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Educ. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 11 (November 2021) – 100 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Navigating design communities through the new era is a significant issue facing global competition and pluralistic society. This study discusses the adaptive challenges in design education and bridged the design theory and practice. The authors explore three case studies of the REACH toothbrushes, an IEF wearable computer, and a LINNAK twin-cup. The results demonstrate the advancement and transformation from hi-tech to hi-touch. The contributions of this study are to clarify the interrelations among human factors, human actors, and cultural aspects. This study illustrates the evolution of the archetypal model of user–tool–task employing illustrative paradigms and also proposes orientated perspectives for the design industry and design education. View this paper
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Article
Embedding Bachelor of Engineering University Education with Enhanced Work-Integrated Learning
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 756; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110756 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 394
Abstract
A study on the effectiveness of engineering education in the development of industry-ready graduate engineers was conducted among academics and industry experts of engineering disciplines who have relevant experience in work-integrated learning in Australia. The hypothesis was that embedding enhanced work-integrated learning into [...] Read more.
A study on the effectiveness of engineering education in the development of industry-ready graduate engineers was conducted among academics and industry experts of engineering disciplines who have relevant experience in work-integrated learning in Australia. The hypothesis was that embedding enhanced work-integrated learning into all study semesters has the increased possibility of developing industry-ready graduate engineers. This paper outlines the research outcomes and an enhanced work-integrated learning framework that might be helpful for improving the industry-readiness of graduating engineers. Based on the research results, the researchers propose the allocation of an appropriate level of work-integrated learning for each indicator of attainment component from the elements of Engineers Australia’s Stage I Competencies. The aim of this paper is to provide detailed recommendations for implementing an enhanced work-integrated model in Bachelor of Engineering programs in Australia. The authors also present the concept of curriculum development based on industry-integrated learning outcomes, as well as the campus and industry engagement model for enhanced work-integrated learning for the subjects of study in the Bachelor of Engineering program. This framework can be used globally as a reference for developing similar work-integrated learning models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Higher Education)
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Article
Application of Lean Manufacturing Concepts to Evolving a Policy for Engineering Education
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 755; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110755 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 377
Abstract
This work analyzes the current situation of engineering education in India, especially technical universities characterized by low-quality infrastructure, inflexible curricula, and poor teaching resources including faculty, usually resulting in low student learning and very low graduate placement rates, and identifies the root causes [...] Read more.
This work analyzes the current situation of engineering education in India, especially technical universities characterized by low-quality infrastructure, inflexible curricula, and poor teaching resources including faculty, usually resulting in low student learning and very low graduate placement rates, and identifies the root causes of these problems, summarizes the methodologies adapted by previous researchers in the lean area, and applies the lean manufacturing philosophy to engineering education. This paper applies a value stream map to analyze the current state of engineering education. This technique identifies eight wastes and is given in form of a current state diagram. A future state diagram is presented that recommends solutions to eliminate these wastes. These recommendations make learning processes responsive to needs and provide long-lasting value to students. Overall, it is beneficial in developing a policy for engineering education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lean in Education)
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Article
Inclusive Educational Spaces and Social Pedagogical Recognition: Interaction- and Social-Pedagogy-Inspired Analysis of Space Dynamics in Compulsory, Upper-Secondary and Post-Secondary Education
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 754; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110754 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 345
Abstract
The purpose of this article is to provide a new understanding of the essence of inclusive educational spaces as a pedagogical phenomenon that presents different scientific approaches to the concept of educational space, and the importance of interpersonal interactions in educational spaces, and [...] Read more.
The purpose of this article is to provide a new understanding of the essence of inclusive educational spaces as a pedagogical phenomenon that presents different scientific approaches to the concept of educational space, and the importance of interpersonal interactions in educational spaces, and also presents the authors’ interpretations of their essence. The analytical basis is a literature review of various studies from the domains of symbolic interactionism, social constructivism, ethnomethodology, the sociology of knowledge, education, pedagogy and social pedagogy. Empirical sequences in the reviewed literature that exemplify inclusive educational spaces are derived from the organisational and practical work of compulsory and upper-secondary schools related to newly arrived students and students who use alcohol and narcotics, and from the context of the organisational and practical work of universities related to the education of future actors. The importance of recognizing the role of creative educational spaces as a leading requirement for the preparation of students for future communicative interactions in professional communication is revealed, and the structural characteristics of these spaces’ content and functional load are provided. Inclusive educational spaces and professionals’ inclusive approach demand that schools practically and collaboratively organise work with students in the educational space, show support for them and give them room to manoeuvre to ensure that professional actors in the school and university thrive in their practical work with students, both in relation to the expected normative right and deviant acting in the educational space and in relation to laws and governing documents that, to a certain extent, govern practical work in these educational spaces. The study contributes to the development of knowledge regarding (1) dealing with social interaction and inclusive educational spaces combining (a) the experiences of students in educational space, (b) the experiences of professional actors in educational space, and (c) the development of integration and social pedagogical recognition in educational space; (2) the significance of these social interactions and inclusive educational spaces in the creation and recreation of students’ and professionals’ identities; and (3) alternative social pedagogical approaches to analysing inclusive educational spaces in compulsory, upper-secondary and post-secondary education. Full article
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Article
School Middle Leaders and Change Management: Do They Need to Be More on the “Balcony” than the Dance Floor?
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 753; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110753 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 547
Abstract
The term “middle leader” in the context of English education has evolved into an overarching title to describe a leadership position for practitioners who have school wide responsibilities in addition to their classroom duties. Such responsibilities can consist of pastoral leadership; curriculum leadership; [...] Read more.
The term “middle leader” in the context of English education has evolved into an overarching title to describe a leadership position for practitioners who have school wide responsibilities in addition to their classroom duties. Such responsibilities can consist of pastoral leadership; curriculum leadership; leadership of additional student support; leadership of a team or phase and leadership of a specific school improvement priority. Educational middle leadership is founded on the notion of bringing together the duty of contributing to a strategic leadership remit whilst remaining firmly within the role of a classroom practitioner. It is argued that this ‘space’ for middle leadership is due to the increasingly hierarchical organisational structures of schools; consequently, being viewed as the ‘middle layer’. However, it is often unclear how much real authority or autonomy middle leaders have either to act strategically or make leadership decisions for their school. Despite many studies having previously explored the impact of senior leadership in improving school systems through deploying varied leadership styles, there is an absence in literature underpinning what constitutes effective strategic middle leadership. This study explored and interrogated the strategic ability of middle leadership, to contribute to this discourse. It critically reflected on the effectiveness of middle leadership, in a small-scale context, when making sustainable curriculum changes to a primary school’s maths curriculum. The research methodology adopted was an autoethnographic approach. It used a documentary method, that consisted of a reflective journal, kept by the first researcher, who was also a maths curriculum middle leader within an English primary school. The reflective journal was used as an authenticated document for elucidation and analysis. The main findings suggested that collective leadership was appropriate for this research context. The study further evidenced the reality of how personal, yet important understanding leadership cultures are, in all levels of leadership. The conclusion pointed to the direction of middle leaders being more successful if they were strategic, and therefore must both find and develop systems that assist them to be located on the “balcony” rather than only the dance floor. Full article
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Useful Teaching Strategies in STEMM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Medicine) Education during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 752; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110752 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 568
Abstract
The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic throughout the world continue. These impacts influence many aspects of life, work, healthcare, and education in the U.S., which are drastically affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, a considerable challenge to tertiary-level education has been how to [...] Read more.
The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic throughout the world continue. These impacts influence many aspects of life, work, healthcare, and education in the U.S., which are drastically affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, a considerable challenge to tertiary-level education has been how to adapt our teaching styles and modalities to keep all stakeholders (students, faculty, teaching assistants, and staff) safe in lectures and labs. This viewpoint presents 15 teaching lessons and tips for undergraduate and graduate STEMM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Medicine) education for face-to-face, hybrid, and distance learning. The goal was to describe teaching strategies that could be adaptable to most STEMM courses, independent of the classroom size, which is valuable for those educational settings capable of migrating from a classroom to either a hybrid or strictly online teaching environment. Although some of these teaching tips were straightforward, we believe collectively that they (1) provide safety and stability to the students and the instructors; (2) help to improve communications between faculty and students that the pandemic had strained; (3) strengthen student attention; (4) facilitate the transition from the classroom to online teaching; (5) enable the use of new technologies; and (6) offer teaching practices we imagined for educational scenarios post-SARS-CoV-2. Finally, we hope these teaching strategies offer valuable insight as we continue to navigate STEMM education during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
Article
Views from the Inside: Roles of Deputy Directors in Early Childhood Education in Finland
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 751; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110751 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 347
Abstract
This study explored the perceptions of deputy directors about their leadership in Early Childhood Education (ECE) centres in Finland. Our aim was to look beyond task distribution and understand how deputy directors enacted leadership with their colleagues. Six deputy directors employed in one [...] Read more.
This study explored the perceptions of deputy directors about their leadership in Early Childhood Education (ECE) centres in Finland. Our aim was to look beyond task distribution and understand how deputy directors enacted leadership with their colleagues. Six deputy directors employed in one municipality in Finland participated in this study. Interviewed individually, the participants discussed how they themselves perceived being in a leadership position and what their leadership looked like in practice. The emphasis they placed on the various relationships highlight the importance of paying attention to the relational dynamics amongst staff within a centre, taking into account both formal and informal authority. Given the increasing global interest in understanding leadership enactment within ECE centres, and its connection with quality service provision, knowledge of the positional leadership roles of deputy directors is of importance to the ECE sector. This is one of the first studies dedicated to exploring the work of ECE deputy directors. Full article
Article
The 21st Century Reforms (Re)Shaping the Education Policy of Inclusive and Special Education in Finland
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 750; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110750 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 646
Abstract
In recent decades, an essential global aim of the reforms of special education has been the promotion of inclusive education. This article discusses the implementation of reforms with a focus on tiered support systems in the context of Finnish comprehensive school education. Based [...] Read more.
In recent decades, an essential global aim of the reforms of special education has been the promotion of inclusive education. This article discusses the implementation of reforms with a focus on tiered support systems in the context of Finnish comprehensive school education. Based on earlier literature, legislation, and administrative documents, we provide a background for Finnish education policy and special education reforms. The focus of this article is on the description of parallel reforms targeting the re-structuring of the systems around support for students and funding of education in the 2010s. We discuss the processes leading to these reforms and the reforms themselves. In addition, we discuss their implications for the organization of the tiered support system. Finally, we highlight some challenges of reform implementation and the current education policy’s movements towards inclusive education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Education Policy and Politics)
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Article
Research Skills for Information Management: Uses of Mobile Devices in Research Training
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 749; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110749 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 348
Abstract
Although we live in a knowledge society, instruction in research is still given traditionally. Mobile devices are present in learning processes, but their possibilities for research have not been broadly explored. This paper explores the research skills that could be supported using information [...] Read more.
Although we live in a knowledge society, instruction in research is still given traditionally. Mobile devices are present in learning processes, but their possibilities for research have not been broadly explored. This paper explores the research skills that could be supported using information communication technology through mobile devices. We start from theoretical frameworks related to andragogy, knowledge management, the technology acceptance model, and mobile learning. As a case study, 20 Colombian virtual education students studying for master’s degrees answered a questionnaire. The results revealed an acceptance of mobile device use in education and a tendency to use apps for information management. These results suggest the need to change the teaching process and design a strategy for the inclusion of mobile learning in research. The use of mobile learning can enhance research training processes framed in the emergent mode of knowledge or context-centric research, especially in virtual higher education. Full article
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Article
University Lecturers’ Task-Based Language Teaching Beliefs and Practices
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 748; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110748 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 783
Abstract
The present study aimed to investigate the beliefs and practices of task-based language teaching (TBLT) among lecturers in English as a foreign language (EFL) at technical universities in Vietnam. A total of 136 lecturers completed the questionnaire and seven of whom participated in [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to investigate the beliefs and practices of task-based language teaching (TBLT) among lecturers in English as a foreign language (EFL) at technical universities in Vietnam. A total of 136 lecturers completed the questionnaire and seven of whom participated in semi-structured interviews. Findings indicated that the lecturers had positive views toward the TBLT approach and showed a willingness to use it in their classrooms, although they also shared notable challenges related to the technique. The results also showed significant differences in understanding of TBLT among lecturers with different years of experience; however, years of experience and qualifications did not affect the lecturers’ views on or implementation of TBLT. The study offers several implications for better understanding and more effectively implementing TBLT approaches in the classroom. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue English Education in Vietnamese Schooling)
Article
MAD+. Introducing Misconceptions in the Temporal Analysis of the Mathematical Modelling Process of a Fermi Problem
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 747; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110747 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 366
Abstract
This work describes how the combination of the mistakes committed by a group of pre-service teachers when solving a Fermi problem, with the representation of the temporal analysis of their resolutions, can offer more in-depth information about their conceptual misconceptions regarding mathematical and [...] Read more.
This work describes how the combination of the mistakes committed by a group of pre-service teachers when solving a Fermi problem, with the representation of the temporal analysis of their resolutions, can offer more in-depth information about their conceptual misconceptions regarding mathematical and modelling concepts. The combined representation allows knowing when mistakes occur and provides a powerful tool for instructors to adapt the teaching–learning processes of mathematics at all levels of education. Our study is based on a recent categorisation of students’ mistakes, together with the creation of a new representation tool, called MAD+, that can combine all this information. The macroscopic view provided by the MAD+ diagrams gives insight into the context in which the mistakes take place and makes the analysis of the resolution of a Fermi problem more efficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermi Problems in Mathematics and Science Education)
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Article
Factors Associated with the Development of Secondary School Students’ Interest towards STEM Studies
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 746; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110746 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 431
Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive factors that predispose secondary school students’ interest in studying STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) fields in higher education. For this purpose, an already existing questionnaire was used and modified properly, according to [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive factors that predispose secondary school students’ interest in studying STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) fields in higher education. For this purpose, an already existing questionnaire was used and modified properly, according to the Greek educational system. The survey was attended by 301 secondary school students, who study in Piraeus, one of the largest cities in Greece. Research findings indicated that the principles of Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) are well supported. It is worth mentioning that this is the first time that such a number of variables had been examined, in order to support the SCCT. In particular, very few studies exist in literature—to the best of our knowledge—investigating the effect of more than four factors influencing students’ interest towards STEM higher studies. Learning experiences, students’ exposure to STEM activities within the school environment and outside of it (OR = 0.071, p = 0.002), as well as their involvement with high difficulty STEM courses (OR = 0.203, p = 0.038), appear to be positively correlated with the development of interest towards studies in the STEM fields. In addition, students from low-income families are more likely to follow STEM studies (OR = 0.198, p = 0.034). On the contrary, it has been revealed that parental educational background only supports the student’s decision to continue studies after high school, without specifying the educational field in higher education (OR = 0.769, p = 0.703; father’s educational level, OR = 0.698, p = 0.552; mother’s educational level). Data revealed that outcome expectations and self-efficacy (OR = 14.366, p = 0.005) are positively related to the procedure of students’ interest development to pursue STEM fields in higher education, while gender seems to be a non-regulatory factor (OR = 0.886, p = 0.831). Full article
Article
Dis/abled Student Campusmaking: Sites of New Possibility
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 745; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110745 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 334
Abstract
Scholars have attempted to reveal the structural barriers that dis/abled students cope with and navigate during college, but it remains unclear how these students interpret their experiences on campus and what strategies they employ to manage and respond to unsupportive and hostile campus [...] Read more.
Scholars have attempted to reveal the structural barriers that dis/abled students cope with and navigate during college, but it remains unclear how these students interpret their experiences on campus and what strategies they employ to manage and respond to unsupportive and hostile campus climates. In this paper, we describe freedom movements that sought to secure equal access to opportunities and rights for people with dis/abilities, and we highlight and explain forms of resistance among d/Deaf and dis/abled postsecondary students. To do so, we draw on dis/ability critical race theory and also advance the concept of campusmaking, which refers to the ways that students navigate complex campus spaces and create sites of togetherness and resistance. We discuss broader structural and climate issues facing college students with dis/abilities, particularly those who are Black, Indigenous, and people of color. In so doing, we gain insight into dis/abled student campusmaking amid and in spite of ableist and racist postsecondary contexts. We conclude with a discussion of the gaps in existing research and the questions that warrant further study. Full article
Article
Effects of an Interdisciplinary Course on Pre-Service Primary Teachers’ Content Knowledge and Academic Self-Concepts in Science and Technology–A Quantitative Longitudinal Study
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 744; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110744 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 392
Abstract
Primary school teachers need adequate professional knowledge and motivational orientations to qualify scientifically and technologically literate students. Previous studies have focused on the impact of coursework on (pre-service) primary teachers’ content knowledge, rather than on the development of academic self-concepts. In addition, the [...] Read more.
Primary school teachers need adequate professional knowledge and motivational orientations to qualify scientifically and technologically literate students. Previous studies have focused on the impact of coursework on (pre-service) primary teachers’ content knowledge, rather than on the development of academic self-concepts. In addition, the influence of the course format and the major field of study has not been investigated much to this date. Thus, this study examines the effects of an interdisciplinary course on pre-service primary teachers’ content knowledge and academic self-concepts in science and technology using a quasi-experimental, quantitative, pre-post-follow-up design (n = 202). Whilst no significant changes in knowledge were revealed for the baseline group not participating in the course, significant short-term and long-term cognitive gains were found for the experimental group. Biology-, chemistry-, physics- and technology-related self-concepts increased significantly when participating in the course. The results also indicate that the course format and major field of study can have an impact on the development of pre-service teachers’ professional knowledge. Regarding the development of academic self-concepts in the experimental group, it can be assumed that both the weekly and block course format are beneficial for heterogeneous learner groups consisting of pre-service teachers with different major fields of study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Teacher Education)
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Review
Pedagogical Models to Implement Effective STEM Research Experience Programs in High School Students
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 743; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110743 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 358
Abstract
High school research experience programs (HSREPs) provide opportunities for true science education and expose students to scientific investigations in laboratory settings. Various HSREPs models have been practiced to shape students’ research understandings; however, a systematic comparison of the success, challenges, and opportunities of [...] Read more.
High school research experience programs (HSREPs) provide opportunities for true science education and expose students to scientific investigations in laboratory settings. Various HSREPs models have been practiced to shape students’ research understandings; however, a systematic comparison of the success, challenges, and opportunities of these HSREPs has not been gauged. This article compares the effectiveness of such science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) based HSREP models reported in the last two decades. We shortlisted seventeen studies on the most effective HSREPs and identified the characteristics of these reports. Results show that student research experiences vary depending on the structure of the model used and the nature of the laboratory setting to which students are exposed. However, there is a dire need to integrate more collaborative and customized research practices to accommodate more students in HSREPs. Additionally, intensive support, mentoring, and coaching are essential to provide students a comprehensive understanding to excel in their research career pathway. Finally, there is a desperate need for further studies to develop the frameworks that can help the smooth transition of high school students into research-oriented university programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated STEM and STEM Partnerships: Teaching and Learning)
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Article
The Role of STEM Program Directors in Broadening the Impact of STEM Interventions
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 742; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110742 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 376
Abstract
STEM transformation has been a longstanding goal for higher education institutions who not only wish to maintain global economic competitiveness but most recently have also aimed efforts at achieving STEM equity. While researchers have typically looked to students’ and faculty’s experiences for answers, [...] Read more.
STEM transformation has been a longstanding goal for higher education institutions who not only wish to maintain global economic competitiveness but most recently have also aimed efforts at achieving STEM equity. While researchers have typically looked to students’ and faculty’s experiences for answers, STEM program directors possess great insight from working closely with students in both faculty and administrative roles. This study explores the views of 45 STEM program directors at 10 institutions across the U.S. that had high STEM bachelor’s degree-completion rates relative to similarly resourced institutions. We document the lessons and strategies that STEM program directors have used to broaden institutional impact, including demonstrating their program’s efficacy through assessments and evaluations, coordinating, and streamlining efforts to ensure program efficiency and longevity, incentivizing support for labor, and consolidating support from institutional leaders. We also disentangle the roles STEM program directors play as grassroots leaders or institutional agents, distinguishing them by their authority and decision-making power and by whether they work to transform the institution to better serve students or to transform students’ behaviors to adapt to the institution. Our findings provide avenues to leverage STEM program directors’ efforts in order to move toward STEM education transformation in higher education. Full article
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Article
University Spaces as Agents of National Belonging: Analysing the Visual Culture of Public Universities’ Campuses in India and Pakistan
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 741; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110741 - 16 Nov 2021
Viewed by 569
Abstract
This article discusses the role of ‘space’ in Indian and Pakistani public sector universities in fostering national pride. University spaces have been highlighted, in both countries, for being used by the governments as agents fostering the national narrative yet there is limited research [...] Read more.
This article discusses the role of ‘space’ in Indian and Pakistani public sector universities in fostering national pride. University spaces have been highlighted, in both countries, for being used by the governments as agents fostering the national narrative yet there is limited research on how these spaces contribute to the visual culture of educational institutions and in the inculcation of nationalistic values. This article adds to the conversations regarding the fostering of national belonging and pride in universities by exploring space as a constitutive element of the visual culture of the higher education environment in India and Pakistan. In both countries, the physical spaces of public universities have become platforms for channelling student voices. This research uses two state-funded universities, from Delhi (in India) and Lahore (in Pakistan), and Lefebvre’s conception of space to conduct a discourse analysis of bulletin boards, graffiti, statues, sculptures, and any other imagery found online pertaining to the campuses and analyse how it is a ‘conceived’ and ‘perceived’ aspect of the visual culture of the universities. It adds to current scholarly conversations on national pride and consciousness in India and Pakistan by showing how university spaces can potentially play an active role in promoting the state’s narrative in students’ or educators’ everyday educational experiences. Full article
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Article
Using School-Level Data to Investigate the Impact of a One-to-One Mathematics Teaching Resource in English Primary Schools
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 740; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110740 - 16 Nov 2021
Viewed by 408
Abstract
This research investigates the potential for a one-to-one coaching tool used by adults other than teachers to be able to deliver greater mathematics progress for primary school children without adding significantly to school costs. Plus 1 and Power of 2 (+1 and Po2) [...] Read more.
This research investigates the potential for a one-to-one coaching tool used by adults other than teachers to be able to deliver greater mathematics progress for primary school children without adding significantly to school costs. Plus 1 and Power of 2 (+1 and Po2) are workbooks designed to be used by adults other than teachers working on a one-to-one basis with children to develop numeracy skills. This quantitative study seeks to examine the impact of +1 and Po2 by considering performance data aggregated at the school level. The attainment of children at 1071 English schools which use the +1 and Po2 products was compared with that of peers in other schools using a quasi-experimental research design based on England’s national performance measures. Statistical analysis suggests that schools using +1 and Po2 show higher levels of mathematics attainment than those who may have used other resources. Furthermore, there is an important finding that assessment attendance is higher, and disapplication from the curriculum lower, in schools using +1 and Po2. This indicates that use of this one-to-one intervention improves access to national tests for children and represents an opportunity for school leaders to maximise the cost effectiveness of existing non-teaching staff or volunteers. Full article
Article
Engaging Ethnic-Diverse Students: A Research Based on Culturally Responsive Teaching for Roma-Gypsy Students
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 739; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110739 - 16 Nov 2021
Viewed by 439
Abstract
Intercultural Education is a key feature in the development of inclusion strategies aimed at ethnically diverse students. Transformative approaches towards learning such as Culturally Responsive Teaching (CRT) are essential in order to answer the educative needs that arise due to the coexistence between [...] Read more.
Intercultural Education is a key feature in the development of inclusion strategies aimed at ethnically diverse students. Transformative approaches towards learning such as Culturally Responsive Teaching (CRT) are essential in order to answer the educative needs that arise due to the coexistence between ethnic minorities and mainstream society. Therefore, cultural and historical representation of these communities play an important role as gatekeepers in order to achieve positive results as far as inclusive education is concerned. This article explores research based on a case study carried out in a high school located in the North-West of Spain developing successful learning stories after implementing the CRT methodology within the teaching of English as a foreign language. For its development, this article examines the trajectory of education with Roma-Gypsy students and moves forward with previous studies that endorse the success of using this approach among ethnically diverse students for their inclusion within the educative system. Intercultural and Plurilingual Education is a key feature in the development of inclusion strategies aimed at ethnically diverse students. This article includes research based on a case study carried out in a high school located in the North-West of Spain. It is aimed at: 1. Engaging ethnically diverse students to become part of the mainstream classroom through the inclusion of their culture; 2. Improving their language skills and competencies in the learning of a foreign language; 3. Raising the attendance at schools of ethnically diverse students. To achieve these targets the Culturally Responsive Teaching (CRT) Methodology has been implemented. CRT is considered essential to answer the educative needs that arise due to the coexistence between ethnic minorities and conventional communities. After gathering and analyzing data, results show that: ethnically diverse students’ motivation has been increased; it also expanded their social skills among peers; they gained more visibility; and finally, both diverse and non-diverse learners improved their proficiency in the English language. The discussion section states that the use of CRT Methodology traditionally used with Afro-American and Native-American students is also relevant for the Roma-Gypsy students that took part in this study. Full article
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Article
Perceptions of University Students towards Digital Transformation during the Pandemic
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 738; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110738 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 570
Abstract
The aim of this study is to determine the perceptions of university students toward teaching–learning processes during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research gathers inquiries made worldwide on the perceptions of students in higher education during a state of alarm. The proposed objectives were [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to determine the perceptions of university students toward teaching–learning processes during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research gathers inquiries made worldwide on the perceptions of students in higher education during a state of alarm. The proposed objectives were (a) to analyse the perception of students toward teaching–learning processes in university; (b) to determine the assessment given by students about the changes that took place in university teaching as a result of COVID-19; and (c) to explore resources (hardware and software), professional collaboration, digital pedagogy and student empowerment (motivation) regarding digital education and recent changes in university teaching due to the pandemic. This study used a non-experimental, descriptive design based on opinion polls or surveys. The results show a positive correlation between digital pedagogy, student motivation and digital environments. As a conclusion, we encourage the scientific community to continue delving into the motivation, collaboration and reflective exchange of experiences, self-learning and promotion of initiatives that foster the development of competencies in future teachers. It is also important to continue the research on integrated designs in training processes in university, tutoring and continuous evaluation, as they are key for digital transformation in universities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Technology Enhanced Education)
Article
Beyond Content: The Role of STEM Disciplines, Real-World Problems, 21st Century Skills, and STEM Careers within Science Teachers’ Conceptions of Integrated STEM Education
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 737; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110737 - 16 Nov 2021
Viewed by 428
Abstract
Understanding teachers’ conceptions surrounding integrated STEM education is vital to the successful implementation of integrated STEM curricula in K-12 classrooms. Of particular interest is understanding how teachers conceptualize the role of the STEM disciplines within their integrated STEM teaching. Further, despite knowing that [...] Read more.
Understanding teachers’ conceptions surrounding integrated STEM education is vital to the successful implementation of integrated STEM curricula in K-12 classrooms. Of particular interest is understanding how teachers conceptualize the role of the STEM disciplines within their integrated STEM teaching. Further, despite knowing that content-agnostic characteristics of integrated STEM education are important, little is known about how teachers conceptualize the real-world problems, 21st century skills, and the promotion of STEM careers in their integrated STEM instruction. This study used an exploratory case study design to investigate conceptions of 19 K-12 science teachers after participating in an integrated STEM-focused professional development and implementing integrated STEM lessons into their classrooms. Our findings show that all teacher participants viewed STEM education from an integrative perspective that fosters the development of 21st century skills, using real-world problems to motivate students. Our findings also reveal that teachers have varying ideas related to the STEM disciplines within integrated STEM instruction, which could assist teacher educators in preparing high-quality professional development experiences. Findings related to real-world problems, 21st century skills, and STEM careers provide a window into how to best support teachers to include these characteristics into their teaching more explicitly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated STEM and STEM Partnerships: Teaching and Learning)
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Article
Culture Sustainability through Co-Curricular Learning Program: Learning Batik Cross Review
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 736; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110736 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 372
Abstract
As the application of colored designs on cloth using wax in certain areas in decorating items of clothing, Batik is made through several steps that come from drawing the pattern on the paper followed by imitating the pattern on fabric, which is called [...] Read more.
As the application of colored designs on cloth using wax in certain areas in decorating items of clothing, Batik is made through several steps that come from drawing the pattern on the paper followed by imitating the pattern on fabric, which is called ngeblat. The next phase is followed by drawing the pattern using wax, which is called mencanting. The subsequent step is the process of coloring the pattern of Batik, called pencoletan, and then subsequently followed by color-locking on Batik through covering the Batik with wax, namely basic color dyeing. This process is called menembok. The final step is making the panting process through washing, called nglorod. This process should attempt to maintain Batik with cultural sustainability, as its process contains several values, such as discipline, creativity, independence, patriotism, responsibility, cooperation, and environmental care. Based on this background, this paper attempts to examine the Batik’s cultural design and to explore its sustainability through co-curricular school program activities. This study focuses on examining the potential in the process of the application of colored design through elaborating the supporting and interfering factors in a co-curricular learning program of Batik. The analysis was made through several points, namely a co-curricular learning program of Batik for enhancing cultural sustainability, a co-curricular learning program of Batik for enhancing national culture and community responsibility, and co-curricular learning of Batik for sustainability and environmental accountability. Full article
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Article
Capacity Building for Internationalization at a Technical University in Kazakhstan
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 735; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110735 - 16 Nov 2021
Viewed by 495
Abstract
This article discusses the internationalization capacity building project at the Karaganda Technical University (‘KTU’) in Kazakhstan. The project, entitled “Capacity building for the internationalization of a technical university by means of digital learning technologies,” was supported by the fund “Scientific foundations “Mangilik el” [...] Read more.
This article discusses the internationalization capacity building project at the Karaganda Technical University (‘KTU’) in Kazakhstan. The project, entitled “Capacity building for the internationalization of a technical university by means of digital learning technologies,” was supported by the fund “Scientific foundations “Mangilik el” (education of the 21st century, fundamental and applied research in the humanities)” for scientists 2020–2022. The project’s primary purpose was to explicate a sustainable strategy for internationalizing a Kazakh technical university, considering the national and international contexts, evaluating internationalization capacity needs, formulating and implementing a capacity-building response for internationalization, and enhancing the qualifications and abilities of students and teachers to an internationally comparable level. In addition, the project delivers a set of strategies for internationalization and a benchmarking methodology for evaluating the effectiveness of internationalization processes. The benchmarking analysis of the internationalization process of a university has been conducted through a classification method, comparative analysis, multi-factor SWOT analysis, and correlation analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Higher Education)
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Article
The Dramatic Arc in the Development of Argumentation Skills of Upper Secondary School Students in Geography Education
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 734; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110734 - 15 Nov 2021
Viewed by 436
Abstract
Geography education can facilitate learners’ critical thinking and argumentation skills to make well-reasoned decisions on social and environmental issues. This study reports on a geography course consisting of 18 lessons, each of them 75 min, designed to afford intensive practice in argumentation to [...] Read more.
Geography education can facilitate learners’ critical thinking and argumentation skills to make well-reasoned decisions on social and environmental issues. This study reports on a geography course consisting of 18 lessons, each of them 75 min, designed to afford intensive practice in argumentation to upper secondary school students (n = 21) and following the dramatic arc. The study produces examples of different developmental pathways of upper secondary school students’ argumentation during the geography course. In this qualitative case study, the data were collected from learning diaries and analyzed using content analysis following ARRA-analysis (Analysis of Reasoning, Rhetorics and Argumentation), which is based on Toulmin’s argumentation model. The results indicated that most of the students developed justified arguments and composed clear claims and relevant rhetorical modes such as qualifications, rhetorical questions and rebuttals. Justification categories that were mainly used were backings, grounds and warrants. However, some students had difficulties in recognizing the main claim and arguments. The students developed their argumentation skills following the dramatic arc. They possessed the prerequisites for argumentative reasoning and writing but needed further practice in analytical and critical writing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geography Education Promoting Sustainability—Series 2)
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Article
Finding Spaces: Teacher Education Technology Competencies (TETCs)
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 733; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110733 - 15 Nov 2021
Viewed by 381
Abstract
This article explores technology’s integration, assessment, and reflection within a single secondary education program at a Mountain West university. In light of the publication of the Teacher Education Technology Competencies (TETCs), faculty members of a secondary education program focused on existing practices and [...] Read more.
This article explores technology’s integration, assessment, and reflection within a single secondary education program at a Mountain West university. In light of the publication of the Teacher Education Technology Competencies (TETCs), faculty members of a secondary education program focused on existing practices and pathways for expansion to better align with the TETC standards in the future. The purpose of this study was to explore existing practices of incorporating technology into secondary methods coursework and to search for new spaces to implement the TETC guidelines and structure, as well as explore the roles faculty play in the adoption and implementation of technologies. Vignettes authored by faculty in each content area provide a rich depth of faculty experience and dispositions regarding technology integration, as well as spaces for the deeper use of technology based on the TETC recommendations. Key questions emerged about the efficacy of current technology practices, as well as the experiences and dispositions of the faculty within the secondary education program. Findings show that secondary education faculty use domain/content-specific technologies in their course; are expected to be “meta-experts”, both discovering and implementing technology simultaneously; and tend to discover technologies through content-specific interactions and discussions. Full article
Article
Students Who Orient towards Studying vs. Learning: Teachers’ Perceptions
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 732; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110732 - 13 Nov 2021
Viewed by 437
Abstract
Many present-day students orient towards outcomes instead of learning. This is leading to failure that affects students, families, the educational system itself, and occupational and financial systems in Spain. Indeed, current data points to an 18.2% university drop-out rate during the first year. [...] Read more.
Many present-day students orient towards outcomes instead of learning. This is leading to failure that affects students, families, the educational system itself, and occupational and financial systems in Spain. Indeed, current data points to an 18.2% university drop-out rate during the first year. The present study seeks to identify teachers’ perceptions of the deficiencies pertaining to study orientations, their involvement in training processes, and student knowledge about the actual state of affairs regarding this topic. The target population for this incidental study was 1769 university lecturers, with a final participating sample of 317. A cross-sectional study was conducted, which was descriptive and inferential in nature. Linear regression was employed to explain variance. Outcomes showed a high degree of homogeneity in teachers’ responses. Outcomes indicate that orientations towards academic learning and study are deemed necessary. Furthermore, such orientations do not prevail due to a lack of teacher engagement, possibly due to a lack of teacher training directed towards managing and balancing class time with monitoring practices. A degree of insufficiency was observed with regards to teacher training for study management, in addition to greater teacher engagement amongst hired teaching staff with indefinite contracts working at public or private institutions, relative to official permanent teaching staff. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychology and Education)
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Article
Managing the Emotional Intensities of Gifted Students with Mindfulness Practices
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 731; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110731 - 13 Nov 2021
Viewed by 301
Abstract
The emotional intensities of gifted students affect not only their learning, but also the way they live and see the world. This article examines the Theory of Positive Disintegration of Dabrowski to explore the inner world of the gifted. The five levels of [...] Read more.
The emotional intensities of gifted students affect not only their learning, but also the way they live and see the world. This article examines the Theory of Positive Disintegration of Dabrowski to explore the inner world of the gifted. The five levels of development and five overexcitabilities of Dabrowski represent an abundance of physical, sensual, creative, intellectual, and emotional energy that cause inner turmoil but can result in creative endeavors. The benefits of mindfulness practices to meeting the emotional needs of gifted students are presented with examples of deep listening, gratitude, and storytelling as mindfulness practices. A culminating activity of storytelling illustrates the integration of deep listening and gratitude and its effect on the sense of identity of gifted students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gifted Education, Creativity and Leadership Development)
Article
Worldwide Trends in Bilingual Education Research: A Half-Century Overview
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 730; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110730 - 13 Nov 2021
Viewed by 330
Abstract
Despite the wealth of studies on bilingual education, there is a dearth of meta-research on the worldwide development and trends of this area of investigation over the past few decades. The occupation of this gap allows scholars to take stock of current states [...] Read more.
Despite the wealth of studies on bilingual education, there is a dearth of meta-research on the worldwide development and trends of this area of investigation over the past few decades. The occupation of this gap allows scholars to take stock of current states of research, get overviews of the contributions made to the field, foresee future research trends, and identify research needs and gaps that may be addressed in future investigation. This study analyses the evolution and trends of bilingual education research during a 50-year period (1969–2018) from a bibliometric perspective. The results show a steady increase in the number of publications, and was exponential in the last decade, mainly in the form of research articles, which makes bilingual education a truly consolidated and increasingly evolving research field. The US is the leading country with respect to the number of publications, affiliations, and sponsors, followed, primarily, by some other North American (e.g., Canada), European (e.g., UK and Spain), and Asian (e.g., China) countries, as well as Australia. There is a large research network cluster led by the US involving intercontinental interaction among institutions from Europe, Asia, and, to a lesser extent, South America. However, a scant level of internationalisation of scholars publishing works on bilingual education was observed, with most author collaboration being limited to different US institutions. The most influential authors belong to institutions from the US, Canada, Spain, and Israel, and, to a lesser extent, Australia. The main research topics in the field depend on the contexts and include regulations of language institutions, bilingual education models, language skills, pedagogical strategies, education levels, and ages, among others. These results may contribute to the identification of new research needs and therefore, to the development of future directions in bilingual education research. Full article
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Article
Digital Competences of Students of Library Studies: Comparison of Research Results for 2018–2020
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 729; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110729 - 12 Nov 2021
Viewed by 474
Abstract
This study focuses on the analysis of changes in the digital competence profile of students of Information and Library Studies at Masaryk University in Czechia. As a research tool, we used the DigComp self-assessment questionnaire that students were asked to fill in after [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the analysis of changes in the digital competence profile of students of Information and Library Studies at Masaryk University in Czechia. As a research tool, we used the DigComp self-assessment questionnaire that students were asked to fill in after completing the course. Our research shows that students are insufficiently prepared for work as highly qualified information specialists. At the same time, we found that their competence profile remained very stable between 2018 and 2020. This finding indicates that students do not readily respond to new societal changes at the level of individual competences. The research results are based on data collected from 152 students during three runs of a compulsory course at the university. Information Science and Library Science students have long perceived their competences to be strongest in the domains of information and data literacy and communication and collaboration. Programming is the weakest competency among the competences, followed by solving technical problems and engaging in active citizenship through digital technologies. These findings can be used to innovate the curriculum to meet the demands of digitally competent information workers. Full article
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Article
Digital University Teaching and Learning in Management—The Gini from the COVID-19 Bottle and Its Empirical Representations in Germany
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 728; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110728 - 12 Nov 2021
Viewed by 340
Abstract
Digitalization of teaching, learning, and assessment in higher education has gained increasing attention in research in the recent years. While previous research investigated issues of effectiveness, course attendance, and course evaluation from a long-term perspective, the current COVID-19 pandemic forced higher education institutions [...] Read more.
Digitalization of teaching, learning, and assessment in higher education has gained increasing attention in research in the recent years. While previous research investigated issues of effectiveness, course attendance, and course evaluation from a long-term perspective, the current COVID-19 pandemic forced higher education institutions to digitalize teaching, learning, and assessment in a very short time. In this context, we investigate the effects of the digitalization of three courses from operations research and management science in the summer term 2020, namely two large lectures and tutorials for undergraduate, and a seminar for graduate students. To that end, student performance, course and exam attendance rates, and course evaluations are compared to the setting of the same courses in the previous year 2019 with a traditional, non-digitalized setting. Next to the quantitative data, qualitative statements from the course evaluations and students’ expectations expressed during the term are investigated. Findings indicate that the lecturers’ understanding of learning behavior has to develop further as interaction is required in any format, on-site or digital. Absenteeism and procrastination are important risk areas especially in digital management education. Instruments would have to be adapted to digital settings, but with care and relating to course specifics (including digital evaluation). Digital education does not make learning per se easier or harder, but we observed that the students’ understanding and performance gap increased in digital teaching times. As an outlook, we propose the longitudinal investigation of the ongoing digitalization during the COVID-19 pandemic, and going beyond, investigate opportunities of the current crisis situation for implementing the long-term transition to digital education in higher institution institutions. Full article
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Article
A Visual Approach for Solving Problems with Fractions
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 727; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci11110727 - 12 Nov 2021
Viewed by 288
Abstract
This article discusses the importance of visual models in problem solving, in the scope of rational numbers. We seek to highlight the potential of this approach, as a structuring theme in the mathematical development of students in elementary education and the connections it [...] Read more.
This article discusses the importance of visual models in problem solving, in the scope of rational numbers. We seek to highlight the potential of this approach, as a structuring theme in the mathematical development of students in elementary education and the connections it allows to establish. In order for students to be mathematically competent and creative, they must be able not only to solve traditional computational problems but also to use models/visual representations when solving all types of mathematical problems, including those in which the visual component is not evident. We developed a qualitative study based on a didactical experience involving 14 future teachers who were attending a Didactics of Mathematics unit course that included a module about problem solving with emphasizes in visual approaches. The main purpose of the study was to identify the strategies used by the future teachers when solving problems with multiple solutions, before and after that module. Data was collected through observation and the written productions of the participants. It was possible to conclude that they tended to privilege analytical approaches before the intervention and, after the teaching experience, they started to value visual approaches, which generated an increase of the productions involving this type of solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Teacher Education)
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