorbent processes, but the pellets lose sorption capacity over time. In this paper, the deactivation behavior of CaO, [...] Read more.
The combination of Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) with Calcium Looping (CaL) using integrated pellets is an alternative CO2 capture process to the current amine-based sorbent processes, but the pellets lose sorption capacity over time. In this paper, the deactivation behavior of CaO, CuO and CuO/CaO integrated pellets used for multiple (16–20) cycles in a thermogravimetric analyzer was studied. The impact of thermal treatment and the presence of steam on the deactivation were also investigated. Nitrogen physisorption and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray analysis were used to characterize the pellets. The analysis revealed significant migration of the copper to the surface of the composite pellets, which likely suppressed carbonation capacity by reducing the accessibility of the CaO. While thermal pre-treatment and steam addition enhanced the performance of the base CaO pellets, the former led to cracks in the pellets. In contrast, thermal pretreatment of the CuO/CaO composite pellets resulted in worse CLC and CaL performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technologies)
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