The evolving global landscape for electrical distribution and use created a need area for energy storage systems (ESS), making them among the fastest growing electrical power system products. A key element in any energy storage system is the capability to monitor, control, and optimize performance of an individual or multiple battery modules in an energy storage system and the ability to control the disconnection of the module(s) from the system in the event of abnormal conditions. This management scheme is known as “battery management system (BMS)”, which is one of the essential units in electrical equipment. BMS reacts with external events, as well with as an internal event. It is used to improve the battery performance with proper safety measures within a system. Therefore, a safe BMS is the prerequisite for operating an electrical system. This report analyzes the details of BMS for electric transportation and large-scale (stationary) energy storage. The analysis includes different aspects of BMS covering testing, component, functionalities, topology, operation, architecture, and BMS safety aspects. Additionally, current related standards and codes related to BMS are also reviewed. The report investigates BMS safety aspects, battery technology, regulation needs, and offer recommendations. It further studies current gaps in respect to the safety requirements and performance requirements of BMS by focusing mainly on the electric transportation and stationary application. The report further provides a framework for developing a new standard on BMS, especially on BMS safety and operational risk. In conclusion, four main areas of (1) BMS construction, (2) Operation Parameters, (3) BMS Integration, and (4) Installation for improvement of BMS safety and performance are identified, and detailed recommendations were provided for each area. It is recommended that a technical review of the BMS be performed for transportation electrification and large-scale (stationary) applications. A comprehensive evaluation of the components, architectures, and safety risks applicable to BMS operation is also presented.
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