Next Issue
Volume 11, February
Previous Issue
Volume 10, December

Educ. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 1 (January 2021) – 33 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Discussions related to the chemistry curriculum inevitably include an evaluation of how chemistry can be made relevant for students to help to foster their success. This project was designed to capture chemistry instructors’ perceptions regarding making chemistry relevant for their students using a questionnaire focusing on teaching methods, tools, topics, as well as instructor perceptions of the associated challenges, including real-world topics in their courses and their perceptions of how students view these approaches. The analysis investigates patterns within the responses that can be helpful in highlighting areas where instructors may require additional support as they evaluate how they can improve their curricula to make their courses more valuable for their students. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Fit for Fire: A 10-Week Low-Cost HIFT Experiential Learning Initiative between Underrepresented Kinesiology Undergraduates and Hypertensive Deconditioned Firefighters Improves Their Health and Fitness
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 33; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010033 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 476
Abstract
The aims of this study were to investigate the feasibility of an experiential learning initiative led by minority exercise science undergraduates and to observe the adaptations after a 10-week high-intensity functional training (HIFT) program in 34 underrepresented, hypertensive, and overweight/obese professional firefighters (PFF; [...] Read more.
The aims of this study were to investigate the feasibility of an experiential learning initiative led by minority exercise science undergraduates and to observe the adaptations after a 10-week high-intensity functional training (HIFT) program in 34 underrepresented, hypertensive, and overweight/obese professional firefighters (PFF; age: 36.8 ± 11.0 years, body weight: 97.3 ± 21.5 kg, height: 181.7 ± 6.6 cm; BMI: 29.2 ± 4.9 kg/m2). Data were analyzed for muscular strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, body composition, agility, flexibility, and readiness for change. The PFFs trained two to three times weekly during their work shifts at vigorous intensity for 40 min. Their resting diastolic blood pressure and resting heart rate significantly decreased. Improvements in agility, muscular strength, and readiness for change were observed. This HIFT experiential learning initiative was feasible and beneficial and improved the PFFs’ health and physical fitness with limited resources. Accredited programs in exercise science participating in low-cost initiatives may aid in mitigating public service workers’ compensation and injury rates to better respond to occupational demands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Teaching and Learning in Exercise and Environmental Physiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
When Authenticity Goes Missing: How Monocultural Children’s Literature Is Silencing the Voices and Contributing to Invisibility of Children from Minority Backgrounds
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010032 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 442
Abstract
The importance of recognising, valuing and respecting a child’s family, culture, language and values is central to socially just education and is increasingly articulated in educational policy worldwide. Inclusive children’s literature can support children’s human rights and contribute to equitable and socially just [...] Read more.
The importance of recognising, valuing and respecting a child’s family, culture, language and values is central to socially just education and is increasingly articulated in educational policy worldwide. Inclusive children’s literature can support children’s human rights and contribute to equitable and socially just outcomes for all children. However, evidence suggests many educational settings provide monocultural book collections which are counterproductive to principles of diversity and social justice. Further, that educators’ understandings and beliefs about diversity can contribute to inequitable provision and use of diverse books and to inequitable outcomes of book sharing for many children. This paper reports on a larger study investigating factors and relationships influencing the use of children’s literature to support principles of cultural diversity in the kindergarten rooms of long day care centres. The study was conducted within an ontological perspective of constructivism and an epistemological perspective of interpretivism informed by sociocultural theory. A mixed methods approach was adopted, and convergent design was employed interpret significant relationships and their meanings. Twenty-four educators and 110 children from four long day care centres in Western Australia participated. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, video-based observations, field notes, document analysis and a book audit. This study firstly identified that current book collections in kindergarten rooms of long day care centres promote mono-cultural viewpoints and ‘othering’ of minority groups through limited access to books portraying inclusive and authentic cultural diversity. Secondly, that educators had limited understandings of the role of literature in acknowledging and valuing diversity and rarely used it to promote principles of diversity, resulting in a practice of “othering” those from minority group backgrounds. The key challenges which emerged from the study concerned beliefs, understanding and confidence of educators about diversity and inclusion, and the impact of these on their approaches to promoting principles of diversity through the use of children’s books. This research contributes to discussion on the value of children’s literature in achieving international principles of diversity. These findings have important social justice implications. The outcomes of this study have implications for educators, policy makers, early childhood organisations and those providing higher education and training for early childhood educators. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Student Burnout: A Case Study about a Portuguese Public University
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010031 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 538
Abstract
Burnout is increasingly present in organizations and in the most diverse professions, namely, in university students. Burnout can have negative repercussions on their well-being and can even lead them to abandon their studies. The objective of the study focuses on academic burnout and [...] Read more.
Burnout is increasingly present in organizations and in the most diverse professions, namely, in university students. Burnout can have negative repercussions on their well-being and can even lead them to abandon their studies. The objective of the study focuses on academic burnout and taking medication as a consequence of the requirements of the academic path of students at a Portuguese public university. To achieve this goal, a quantitative methodology was used, consisting of the distribution of a questionnaire to a sample of students from the analyzed university. The first study questionnaire obtained 207 responses, all valid. To perform the analysis of the quantitative data, the program IBM SPSS Statistics, version 25 was used. Inferential statistics were used, namely, Student t-test and one-way ANOVA (parametric tests), Spearman’s correlation coefficient, and the Chi-square test, to test the previously defined research hypotheses. Among the variables for which statistically significant relationships with burnout were found, the following stand out: the arithmetic mean (course average); the professional situation; participation in extracurricular activities; the practice and frequency of physical exercise; the choice and expectations regarding the course; the uncertainty felt about the professional future; the evaluation of the relationship with colleagues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research and Trends in Higher Education)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessBrief Report
Changes in Students’ Achievement Motivation in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Function of Extraversion/Introversion?
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010030 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 899
Abstract
Students’ mental health has been an increased concern since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, academic outcomes have received very little attention. In this study, changes in students’ achievement motivation are investigated using an expectancy–value framework. Participants (n = 90) were [...] Read more.
Students’ mental health has been an increased concern since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, academic outcomes have received very little attention. In this study, changes in students’ achievement motivation are investigated using an expectancy–value framework. Participants (n = 90) were high school students (grades 9 and 10) who reported on their expectancy and value perceptions in regard to learning before and during the pandemic (i.e., January and November 2020). Changes over time and as a function of extraversion/introversion were analyzed using repeated measures multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs). Most perceptions were found to be stable with the exception of interest in learning, which increased as a function of extraversion. Results are discussed in light of relevant pre-pandemic evidence. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Challenge of Educating Purposeful Teachers in Finland
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010029 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 330
Abstract
This article discusses the challenges of educating teachers in Finland. As a goal in teacher education for the 21st century we propose the purposeful teacher, referring to a teacher who has a long-term moral commitment to serve students, the school community and society. [...] Read more.
This article discusses the challenges of educating teachers in Finland. As a goal in teacher education for the 21st century we propose the purposeful teacher, referring to a teacher who has a long-term moral commitment to serve students, the school community and society. Our data collected from student (N = 912) and practising (N = 77) teachers yielded information on the purposes they identified as important in their lives. The survey included quantitative instruments and open- ended questions. The teachers identified happiness, relationships, work and self-actualisation as the most important contents of their aspirations. All the content categories could be understood as potential purposes in that the benefit extended beyond the teachers themselves. However, almost half of the student teachers (46%) and over half of teachers (55%) revealed only self-orientation. Less than half of them (43%, 36%, respectively) showed a beyond-the-self orientation, which is indicative of a purposeful teacher. Among the practising teachers, teaching appeared to be mainly a mediating factor in realising their purposes or aspirations. These results have implications related to contemporary teacher education in Finland. Both pre- and in-service teachers need to know about purposeful teaching in order to find meaning in their work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contemporary Teacher Education: A Global Perspective)
Open AccessArticle
Zoom in on Dry Joy—Dissensus, Agonism and Democracy in Art Education
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010028 - 13 Jan 2021
Viewed by 590
Abstract
Literature on art education often emphasizes dialogue as a preferred approach and as a way of practicing democratic education in museums and galleries. Dialogue-based tours in such contexts are often characterized by a sense of harmony and agreement. In contrast, this article discusses [...] Read more.
Literature on art education often emphasizes dialogue as a preferred approach and as a way of practicing democratic education in museums and galleries. Dialogue-based tours in such contexts are often characterized by a sense of harmony and agreement. In contrast, this article discusses the democratic aspect and political potentiality when dissensus and agonism are used as central educational strategies. The point of departure for the discussion was a teaching session on the online platform Zoom with student teachers as part of their module on art and crafts at the University of Agder in Kristiansand, Norway, in spring 2020. Artworks from the exhibition Dry Joy, in Sørlandet Art Museum, by Finnish photographer Iiu Susiraja, were the pivot point in the session. Before the lockdown caused by COVID-19, the exhibition caused intense debates. The strong reactions were particularly prevalent amongst parents whose children had witnessed the exhibition as part of a school trip. A central part of the teaching session was encouraging students to come up with and explore arguments both for and against exposure of school children to these images. This article aims to contribute to knowledge about how educational strategies that challenge consensus may enable democratic arenas beyond hegemony. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Art Education: Past, Present and Futures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Skills for a Working Future: How to Bring about Professional Success from the Educational Setting
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 27; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010027 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Globalization, digitalization, and the permanent alteration of information have led to important changes in the world of work. This demands a realignment of essential skills in order to access job positions in the coming years. In order to face up to the digitalization [...] Read more.
Globalization, digitalization, and the permanent alteration of information have led to important changes in the world of work. This demands a realignment of essential skills in order to access job positions in the coming years. In order to face up to the digitalization process, education is one of the ambits that has most come to a tipping point. This adds an urgency to the need to bring skills in line with the new demands of the job market and the challenges posed in the 21st Century. The methodology was based on a systematic review of the most commonly-used databases. It analyzed and synthesized the existing information on the skills required for the future job market and educational proposals to facilitate their acquisition. At the beginning of the search, 2045 records were selected. However, following the application of the exclusion criteria, a total of 63 records were included. From this in-depth analysis, it was uncovered that the most in-demand skill for the job market relates to the management of technology. Different proposals were located which targeted these skills in educational settings. The majority of these pertained to innovative projects emanating from digital and technological phenomena. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Family Context Assessment to Promote Language and Reading Abilities in 6-Year-Old Children
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010026 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 318
Abstract
Within a bioecological model, research works over the past decades have shown the significant influence of family micro systemic variables on child development. This study is aimed to test the factorial structure of the Haezi-Etxadi Family Assessment Scale (HEFAS-6), designed to detect protective [...] Read more.
Within a bioecological model, research works over the past decades have shown the significant influence of family micro systemic variables on child development. This study is aimed to test the factorial structure of the Haezi-Etxadi Family Assessment Scale (HEFAS-6), designed to detect protective family factors for language and reading development through the assessment of family context quality. The sample of this study consisted of 127 children aged 5 to 7 and their families. The factorial structure and the internal consistency of the data were analyzed. Results of the exploratory factor analysis (principal components with varimax rotation) showed the emergence of four factors: promotion of cognitive and linguistic development, promotion of socio-emotional development, family system strain and parental profile fostering child development. This structure was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency indices showed acceptable values. In conclusion, the tool shows good potential to assess the quality of the family context in the field of the promotion of reading and linguistic skills in educational, clinical and social intervention settings and through the implementation of evidence-based parenting policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Early Childhood Education)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Study of the Emotional Intelligence and Personality Traits of University Finance Students
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 25; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010025 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 530
Abstract
Studies on financial behavior indicate that emotional intelligence (EI) and personality traits (PTs) explain much of the bias in financial activity. This study aims to identify in which dimensions of theEI and PTs of university students in finance further training is needed to [...] Read more.
Studies on financial behavior indicate that emotional intelligence (EI) and personality traits (PTs) explain much of the bias in financial activity. This study aims to identify in which dimensions of theEI and PTs of university students in finance further training is needed to avoid financial behavior bias. To this end, the EI and PT levels of a sample of university finance students and financial industry professionals were compared using the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) and Big Five Inventory questionnaire. Subsequently, the dimensions of EI and PTs in which students have a deficit compared to professionals were identified, and the impacts that this deficit causes on the financial behavior of students were determined. The results indicate that students are deficient in the EI competencies related to empathy, emotion regulation, self-motivation, stress management, optimism, and self-esteem. Furthermore, PTs are related to kindness, awareness, openness, and extraversion. This deficit makes students more likely to have financial behavior biases such as risk tolerance, endowment, optimism, self-control, and loss aversion. These findings suggest that universities should be aware of providing financial students with full training in EI and PTs to help them successfully address their professional future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research and Trends in Higher Education)
Open AccessArticle
Emergency Online Learning in Low-Resource Settings: Effective Student Engagement Strategies
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 24; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010024 - 08 Jan 2021
Viewed by 963
Abstract
We aim to identify the engagement strategies that higher education students, engaging in emergency online learning in low-resource settings, perceive to be effective. We conducted a sequential mixed-methods study based on Moore’s interaction framework for distance education. We administered a questionnaire to 313 [...] Read more.
We aim to identify the engagement strategies that higher education students, engaging in emergency online learning in low-resource settings, perceive to be effective. We conducted a sequential mixed-methods study based on Moore’s interaction framework for distance education. We administered a questionnaire to 313 students engaging in emergency online learning in low-resource settings to examine their perceptions of different engagement strategies. Our results showed that student–content engagement strategies, e.g., screen sharing, summaries, and class recordings, are perceived as the most effective, closely followed by student–teacher strategies, e.g., Q and A sessions and reminders. Student–student strategies, e.g., group chat and collaborative work, are perceived as the least effective. The perceived effectiveness of engagement strategies varies based on the students’ gender and technology access. To support instructors, instructional designers, and researchers, we propose a 10-level guide for engaging students during emergency online classes in low-resource settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Online and Distance Learning during Lockdown Times: COVID-19 Stories)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Technology Platforms for Use in Transdisciplinary Research
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 23; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010023 - 07 Jan 2021
Viewed by 341
Abstract
Transdisciplinary research (TR) is a growing field in a myriad of subject domains ranging from sustainability to education. The idea is to solve complex problems through the collaborative participation of academic actors, community stakeholders, governments, and other leaders to jointly define the problem [...] Read more.
Transdisciplinary research (TR) is a growing field in a myriad of subject domains ranging from sustainability to education. The idea is to solve complex problems through the collaborative participation of academic actors, community stakeholders, governments, and other leaders to jointly define the problem and find solutions. To accomplish such complex projects, one of the main tools is an efficient technology platform. The need for an efficient technology platform, in turn, leads to a need for an evaluation tool to determine which is the most suitable for a given transdisciplinary research situation, however, a literature review confirms that research on such evaluation tools is scarce. The goal of this paper is to improve the evaluation of technology platforms for individual TR projects, based on the characteristics of that specific TR. The research question is “Can TR characteristics be used to construct an evaluation tool for technology platforms?” The specific aims used to answer the question were: the following: (1) to define the characteristics (core activities and skills) of TR and (2) to construct a tool for evaluating technology platforms for use in TR. Methodology: For the first specific aim, a literature meta-analysis was used; the second specific aim was addressed following a newly developed methodology, including elements of the technology acceptance model and elements of a standard technology evaluation process. Results: A chart for defining the core activities and skills in TR was developed, and a tool was constructed for evaluating technology platforms that could be used in TR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Technology Enhanced Education)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Gamification in Science Education. A Systematic Review of the Literature
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 22; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010022 - 06 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 970
Abstract
The implementation of gamification in education has attracted many researchers to increase engagement and achieve learning more effectively. Implementing technology in science curricula has seen a massive influx over the past years to stop the decline in students’ motivation towards science learning and [...] Read more.
The implementation of gamification in education has attracted many researchers to increase engagement and achieve learning more effectively. Implementing technology in science curricula has seen a massive influx over the past years to stop the decline in students’ motivation towards science learning and promote scientific thinking. This study’s objective is to present the empirical findings of the state-of-the-art literature on the use of gamification in science education. Therefore, we performed a systematic literature review of 24 empirical research papers published in various electronic databases and the web search engine for scholarly literature and academic resources, Google Scholar, between 2012 and 2020. This review reveals the latest emerging trends of gamification in science education while revealing the literature gap, challenges, impediments, and extending the possibilities for future research directions. It examines the conflicting findings of other studies and provides a framework and insight for future researchers regarding content areas, educational levels, theoretical models, outcomes, methodologies, game elements, and assessment tools. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Integrated STEM for Teacher Professional Learning and Development: “I Need Time for Practice”
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 21; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010021 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 597
Abstract
This study compares three pre-collegiate teacher professional learning and development (PLD) integrated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experiences framed in astronomy. The study is set in the western United States (USA) and involves 60 pre-collegiate teachers (in the USA these are K-12 [...] Read more.
This study compares three pre-collegiate teacher professional learning and development (PLD) integrated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experiences framed in astronomy. The study is set in the western United States (USA) and involves 60 pre-collegiate teachers (in the USA these are K-12 teachers) over the course of three years (June 2014–May 2017). During the PLDs, astronomy acted as a vehicle for pre-collegiate STEM teachers to increase their STEM content knowledge as well as create and implement integrated STEM classroom lessons. The authors collected quantitative and qualitative data to address five research questions and embraced social constructionism as the theoretical framework. Findings show that STEM pre-collegiate teachers are largely engaged with integrated STEM PLD content and embrace astronomy content and authentic science. Importantly, they need time to practice, interpret, translate, and use the integrated STEM content in classroom lessons. Recommendations for PLD STEM teacher support are provided. Implications of this study are vast, as gaps in authentic science, utilizing astronomy, PLD structure, and STEM integration are ripe for exploration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cooperative/Collaborative Learning)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Equity in Career Development of High School Students in South Korea: The Role of School Career Education
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010020 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 372
Abstract
Along with the rising concerns of career education in school, the government in South Korea has increased investments for closing the opportunity gap in career education. However, limited studies explored the equity in students’ outcomes of career education. Focusing on career development competencies, [...] Read more.
Along with the rising concerns of career education in school, the government in South Korea has increased investments for closing the opportunity gap in career education. However, limited studies explored the equity in students’ outcomes of career education. Focusing on career development competencies, we examined if school career education could reduce the socio-economic disparities in the career development of high school students. We used the ordinary least squares (OLS) regression applying school-fixed effects with the representative data from the Korean Education and Employment Panel II. Findings showed that parental education level was positively linked to career development competencies of high school students, though household income was not shown as statistically significant. We also found that for students who engaged in career and vocational classes in school, the parental education level was less likely to be related to their career development competencies. Also, students who were more satisfied with school career education showed a weaker relationship between career development competencies and parental education level. Based on these findings, we discussed the role of school-based career education to narrow the gap in students’ career development from socio-economic backgrounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue International Vocational Education and Training)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
COVID-19 Emergency eLearning and Beyond: Experiences and Perspectives of University Educators
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 19; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010019 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 775
Abstract
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, eLearning became the lifeline of higher education. We explored university educators’ eLearning perspectives, practices, and future adoption intentions. In-depth interviews with 14 educators from a large university in Singapore were conducted. Educators had limited eLearning experience prior to [...] Read more.
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, eLearning became the lifeline of higher education. We explored university educators’ eLearning perspectives, practices, and future adoption intentions. In-depth interviews with 14 educators from a large university in Singapore were conducted. Educators had limited eLearning experience prior to COVID-19 emergency eLearning and expressed strong preferences for in-person sessions. The short notice to switch to eLearning and lack of eLearning experiences created stress and anxiety. Educators responded by making efforts that allowed for teaching to continue, conceding that some expectations had to be readjusted. Despite many obstacles, educators acknowledged reduced apprehension towards eLearning. Reflecting upon their experiences, educators highlighted opportunities and challenges of eLearning. A key opportunity was increased flexibility, which enabled students to learn independently. Additionally, eLearning triggered reflection upon educators teaching which could lead to improved practice. Reduction of some barriers to student–educator interaction were also mentioned. Key challenges include creating social, emotional, and cognitive engagement, catering to diverse student needs and providing holistic learning experiences. Considering opportunities and challenges, educators envisioned that eLearning would feature in their future teaching if practical and helpful for achieving educational goals. Hybrid or blended learning approaches were preferred, but support enabling the implementation of technology-based and pedagogy-informed teaching is necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Higher Education)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Students’ Perceived Mathematics Teacher Competence: Longitudinal Associations with Learning Outcomes and Choice of College Major
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010018 - 04 Jan 2021
Viewed by 496
Abstract
The quality of teaching and teacher plays a significant role in enhancing students’ cognitive and motivational development. The purpose of this study was to identify longitudinal trajectories of student perceptions of mathematics teachers’ professional competence, and to examine how these trajectories were related [...] Read more.
The quality of teaching and teacher plays a significant role in enhancing students’ cognitive and motivational development. The purpose of this study was to identify longitudinal trajectories of student perceptions of mathematics teachers’ professional competence, and to examine how these trajectories were related to students’ engagement and achievement in mathematics and their choice of college major. The data used for analysis were obtained from the Seoul Education Longitudinal Study, a study of 2714 secondary students who were followed up for five successive years. Results showed four heterogeneous trajectories of students’ perceptions of teacher competence, and these trajectories were associated with students’ engagement and achievement in mathematics. In addition, those who consistently perceived their mathematics teachers to be highly competent and whose perceptions of their teachers’ competence became more positive over time were more likely than other students to choose math-intensive majors. These findings imply longitudinal links between mathematics teachers’ professional competence as perceived by their students and students’ choice of college major as well as their engagement and achievement in mathematics. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Fostering Students’ Workplace Communicative Competence and Collaborative Mindset through an Inquiry-Based Learning Design
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010017 - 01 Jan 2021
Viewed by 582
Abstract
This paper illustrates the efficiency of implementing an inquiry-based teaching and learning module on the development of workplace communication competence and collaborative mindset in a college-level English as a Foreign Language context. In particular, the study highlights the 5E constructivist approach as the [...] Read more.
This paper illustrates the efficiency of implementing an inquiry-based teaching and learning module on the development of workplace communication competence and collaborative mindset in a college-level English as a Foreign Language context. In particular, the study highlights the 5E constructivist approach as the pedagogical foundation and addresses the effects of project-based learning scenario on students’ engagement and their views in terms of “workplace habits of mind”. The 5E model includes five stages: engagement, exploration, explanation, elaboration, and evaluation. In addition, teaching strategies like academia-industry cooperative teaching, industry field trip, reflective writing, and project-based presentation were incorporated into each instructional phase to emphasize the development of students’ social, collaborative, and problem-solving skills. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected including students’ perceived effectiveness of engagement activities, weekly reflective journal writing and focus group interviews. The results of the study indicate that the inquiry-based teaching and learning approach had a favorable effect on the development of students’ engagement and hands-on, mind-on skills such as critical thinking, collaboration, and communication. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Academic and Social Effects of Inclusion on Students without Disabilities: A Review of the Literature
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010016 - 01 Jan 2021
Viewed by 593
Abstract
In many countries, educational practices are changing to inclusive education. Inclusive education is educating students with disabilities in general education classrooms with their peers without disabilities. If inclusive education is spreading, research needs to investigate the effects of inclusion not only for students [...] Read more.
In many countries, educational practices are changing to inclusive education. Inclusive education is educating students with disabilities in general education classrooms with their peers without disabilities. If inclusive education is spreading, research needs to investigate the effects of inclusion not only for students with special needs but also for typically developing students. However, there is more research on the outcomes of inclusion for students with disabilities and less for students without disabilities in inclusive settings. Research shows academic and social gains for students with disabilities, but there is less clarity regarding the influence of inclusion on general education students. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to summarize and organize the literature on the academic and social outcomes of inclusion on students without disabilities. Academic effects of inclusion on students without disabilities are mixed, and the levels of schooling may have a differential impact on the achievement of students without disabilities. The literature indicates mostly positive or neutral effects of inclusion on the academic achievement of typically developing students in the lower grades, whereas neutral or negative influence is indicated for later grades. Additionally, students without disabilities have socially benefited from being in inclusive classrooms with students with disabilities. Mainly, the social effects of inclusion are reduction of fear, hostility, prejudice, and discrimination as well as increase of tolerance, acceptance, and understanding. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Intuitive Theories of Parenting and the Development of Emotion Understanding in Preschoolers
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010015 - 01 Jan 2021
Viewed by 420
Abstract
Emotion understanding develops intensively in preschool and junior school. Although the parent/family environment has been shown to affect the development of emotion understanding in children, very little research has examined examined how parents’ view upbringing and education and how they are related to [...] Read more.
Emotion understanding develops intensively in preschool and junior school. Although the parent/family environment has been shown to affect the development of emotion understanding in children, very little research has examined examined how parents’ view upbringing and education and how they are related to their child’s emotion understanding, given that the intuitive theories of parenting are reflected in actual parent behavior. This study fills this gap in the literature and examines the links between children’s ability to understand emotions and their parents’ intuitive theories of parenting. The sample was 171 5- to 6-year-old children and their parents. Analyses revealed a significant relation between intuitive theories of parenting and children’s emotion understanding. In particular, the intuitive attitude of uninvolved parenting was associated with the understanding of mental causes of emotions and the overall level of emotion understanding in preschool children. Integrating these results will allow us to reach more informed conclusions about the role of parental beliefs in the development of emotion comprehension in preschool children. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Study Comparing Intrinsic Motivation and Opinions on Learning Science (Grades 6) and Taking the International PISA Test (Grade 9)
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010014 - 01 Jan 2021
Viewed by 395
Abstract
Research findings indicate a decline in students’ motivation towards science learning through grade levels. However, there is a lack of studies investigating students’ motivation comparing learning between science subjects and at different school levels. Using self-determination theory as a framework, this study compares [...] Read more.
Research findings indicate a decline in students’ motivation towards science learning through grade levels. However, there is a lack of studies investigating students’ motivation comparing learning between science subjects and at different school levels. Using self-determination theory as a framework, this study compares perceived changes in intrinsic motivation and student opinions on the relevance of learning science themes among students in grades 6 and 9 (the end of compulsory schooling). To explore such learning, a multidimensional validated instrument is developed and used to collect empirical data from 2673 grade 6 students and 848 grade 9 students. Results from this research indicate statistically significant subject differences regarding sub-components of intrinsic motivation and a declining trend in students’ opinions on the sub-scales of relevance for learning science themes with age. The results further indicate that grade 6 students report significantly higher science-related intrinsic motivation compared with grade 9 students. Suggestions and implications for practice and the potential impact on PISA science studies are discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Exploring Chemistry Professors’ Methods of Highlighting the Relevancy of Chemistry: Opportunities, Obstacles, and Suggestions to Improve Students’ Motivation in Science Classrooms
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010013 - 01 Jan 2021
Viewed by 526
Abstract
This study focused on inquiring into undergraduate chemistry professors’ efforts in North America to increase student motivation and interest in the subject and the feasibility of methods that connect students to real world applications and societal issues related to chemistry. A survey was [...] Read more.
This study focused on inquiring into undergraduate chemistry professors’ efforts in North America to increase student motivation and interest in the subject and the feasibility of methods that connect students to real world applications and societal issues related to chemistry. A survey was distributed to chemistry instructors at post-secondary institutions across the United States and Canada asking about the usage of methods and tools to deliver content aiming at raising students’ perception of the relevance of learning chemistry (N = 124). The instrument also asked about instructors’ perceptions related to assessment, as well as their perception of how their students value the integration of socio-scientific issues into the curriculum. A chi-squared analysis was performed to identify groups of individuals whose responses were disproportionate, compared to the distribution of responses from the sample, in order to identify any unique occurrences. In general, the usage of real-world applications and socio-scientific issues in post-secondary chemistry courses tends to be related to instructors’ value of the role of these topics in their courses, comfort level with the topics, and preferred approaches to developing and implementing the course materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section STEM Education)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
What Kind of Feedback is Perceived as Encouraging by Finnish General Upper Secondary School Students?
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010012 - 01 Jan 2021
Viewed by 424
Abstract
Our main aim in this study was to compare encouraging feedback practices in Finnish general upper secondary foreign language classes and examine how students perceive language teachers’ assessment practices. The participants were 160 students of English, 95 students of Swedish, and 27 students [...] Read more.
Our main aim in this study was to compare encouraging feedback practices in Finnish general upper secondary foreign language classes and examine how students perceive language teachers’ assessment practices. The participants were 160 students of English, 95 students of Swedish, and 27 students of French from six general upper secondary schools. The data comprised one open-ended question and one Likert scale question with nine items. Both qualitative and quantitate methods were used to analyze the data. The results showed that content was the most important feature in feedback that was perceived as encouraging by students. The results further indicated that students considered teacher assessment practices to be primarily summative, but differences were also found between schools. The evidence from this study suggests that students appreciate teacher feedback, but do not perceive it to be an intrinsic part of teacher assessment practices. The importance of formative assessment and feedback should be more heavily emphasized in foreign language teacher education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contemporary Teacher Education: A Global Perspective)
Open AccessReview
Simulators in Educational Robotics: A Review
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010011 - 01 Jan 2021
Viewed by 437
Abstract
Educational robotics (ER) seems to have a positive effect on students and, in many cases, might help them to successfully assimilate knowledge and skills. Thus, this paper focuses on ER and carries out a literature review on educational robotics simulators with Graphical User [...] Read more.
Educational robotics (ER) seems to have a positive effect on students and, in many cases, might help them to successfully assimilate knowledge and skills. Thus, this paper focuses on ER and carries out a literature review on educational robotics simulators with Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs). The review searches for relevant papers which were published in the period 2013–2020 and extracted the characteristics of the simulators used. The simulators that we describe in this article cover various robotic technologies, offering students an easy way to engage with virtual robots and robotics mechanisms, such as wheeled robots or drones. Using these simulators, students might cover their educational needs or prepare themselves for educational robotic competitions by working in as realistic as possible conditions without hardware restrictions. In many cases, simulators might reduce the required cost to obtain a robotic system and increase availability. Focusing on educational robotics simulators, this paper presents seventeen simulators emphasizing key features such as: user’s age, robot’s type and programming language, development platform, capabilities, and scope of the simulator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Technology Enhanced Education)
Open AccessArticle
The Moderating Effect of Gender Equality and Other Factors on PISA and Education Policy
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010010 - 01 Jan 2021
Viewed by 485
Abstract
Globalisation and policy transfer in education make it incumbent upon decision makers to prioritise among competing policy options, select policy initiatives that are appropriate for their national contexts, and understand how system-specific factors moderate the relationship between those policies and student outcomes. This [...] Read more.
Globalisation and policy transfer in education make it incumbent upon decision makers to prioritise among competing policy options, select policy initiatives that are appropriate for their national contexts, and understand how system-specific factors moderate the relationship between those policies and student outcomes. This study used qualitative comparative analysis and correlational analyses to explore these relationships with publicly available data on socio-economic, cultural, and education conditions, and their association with PISA 2015 results in 49 countries. Findings show that gender and income equality, human development, and individualism were outcome-enabling conditions for PISA 2015 results, and gender equality was the most consistent of these conditions. These factors significantly moderated the relationships between education policy and PISA results. Implications for the identification of meaningful peer countries for comparative educational research, policy transfer, and the future expansion of PISA are discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Strategies for Flipped Learning in the Health Professions Education in South Korea and Their Effects: A Systematic Review
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010009 - 31 Dec 2020
Viewed by 324
Abstract
This study aims to identify and synthesize recent literature on the effect and strategies of flipped learning in the health professions education. Participant–intervention-comparator-outcome (PICO) strategies were used to identify articles from published peer-reviewed papers from January 2017 to March 2020 in Korea Med, [...] Read more.
This study aims to identify and synthesize recent literature on the effect and strategies of flipped learning in the health professions education. Participant–intervention-comparator-outcome (PICO) strategies were used to identify articles from published peer-reviewed papers from January 2017 to March 2020 in Korea Med, Korean Citation Index, National Digital Science Library, and Korean Studies Information Service System. Of the 83 screened articles, 10 published articles met all the inclusion criteria. Most of articles targeted nursing students and focused on practicum classes. The effects of flipped learning were measured based on satisfaction, self-motivated learning, information literacy, and critical thinking disposition. Further, pre-class, in-class, and post-class activities were analyzed. The findings revealed that flipped learning improved class performance, overall evaluation, self-motivated learning, self-efficacy, and problem-solving abilities. The study suggests implementing a tailored flipped learning design based on class characteristics and appropriate post-class activities for enhancing students’ learning abilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Use of Augmented and Virtual Reality in Remote Higher Education: A Systematic Umbrella Review
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010008 - 31 Dec 2020
Viewed by 615
Abstract
In this systematic umbrella review we aggregate the current knowledge of how virtual and augmented reality technologies are applicable to and impact remote learning in higher education; specifically, how they impact such learning outcomes as performance and engagement in all stages of higher [...] Read more.
In this systematic umbrella review we aggregate the current knowledge of how virtual and augmented reality technologies are applicable to and impact remote learning in higher education; specifically, how they impact such learning outcomes as performance and engagement in all stages of higher education from course preparation to student evaluation and grading. This review was done as part of a state wide research effort of Latvia, to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 and specifically to provide a framework for a technological transformation of education in this context. In this work we search the Scopus and Web of Science databases for articles describing the use of virtual and/or augmented reality technologies in remote learning for higher education and their impact on learning outcomes. We identified 68 articles from which, after multiple screening and eligibility phases, nine review articles were left for extraction phase in which 30 structural elements with corresponding interventions and measured effects were extracted. Of these, 24 interventions had a measured effect on student performance (11 positive, seven negative, six no impact) and six interventions had a measured effect on student engagement (all six positive). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Learning in Open and Flexible Environments)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Outdoor Adventure Education: Trends and New Directions—Introduction to a Special Collection of Research
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010007 - 30 Dec 2020
Viewed by 438
Abstract
This special issue on “outdoor adventure education” contains seven articles focused on varied topics in outdoor adventure education (OAE) from the impact of COVID-19, creating a mobile App and girls outdoors to urban programming, systems of privilege and more [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outdoor Adventure Education: Trends and New Directions)
Open AccessArticle
The Continuous Intention to Use E-Learning, from Two Different Perspectives
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010006 - 25 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 793
Abstract
During the recent vast growth of digitalization, e-learning methods have become the most influential phenomenon at higher educational institutions. E-learning adoption has proved able to shift educational circumstances from the traditional face-to-face teaching environment to a flexible and sharable type of education. An [...] Read more.
During the recent vast growth of digitalization, e-learning methods have become the most influential phenomenon at higher educational institutions. E-learning adoption has proved able to shift educational circumstances from the traditional face-to-face teaching environment to a flexible and sharable type of education. An online survey was conducted, consisting of 30 teachers and 342 students in one of the universities in the United Arab Emirates. The results show that teachers’ and students’ perceived technology self-efficacy (TSE), ease of use (PEOU), and usefulness (PU) are the main factors directly affecting the continuous intention to use technology. Instructors’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) and perceived organizational support (POS) positively affect the intention to use the technology, whereas students’ controlled motivation (CTRLM) has a greater influence on their intention to use the technology, due to the type of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation that they have and which they can develop throughout the process of learning. The findings support the given hypotheses. In addition, they provide empirical evidence of a relationship between perceived organizational support and perceived pedagogical content knowledge. In fact, they are considered the key factors that support the use of technology continuously. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Cloud-Based ICME Software Training
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010005 - 24 Dec 2020
Viewed by 440
Abstract
Hands-on type training of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) is characterized by assisted application and combination of multiple simulation software tools and data. In this paper, we present recent experiences in establishing a cloud-based infrastructure to enable remote use of dedicated commercial and [...] Read more.
Hands-on type training of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) is characterized by assisted application and combination of multiple simulation software tools and data. In this paper, we present recent experiences in establishing a cloud-based infrastructure to enable remote use of dedicated commercial and open access simulation tools during an interactive online training event. In the first part, we summarize the hardware and software requirements and illustrate how these have been met using cloud hardware services, a simulation platform environment, a suitable communication channel, common workspaces, and more. The second part of the article focuses (i) on the requirements for suitable online hands-on training material and (ii) on details of some of the approaches taken. Eventually, the practical experiences gained during three consecutive online training courses held in September 2020 with 35 nominal participants each, are discussed in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Learning in Open and Flexible Environments)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between Spatial Ability and the Conservation of Matter in Middle School
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11010004 - 24 Dec 2020
Viewed by 307
Abstract
Research has shown that spatial ability plays a key role in understanding STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) content, including chemistry. Conservation of Matter (CoM) is an essential but challenging topic for chemistry students of all ages to grasp; it is often taught [...] Read more.
Research has shown that spatial ability plays a key role in understanding STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) content, including chemistry. Conservation of Matter (CoM) is an essential but challenging topic for chemistry students of all ages to grasp; it is often taught in a way where students memorize it but do not learn what it means conceptually. This research explored the relationship between understanding spatial ability and conceptual understanding of CoM in middle school students. CoM was examined in two ways using the Conservation of Matter Assessment (CoMA): through questions on conservation of atoms and the conservation of mass. Spatial ability was measured using the Purdue Spatial Visual Test: Rotations (PSVT). Significant, moderate correlations were found between spatial ability and understanding of CoM prior to and after a chemistry unit including instruction on CoM; the correlation was stronger after instruction. Scores on the PSVT and CoMA significantly increased pre to post instruction. The data show spatial ability may impact students’ understanding of CoM, which contributes to the literature on factors that impact students’ understanding of chemistry. Additionally, it provides evidence that teachers should consider including spatially rich experiences in their chemistry classroom, such as making explicit connections between the areas of Johnstone’s Triad. Full article
Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop