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Healthcare, Volume 9, Issue 1 (January 2021) – 103 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Approximately 6.5 to 6.9 million individuals in the United States have heart failure, and the disease cost approximately $43.6 billion in 2020. This research provides geographical incidence and cost models of this disease in the US and explanatory models to account for hospitals’ number of heart failure DRGs using technical, workload, financial, geographical, and time-related variables. Heart failure and associated expenditures are increasing. The costs of DRGs in the study increased by $61 billion from 2016 through 2018. The increase in the more expensive DRG 291 outpaced others with an associated increase of $92 billion. With the increase in demand and steady-state supply of cardiologists, the costs are likely to balloon over the next decade. Models such as the ones presented here are needed to inform healthcare leaders. View this paper.
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Open AccessArticle
The Expanding Scope, Inclusivity, and Integration of Music in Healthcare: Recent Developments, Research Illustration, and Future Direction
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 99; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010099 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 438
Abstract
This paper is in three sections. Section One presents a historical overview of international initiatives that have expanded the role of music in healthcare, from the initial formalization of music therapy to its more research-based rehabilitation focus to recent decades that have seen [...] Read more.
This paper is in three sections. Section One presents a historical overview of international initiatives that have expanded the role of music in healthcare, from the initial formalization of music therapy to its more research-based rehabilitation focus to recent decades that have seen an increasing role for professional and community musicians, paraprofessional music services, music-oriented service organizations, and a very large increase in medical funding for music effects. “Music Care” is a particular and comprehensive concept promoted by the Room 217 Foundation in Canada, featuring an inclusive and integrated approach to optimizing the use of music in healthcare settings. It is part of an expanding landscape of global practices and policies where music is used to address specific issues of care. Section Two is provided as an illustration of the growing scope of the concept of using music in healthcare. It reports on a multi-year project that engaged 24 long-term care homes in conducting individualized action research projects using the fundamental approach of “Music Care”, empowering all caregivers, formal and informal, musicians and non-musicians, to use music to improve quality of life and care. Section Two presents only high-level results of the study focused on using music care to reduce resident isolation and loneliness. Section Three draws on the results from the study reported in Section Two to inform the potential and path to the future of music optimization in any healthcare setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Expanding Scope of Music in Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle
Cost Analysis of Selected Radiotherapeutic Modalities for Prostate Cancer Treatment—Czech Republic Case Study for the Purposes of Hospital Based HTA
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 98; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010098 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 297
Abstract
This study aims to calculate the costs of prostate cancer radiotherapy in a regional hospital Department of Radiation Oncology equipped with Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D-CRT) and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Volumetric Arc Therapy (VMAT) radiation technology, using activity based costing (ABC), [...] Read more.
This study aims to calculate the costs of prostate cancer radiotherapy in a regional hospital Department of Radiation Oncology equipped with Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D-CRT) and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Volumetric Arc Therapy (VMAT) radiation technology, using activity based costing (ABC), and to compare the costs of both methods at the level of component treatment process activities and with respect to insurance reimbursements. The costing was performed based on a sample of 273 IMRT VMAT patients and 312 3D-CRT patients in a regional hospital in the period from 2018 to 2019. The research has highlighted the necessity to place emphasis on factors that may skew the costing results. The resulting output has been supplemented by a sensitivity analysis, whereas the modeled parameter is represented by the time required for one patient fraction on a linear accelerator and the time the Radiology Assistant needs to prepare the complete radiation plan as part of radiotherapy planning. Moreover, the effects of the received grant, in the form of calculated write-offs, are also considered. The case study uses the example of radiotherapy to demonstrate the potential of ABC and suggests considering the application of this method as an effective management tool for cost and economic evaluation as part of comprehensive hospital assessment under the Hospital-Based Health Technology Assessment (HB-HTA) initiative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Economics & Finance and Global Public Health)
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Open AccessReview
Adverse Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: A Literature Review
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 97; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010097 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) are a large group of molecules including endogenously produced androgens, such as testosterone, as well as synthetically manufactured derivatives. AAS use is widespread due to their ability to improve muscle growth for aesthetic purposes and athletes’ performance, minimizing androgenic effects. [...] Read more.
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) are a large group of molecules including endogenously produced androgens, such as testosterone, as well as synthetically manufactured derivatives. AAS use is widespread due to their ability to improve muscle growth for aesthetic purposes and athletes’ performance, minimizing androgenic effects. AAS use is very popular and 1–3% of US inhabitants have been estimated to be AAS users. However, AASs have side effects, involving all organs, tissues and body functions, especially long-term toxicity involving the cardiovascular system and the reproductive system, thereby, their abuse is considered a public health issue. The aim of the proposed review is to highlight the most recent evidence regarding the mechanisms of action of AASs and their unwanted effects on organs and lifestyle, as well as suggesting that AAS misuse and abuse lead to adverse effects in all body tissues and organs. Oxidative stress, apoptosis, and protein synthesis alteration are common mechanisms involved in AAS-related damage in the whole body. The cardiovascular system and the reproductive system are the most frequently involved apparatuses. Epidemiology as well as the molecular and pathological mechanisms involved in the neuropsychiatric side-effects of AAS abuse are still unclear, further research is needed in this field. In addition, diagnostically reliable tests for AAS abuse should be standardized. In this regard, to prevent the use of AASs, public health measures in all settings are crucial. These measures consist of improved knowledge among healthcare workers, proper doping screening tests, educational interventions, and updated legislation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forensic Science and Legal Medicine: A Multidisciplinary Puzzle!)
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Open AccessArticle
Smartphone and Tablet Usage during COVID-19 Pandemic Confinement in Children under 48 Months in Barcelona (Spain)
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 96; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010096 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 467
Abstract
Background: Total lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic might have potentially increased screen time in children. This study aims to describe the smartphone and tablets usage in children under 48 months living in Barcelona during the COVID-19 confinement. Methods: Cross-sectional study using a non-probabilistic [...] Read more.
Background: Total lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic might have potentially increased screen time in children. This study aims to describe the smartphone and tablets usage in children under 48 months living in Barcelona during the COVID-19 confinement. Methods: Cross-sectional study using a non-probabilistic sample of parents with children under 48 months living in Barcelona (Spain) during COVID-19 confinement (n = 313). We calculated percentages of exposure to smartphones and tablets. Moreover, for those children were exposed, we calculated unadjusted and adjusted Geometric Mean Ratios (GMR) of daily smartphones and tablets usage and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) trough Generalized Linear Models with Gamma family and link log. Associations were adjusted for potential confounders. Results: During COVID-19 confinement, 67.5% of children under 48 months were daily exposed to smartphones and tablets. Further, those children who were exposed during meals, as well as before going to bed, spend longer durations using them, aGMR = 2.38 (95% CI 1.73, 3.34) and aGMR = 1.95 (95% CI 1.34, 2.91) respectively. Conclusion: Two out of three children under 48 months living in Barcelona were daily exposed to smartphones and tablets during total lockdown due to COVID-19. Taking this findings into account cohort studies are needed to assess any change in the screen time patterns due to total confinement in order to allow the Government help families, particularly those more vulnerable, in a possible pandemic resurgence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Health Challenges for Child and Adolescent)
Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Healthcare in 2020
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 103; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010103 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 235
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Healthcare maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Private Long-Term Care Insurance Decision: The Role of Income, Risk Propensity, Personality, and Life Experience
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 102; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010102 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 438
Abstract
The rising aging population contributes to increased caregiver burden and a greater need for long-term care services, thereby posing stronger financial burden. The current study aimed to examine the effect of income, risk-taking propensity, personality traits, and life experience on the ownership of [...] Read more.
The rising aging population contributes to increased caregiver burden and a greater need for long-term care services, thereby posing stronger financial burden. The current study aimed to examine the effect of income, risk-taking propensity, personality traits, and life experience on the ownership of and intention to own private long-term care insurance (LTCI). Primary data were collected from 1373 registered nurses with a minimum of two years of full-time working experience. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between ownership of LTCI and personal discretionary income, risk propensity, openness to experience, and life experience. Personal discretionary income was a crucial positive indicator in predicting ownership of LTCI. Higher risk-taking propensity was found to be negatively related to both currently own and future intention to own private LTCI. Participants who currently live with elders and who agree to caregiving responsibilities with government-provided cash allowance showed future intention to purchase LTCI. Little evidence was found for an association between life experience and future intention to own LTCI. Income, risk-taking propensity, and personality traits differ in their impact on ownership of and future intention to own LTCI. Our results provide policy makers with a better understanding of the forces driving demand in the private LTCI market, as well as the accompanying implications for public LTCI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Policy)
Open AccessReview
What Will Be the Impact of the COVID-19 Quarantine on Psychological Distress? Considerations Based on a Systematic Review of Pandemic Outbreaks
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 101; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010101 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 440
Abstract
Background: The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and related syndrome (COVID-19) has led to worldwide measures with severe consequences for millions of people. In the light of the psychopathological consequences of restrictive measures detected during previous outbreaks, a systematic review was carried out to [...] Read more.
Background: The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and related syndrome (COVID-19) has led to worldwide measures with severe consequences for millions of people. In the light of the psychopathological consequences of restrictive measures detected during previous outbreaks, a systematic review was carried out to provide an evidence-based assessment of possible effects of the current COVID-19 quarantine on mental health. Methods: This review included studies that assessed mental health indexes (e.g., overall psychological distress, depressive and PTSD symptoms) during and after quarantine periods adopted to management different outbreaks (e.g., COVID-19, SARS, MERS). Results: Twenty-one independent studies were included for a total of 82,312 subjects. At least 20% of people exposed to restrictive measures for the management of pandemic infections reported clinically significant levels of psychological distress, especially PTSD (21%) and depressive (22.69%) symptoms. Overall, original studies highlighted relevant methodological limitations. Conclusions: Nowadays, almost one out of every five people is at risk of development of clinically significant psychological distress. Further research on mental health after the current COVID-19 quarantine measures is warranted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Activity in a Tertiary Care Center from Northeastern Romania
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 100; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010100 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 251
Abstract
Background: The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to significant changes in endoscopy units worldwide, with potential impact on patients’ welfare as well as on endoscopy training. We aimed to assess the real-life impact of COVID-19 on the endoscopy unit [...] Read more.
Background: The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to significant changes in endoscopy units worldwide, with potential impact on patients’ welfare as well as on endoscopy training. We aimed to assess the real-life impact of COVID-19 on the endoscopy unit in a tertiary care center from Romania. Methods: A 6.5-month period during the COVID-19 pandemic was compared to a similar period from 2019. Results: A 6.2-fold decrease of endoscopic procedures was noted. Colonoscopies were reduced from 916 to 42, p < 0.001; flexible sigmoidoscopies from 189 to 14, p = 0.009; upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopies from 2269 to 401, p = 0.006; and ERCP from 234 to 125, p < 0.001. The percentage of emergency procedures increased (38.8% vs. 26.2%, p < 0.001), as well as the rate of endoscopies performed for upper GI bleeding (42.5% vs. 24.4%, respectively, p < 0.001). The detection of cancers was considerably reduced (57 compared to 249, p = 0.001). There were fewer complications and higher success rates (7.6% vs. 19.2%, p < 0.001, and 94.2% vs. 90.7%, respectively). Fellows participation was also reduced from 90% to 40.9% (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly altered the workflow of the endoscopy unit, lowering the number of procedures performed and potentially compromising the early detection of cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Coronaviruses (CoV) and COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Open AccessArticle
Perceptions of Romanian Physicians on Lockdowns for COVID-19 Prevention
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 95; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010095 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 523
Abstract
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic in March 2020, triggering important changes for the entire society and healthcare systems, as well as significant lockdown measures aimed to limit the disease spread. We herein intended to [...] Read more.
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic in March 2020, triggering important changes for the entire society and healthcare systems, as well as significant lockdown measures aimed to limit the disease spread. We herein intended to catch the dynamic of Romanian physicians’ perceptions of COVID-19 impact. For this purpose, after a literature review, a 30-item questionnaire was designed. The questionnaire was twice distributed online, about 1 month apart, during which partial relaxation measures were decreed in Romania. The questionnaire was voluntarily filled in by Romanian physicians who were willing to participate in the study. A total of 214 physicians answered the questionnaire upon its first release, and 199 respondents were registered upon its second release, most of whom (94.9%) were involved in clinical work, with one-third working in units dedicated to COVID-19 patients. In parallel with the relaxation of lockdown measures, along with increased confidence in the efficiency of protective measures (46.7% vs. 31.3%), separation from household members decreased from 36.9% to 22.1%. Nevertheless, the feeling of rejection felt by doctors remained similar (22.4% vs. 24.6%). Furthermore, answers regarding the clinical picture, diagnostic approach, and treatment options are discussed. Most of therapeutic options considered for SARS-CoV-2 treatment (e.g., lopinavir/ritonavir, oseltamivir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, tocilizumab, and convalescent plasma) failed to confirm significant efficiency. On the contrary, vaccines for widescale use are already available despite the initial skepticism. In the beginning of the pandemic, 25.2% (18.2% vs. 32.2%) considered that there will not be an effective COVID-19 vaccine, while 41.6% (43.0% vs. 40.2%) thought that a vaccine would be available after at least 12 months. In conclusion, initially, following only a 1 month period, Romanian physicians’ intention to consider treatments such as hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir/ritonavir for COVID-19 decreased significantly. Moreover, confidence in the efficiency of available protective measures increased, and the rates of separation from household members decreased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Pandemic: Challenges Facing the Health System)
Open AccessArticle
Non-Pathological Opacification of the Cavernous Sinus on Brain CT Angiography: Comparison with Flow-Related Signal Intensity on Time-of-Flight MR Angiography
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 94; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010094 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 268
Abstract
Purpose: To investigate the non-pathological opacification of the cavernous sinus (CS) on brain computed tomography angiography (CTA) and compare it with flow-related signal intensity (FRSI) on time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF-MRA). Methods: Opacification of the CS was observed in 355 participants [...] Read more.
Purpose: To investigate the non-pathological opacification of the cavernous sinus (CS) on brain computed tomography angiography (CTA) and compare it with flow-related signal intensity (FRSI) on time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF-MRA). Methods: Opacification of the CS was observed in 355 participants who underwent CTA and an additional 77 participants who underwent examination with three diagnostic modalities: CTA, TOF-MRA, and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Opacification of the CS, superior petrosal sinus (SPS), inferior petrosal sinus (IPS), and pterygoid plexus (PP) were also analyzed using a five-point scale. The Wilcoxon test was used to determine the frequencies of the findings on each side. Additionally, the findings on CTA images were compared with those on TOF-MRA images in an additional 77 participants without dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) using weighted kappa (κ) statistics. Results: Neuroradiologists identified non-pathological opacification of the CS (n = 100, 28.2%) on brain CTA in 355 participants. Asymmetry of opacification in the CS was significantly correlated with the grade difference between the right and left CS, SPS, IPS, and PP (p < 0.0001 for CS, p < 0.0001 for SPS, p < 0.0001 for IPS, and p < 0.05 for PP). Asymmetry of the opacification and FRSI in the CS was observed in 77 participants (CTA: n = 21, 27.3%; TOF-MRA: n = 22, 28.6%). However, there was almost no agreement between CTA and TOF-MRA (κ = 0.10, 95% confidence interval: −0.12–0.32). Conclusion: Asymmetry of non-pathological opacification and FRSI in the CS may be seen to some extent on CTA and TOF-MRA due to anatomical variance. However, it shows minimal reliable association with the FRSI on TOF-MRA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Using Residual Dynamic Structural Equation Modeling to Explore the Relationships among Employees’ Self-Reported Health, Daily Positive Mood, and Daily Emotional Exhaustion
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 93; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010093 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 228
Abstract
This study examined the relationships among self-reported health, daily positive mood, and daily emotional exhaustion among employees in health and fitness clubs using residual dynamic structural equation modeling (RDSEM). A questionnaire was completed by 179 employees at recruitment and then a diary survey [...] Read more.
This study examined the relationships among self-reported health, daily positive mood, and daily emotional exhaustion among employees in health and fitness clubs using residual dynamic structural equation modeling (RDSEM). A questionnaire was completed by 179 employees at recruitment and then a diary survey over 10 consecutive workdays. Results of RDSEM analyses revealed that daily positive mood was negatively associated with daily emotional exhaustion at both within-person and between-person levels. Self-reported health was positively related to the person’s mean of daily positive mood and negatively associated with the person’s mean of daily emotional exhaustion. Self-reported health moderated the relationship between daily positive mood and daily emotional exhaustion; employees with higher self-reported health levels tend to respond with larger changes in their daily emotional exhaustion when their daily positive mood changes. These findings provide important insights for organizations aiming at their employees’ health, happiness, and job burnout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout, Perceived Efficacy, Compassion Fatigue and Job Satisfaction)
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Open AccessArticle
Current Issues on Research Conducted to Improve Women’s Health
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 92; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010092 - 17 Jan 2021
Viewed by 359
Abstract
There are varied lessons to be learned regarding the current methodological approaches to women’s health research. In the present scheme of growing medical literature and inflation of novel results claiming significance, the sheer amount of information can render evidence-based practice confusing. The factors [...] Read more.
There are varied lessons to be learned regarding the current methodological approaches to women’s health research. In the present scheme of growing medical literature and inflation of novel results claiming significance, the sheer amount of information can render evidence-based practice confusing. The factors that classically determined the impact of discoveries appear to be losing ground: citation count and publication rates, hierarchy in author lists according to contribution, and a journal’s impact factor. Through a comprehensive literature search on the currently available data from theses, opinion, and original articles and reviews on this topic, we seek to present to clinicians a narrative synthesis of three crucial axes underlying the totality of the research production chain: (a) critical advances in research methodology, (b) the interplay of academy and industry in a trial conduct, and (c) review- and publication-associated developments. We also provide specific recommendations on the study design and conduct, reviewing the processes and dissemination of data and the conclusions and implementation of findings. Overall, clinicians and the public should be aware of the discourse behind the marketing of alleged breakthrough research. Still, multiple initiatives, such as patient review and strict, supervised literature synthesis, have become more widely accepted. The “bottom-up” approach of a wide dissemination of information to clinicians, together with practical incentives for stakeholders with competing interests to collaborate, promise to improve women’s healthcare. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Young Adults through the Nursing Diagnosis: A Cross-Sectional Study among International University Students
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 91; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010091 - 17 Jan 2021
Viewed by 626
Abstract
Four out of five deaths from cardiovascular disease are due to heart attacks and strokes in low- and middle-income countries. Early identification of risk factors in exposed individuals will help to develop interventions that may eliminate and/or reduce these risks and prevent the [...] Read more.
Four out of five deaths from cardiovascular disease are due to heart attacks and strokes in low- and middle-income countries. Early identification of risk factors in exposed individuals will help to develop interventions that may eliminate and/or reduce these risks and prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases. So, it is necessary to investigate the risk of impaired cardiovascular function in university students due to the increase in some risk factors and cardiovascular events in young adults, and to describe its epidemiology among international university students. For this, an observational cross-sectional study through interviews is designed. The clinical validity was addressed following the Fehring model. In addition, anthropometric data and results of laboratory tests were collected. The nursing diagnosis “Risk of impaired cardiovascular function” showed clinical validity, high sensitivity and specificity, as well as predictive values. Fehring ratio values were above 0.79 and Kappa Index above 0.72. The study showed a high frequency of this nursing diagnosis among university students, especially in students of Brazilian nationality. The main risks of impaired cardiovascular function found in 86.8% of students were: family history of cardiovascular disease, sedentary lifestyle, pharmacological agent, dyslipidemia, and insufficient knowledge. The most prevalent risk factors of the nursing diagnosis in the studied population were related to insufficient knowledge of modifiable health habits, such as sedentary lifestyle. The information provided is expected to serve as the basis for the planning and implementation of health actions aimed at reducing modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Healthcare Quality and Patient Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Burnout Prevalence and Its Associated Factors among Malaysian Healthcare Workers during COVID-19 Pandemic: An Embedded Mixed-Method Study
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 90; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010090 - 17 Jan 2021
Viewed by 762
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global health threat and has placed an extraordinary demand on healthcare workers around the world. In this study, we aim to examine the prevalence of burnout and its associated factors and experience among Malaysian healthcare workers [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global health threat and has placed an extraordinary demand on healthcare workers around the world. In this study, we aim to examine the prevalence of burnout and its associated factors and experience among Malaysian healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic through an embedded mixed-method study design. We found that more than half of Malaysian healthcare workers in this sample experienced burnout. Direct involvement in COVID-19 screening or treatment, having a medical condition, and less psychological support in the workplace emerged to be the significant factors in personal-, work-, and patient-related burnout. Participants described their workloads, uncertainties caused by the pandemic, challenging work–family balance, and stretched workplace relationships as the sources of burnout. Exhaustion appeared to be the major symptom, and many participants utilized problem-focused coping to deal with the adversities experienced during the pandemic. Participants reported physical-, occupational-, psychological-, and social-related negative impacts resulting from burnout. As the pandemic trajectory is yet unknown, these findings provide early insight and guidance for possible interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Pandemic: Challenges Facing the Health System)
Open AccessReview
An Evidence-Based Strategic Approach to Prevention and Treatment of Dry Eye Disease, a Modern Global Epidemic
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 89; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010089 - 17 Jan 2021
Viewed by 459
Abstract
Dry eye disease (DED) is an emerging health concern causing significant visual, psychological, social, and economic impact globally. In contrast to visual rehabilitation undertaken at late stages of DED, measures instituted to prevent its onset, establishment, or progression can alter its natural course [...] Read more.
Dry eye disease (DED) is an emerging health concern causing significant visual, psychological, social, and economic impact globally. In contrast to visual rehabilitation undertaken at late stages of DED, measures instituted to prevent its onset, establishment, or progression can alter its natural course and effectively bring down the associated morbidity. This review attempts to present the available literature on preventive strategies of DED at one place, including strategies for risk assessment and mitigation, targeting a wide range of population. A literature search was conducted using PubMed and an extensive literature review on preventive strategies for DED was compiled to put forth a holistic and strategic approach for preventing DED. This can be undertaken at various stages or severity of DED directed at different tiers of the health care system. Conclusion: This review intends to put emphasis on preventive strategies being adopted as an integral part of routine clinical practice by general ophthalmologists and specialists to tackle the burden of DED and improve the quality of the lives of the patients suffering from it. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
A Case Series: Successfully Preventing COVID-19 Outbreak in a Residential Community Setting at a Drug and Alcohol Addiction Treatment Center
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 88; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010088 - 17 Jan 2021
Viewed by 452
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has reduced the capacity of many addiction treatment centers, limiting access to safe, continual treatment for people with substance use disorders (SUD) in the setting of a pandemic. Here, we describe the COVID-19 screening process of a residential addiction [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has reduced the capacity of many addiction treatment centers, limiting access to safe, continual treatment for people with substance use disorders (SUD) in the setting of a pandemic. Here, we describe the COVID-19 screening process of a residential addiction treatment center in rural Connecticut that has had no outbreaks, closures, or reductions in capacity since the pandemic began. Out of 420 patients screened for COVID-19 from 1 February to 1 July, five patients tested positive for COVID-19: four prior to entering its residential community setting, and one after entering the residential community, resulting in no COVID-19 spread to other patients. Patient 1 presented from home and tested positive during screening prior to entry into the community. The primary care provider for patient 2 notified staff of a recent pos-itive COVID-19 test prior to the patient’s arrival on-site. Patient 3 had a COVID-19 infection in the weeks prior to arrival and tested positive during initial screening. Patient 4 tested positive af-ter coming from another addiction treatment facility that was shut down due to a COVID-19 outbreak. Patient 5 tested negative for COVID-19 during initial screening, entered the residential community, and later tested positive. It is imperative that in-person support for SUD continues during the pandemic. This case report highlights the importance of implementing a variety of tools in an effective screening process, including polymerase chain reaction screening and daily symptomology and temperature screening, which may help prevent further closures or reductions in capacity of addiction treatment centers during the COVID-19 pandemic or future outbreaks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Coronaviruses (CoV) and COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Open AccessArticle
Emotions, Feelings, and Experiences of Social Workers While Attending to Vulnerable Groups: A Qualitative Approach
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 87; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010087 - 17 Jan 2021
Viewed by 613
Abstract
Social workers in the community setting are in constant contact with the suffering experienced by the most vulnerable individual. Social interventions are complex and affect social workers’ emotional well-being. The aim of this study was to identify the emotions, feelings, and experiences social [...] Read more.
Social workers in the community setting are in constant contact with the suffering experienced by the most vulnerable individual. Social interventions are complex and affect social workers’ emotional well-being. The aim of this study was to identify the emotions, feelings, and experiences social workers have while attending to individuals in situations of vulnerability and hardship. A qualitative methodology based on hermeneutic phenomenology was used. Six interviews and two focus group sessions were conducted with social workers from the community social services and health services of the Andalusian Public Health System in the province of Almería (Spain). Atlas.ti 8.0 software was used for discourse analysis. The professionals highlighted the vulnerability of certain groups, such as the elderly and minors, people with serious mental problems, and people with scarce or no economic resources. Daily contact with situations of suffering generates a variety of feelings and emotions (anger, sadness, fear, concern). Therefore, more attention should be paid to working with the emotions of social workers who are exposed to tense and threatening situations. Peer support, talking, and discussions of experiences are pointed out as relevant by all social workers. Receiving training and support (in formal settings) in order to learn how to deal with vulnerable groups could be positive for their work and their professional and personal quality of life. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Correlation between Climate Change and Human Health Based on a Machine Learning Approach
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 86; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010086 - 17 Jan 2021
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Climate change increasingly affects every aspect of human life. Recent studies report a close correlation with human health and it is estimated that global death rates will increase by 73 per 100,000 by 2100 due to changes in temperature. In this context, the [...] Read more.
Climate change increasingly affects every aspect of human life. Recent studies report a close correlation with human health and it is estimated that global death rates will increase by 73 per 100,000 by 2100 due to changes in temperature. In this context, the present work aims to study the correlation between climate change and human health, on a global scale, using artificial intelligence techniques. Starting from previous studies on a smaller scale, that represent climate change and which at the same time can be linked to human health, four factors were chosen. Four causes of mortality, strongly correlated with the environment and climatic variability, were subsequently selected. Various analyses were carried out, using neural networks and machine learning to find a correlation between mortality due to certain diseases and the leading causes of climate change. Our findings suggest that anthropogenic climate change is strongly correlated with human health; some diseases are mainly related to risk factors while others require a more significant number of variables to derive a correlation. In addition, a forecast of victims related to climate change was formulated. The predicted scenario confirms that a prevalently increasing trend in climate change factors corresponds to an increase in victims. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Artificial Intelligence in Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Pre-Operative Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients Attending Surgical Removal of Mandibular Third Molar Teeth
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 85; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010085 - 16 Jan 2021
Viewed by 271
Abstract
The study aimed to measure the pre-operative oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and to identify patient and teeth pathologies associated with worse OHRQoL among patients attending mandibular third molar tooth extraction. Data were collected preoperatively from 199 patients attending surgical removal of [...] Read more.
The study aimed to measure the pre-operative oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and to identify patient and teeth pathologies associated with worse OHRQoL among patients attending mandibular third molar tooth extraction. Data were collected preoperatively from 199 patients attending surgical removal of their mandibular third molar. To that end, we measured the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) and analyzed its association with: (1) demographics; (2) health-related behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and dietary habits; (3) Plaque Index (PI); (4) Decay, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT); and (5) clinical characteristics related to third molar extraction, such as the indication for extraction, tooth angulations, and radiographic pathology. The mean age of the study population was 21.5 ± 3.2 years and the mean OHIP-14 global score was 22.5 ± 8.3. The present study identified patient and teeth profiles that are associated with worse pre-operative OHRQoL in patients attending mandibular third molar extraction. The “vulnerable patient” profile includes poor health-related behaviors, particularly the performance of physical activity less than once a week (p = 0.028). The “disturbing teeth” profile includes higher plaque scores (p = 0.023) and specific characteristics of the third molar teeth, such as pericoronitis (p = 0.027) and radiolucency around third molars in panoramic radiography (p < 0.001). These findings support the hypothesis that OHRQoL is a complex phenomenon which is associated with the patient’s health-related behaviors as well as with specific tooth pathologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral and Maxillofacial Health Care)
Open AccessArticle
Nurses’ Workplace Conditions Impacting Their Mental Health during COVID-19: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 84; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010084 - 16 Jan 2021
Viewed by 581
Abstract
Among health workers, nurses are at the greatest risk of COVID-19 exposure and mortality due to their workplace conditions, including shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE), insufficient staffing, and inadequate safety precautions. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of [...] Read more.
Among health workers, nurses are at the greatest risk of COVID-19 exposure and mortality due to their workplace conditions, including shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE), insufficient staffing, and inadequate safety precautions. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of COVID-19 workplace conditions on nurses’ mental health outcomes. A cross-sectional correlational design was used. An electronic survey was emailed to nurses in one Canadian province between June and July of 2020. A total of 3676 responses were included in this study. We found concerning prevalence rates for post-traumatic stress disorder (47%), anxiety (38%), depression (41%), and high emotional exhaustion (60%). Negative ratings of workplace relations, organizational support, organizational preparedness, workplace safety, and access to supplies and resources were associated with higher scores on all of the adverse mental health outcomes included in this study. Better workplace policies and practices are urgently required to prevent and mitigate nurses’ suboptimal work conditions, given their concerning mental health self-reports during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Pandemic: Challenges Facing the Health System)
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Open AccessSystematic Review
Age-Friendly Health Care: A Systematic Review
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 83; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010083 - 16 Jan 2021
Viewed by 365
Abstract
Background: Health care provided to older adults must take into account the characteristics of chronic diseases and the comorbidities resulting from ageing. However, health services are still too oriented towards acute situations. To overcome this problem, the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed a [...] Read more.
Background: Health care provided to older adults must take into account the characteristics of chronic diseases and the comorbidities resulting from ageing. However, health services are still too oriented towards acute situations. To overcome this problem, the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed a set of Age-Friendly Principles that seek to optimize the provision of health care for this population. This article aims to understand how such Principles are considered in the implementation of age-friendly health care worldwide. Methods: A systematic review was conducted to synthesize the literature on age-friendly health care in accordance with the PRISMA recommendations in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases. Results: The research identified 34 articles, with only seven recognizing the WHO Principles and only four using the implementation toolkit. In addition, in the context of primary care, three studies recognize the WHO Principles, but only two use the toolkit. Conclusions: The WHO Principles are being implemented in health care, but in a smaller scale than desired, which reveals possible flaws in their dissemination and standardization. Thus, a greater scientific investment in age-friendly health care should be considered, which represents a greater operationalization of the Principles and an evaluation of their effectiveness and impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Health Care and Services for Elderly Population)
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Open AccessViewpoint
COVID-19 in China: Responses, Challenges and Implications for the Health System
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 82; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010082 - 16 Jan 2021
Viewed by 550
Abstract
A public health crisis is a “touchstone” for testing the ability and capacity of a national health system. In the current era, public health crises are presenting new systematic and cross-border characteristics and uncertainty. The essence of a system for public health crisis [...] Read more.
A public health crisis is a “touchstone” for testing the ability and capacity of a national health system. In the current era, public health crises are presenting new systematic and cross-border characteristics and uncertainty. The essence of a system for public health crisis governance is the rules administering the stimulus–response chain. The health system generally emphasizes joint participation and communication between different subjects, which may lead to overlap and redundancy as well as a lack of auxiliary support for major public health crisis events. In the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China, we track the responses, challenges, and implications of the temporary disruption of the health system and its response to this major public health crisis. We examine local governance capacity, performance in pandemic control, and the coordinated responses to COVID-19. Accordingly, we identify the challenges to the health system, including the imbalance in attention given to medical care versus health care, insufficient grassroots public health efforts and control capacity, and untimely information disclosure. It is strongly suggested that the government improve its cognitive ability and focus more attention on building and strengthening the emergency health system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Pandemic: Challenges Facing the Health System)
Open AccessArticle
Palliative Care Professionals’ Inner Lives: Cross-Cultural Application of the Awareness Model of Self-Care
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 81; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010081 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 365
Abstract
Compassionate professional qualities traditionally have not received the most attention in either critical or end of life care. Constant exposure to death, time pressure and workload, inadequate coping with personal emotions, grieving, and depression urge the development of an inner curricula of competences [...] Read more.
Compassionate professional qualities traditionally have not received the most attention in either critical or end of life care. Constant exposure to death, time pressure and workload, inadequate coping with personal emotions, grieving, and depression urge the development of an inner curricula of competences to promote professional quality of life and compassionate care. The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the universality of these problems and the need to equip ourselves with rigorously validated measurement and monitoring approaches that allow for unbiased comparisons. The main objective of this study was to offer evidence on the generalizability of the awareness model of self-care across three care systems under particular idiosyncrasy. Regarding the sample, 817 palliative care professionals from Spain, Argentina, and Brazil participated in this cross-sectional study using a multigroup structural equation modeling strategy. The measures showed good reliability in the three countries. When testing the multigroup model against the configural and constrained models, the assumptions were fulfilled, and only two relationships of the model revealed differences among contexts. The hypotheses posited by the awareness model of self-care were supported and a similar predictive power on the professional quality of life dimensions was found. Self-care, awareness, and coping with death were competences that remained outstanding no matter the country, resulting in optimism about the possibility of acting with more integrative approaches and campaigns by international policy-makers with the consensus of world healthcare organizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health and Safety in the Healthcare Sector)
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Open AccessCommunication
The Associations between Rapid Strength Development and Muscle Stiffness in Older Population
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 80; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010080 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 173
Abstract
Background: Previous studies suggest that the capacity for rapid force production of ankle plantar flexors is essential for the prevention of falls in the elderly. In healthy young adults, there were significant associations between rate of force development and muscle stiffness measured by [...] Read more.
Background: Previous studies suggest that the capacity for rapid force production of ankle plantar flexors is essential for the prevention of falls in the elderly. In healthy young adults, there were significant associations between rate of force development and muscle stiffness measured by shear wave elastography. However, there has been no study investigating the association of rate of force development with shear elastic modulus in older adults. Methods: The muscle strength and shear elastic modulus of the medial gastrocnemius muscle in both legs were measured in 17 elderly men and 10 elderly women (mean ± SD; 70.7 ± 4.1 years; 160.6 ± 8.0 cm; 58.7 ± 9.5 kg). We investigated the rate of force development of plantar flexors and shear elastic modulus of medial gastrocnemius muscle using by shear wave elastography. Results: Our results showed that there were no significant associations between normalized rate of force development and shear elastic modulus of medial gastrocnemius muscle. Conclusion: This suggests that the capacity of rapid force production could be related not to muscle stiffness of the medial gastrocnemius muscle, but to neuromuscular function in older individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Exercise on Sports Performance and Injury Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Religious Coping, Depression and Anxiety among Healthcare Workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Malaysian Perspective
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 79; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010079 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 465
Abstract
Anxiety and depression have been prevalent among Healthcare Workers (HCWs) amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of anxiety and depression among HCWs amid the pandemic and their association with religious coping. A cross-sectional study design was applied. The [...] Read more.
Anxiety and depression have been prevalent among Healthcare Workers (HCWs) amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of anxiety and depression among HCWs amid the pandemic and their association with religious coping. A cross-sectional study design was applied. The scales utilized were Malay versions of the Brief Religious Coping Scale (Brief RCOPE M) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS M). In total, 200 HCWs were recruited. HCWs scored higher in positive religious coping (mean: 21.33) than negative religious coping (mean: 10.52). The prevalence of anxiety and depression was 36.5% and 29.5%. Both positive and negative religious coping were significantly associated with anxiety (p < 0.01) and depression (p < 0.05, p < 0.01). Positive coping predicted reduction in anxiety (adjusted b = −0.15, p = 0.001) and log-transformed depression score (adjusted b = −0.019, p = 0.025). Negative coping predicted increment of anxiety (adjusted b = 0.289, p < 0.001) and log-transformed depression score (adjusted b = 0.052, p < 0.001). Positive religious coping is vital in reducing anxiety and depression among HCWs amid the pandemic. Strategies which increase positive religious coping and reduce negative religious coping must be emphasized to boost mental health among HCWs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Pandemic: Challenges Facing the Health System)
Open AccessCase Report
May Ibrutinib Have Activity in Respiratory Complications by SARS-CoV-2? Clinical Experience in a Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 78; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010078 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 319
Abstract
COVID-19 is affecting many countries all around the world. Unfortunately, no treatment has already been approved for the management of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. It seems that SARS-CoV-2 can induce the activation of an exaggerated immune response against itself according to different mechanisms [...] Read more.
COVID-19 is affecting many countries all around the world. Unfortunately, no treatment has already been approved for the management of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. It seems that SARS-CoV-2 can induce the activation of an exaggerated immune response against itself according to different mechanisms that are not really well known. Inflammatory interleukins, such as IL-6 among others, play a central role in this uncontrolled immune response. There is a strong rational under ibrutinib use in in the treatment of immune-based diseases, such a as GVHD or RA. Ibrutinib achieves a reduction in the production of TNFα, IL1, IL-6 and Monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by neutrophils and macrophages, that are key players in keeping the inflammatory process. We present our clinical experience about ibrutinib use in ARDS secondary to SARS-CoV-2 in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mood and Metabolic Health Status of Elderly Osteoporotic Patients in Korea: A Cross-Sectional Study of a Nationally Representative Sample
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 77; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010077 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 294
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the association between osteoporosis and comorbidity, which are very common in Korea, and develop a treatment strategy to improve bone health based on the findings of the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (KNHANES). This study was [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the association between osteoporosis and comorbidity, which are very common in Korea, and develop a treatment strategy to improve bone health based on the findings of the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (KNHANES). This study was based on data obtained from 4060 subjects (1755 males, 2305 females) aged above 60 years in the KNHANES (2016–2017). Well-trained medical staff performed the standard procedures and measured several variables including height, weight, and waist circumference. Interviews and laboratory tests were based on the diagnosis of hyperuricemia, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), osteoporosis, and depression. Comorbidities were defined as a self-reported physician diagnosis. The association of osteoporosis with depression and metabolic disease was assessed statistically using the complex sample analysis method of SPSS. The presence of osteoporosis, dyslipidemia, T2DM, hyperuricemia, obesity, abdominal obesity, and depression was 6.1 ± 0.5%, 15.2 ± 0.7%, 6.5 ± 0.4%, 13.4 ± 0.7%, 30.8 ± 0.8%, 19.4 ± 0.9%, 4.0 ± 0.2%, respectively. After adjusted by age, osteoporotic subjects were significance in the presence of abdominal obesity (p = 0.024, OR 0.80), hyperuricemia (p = 0.013, OR 0.68), dyslipidemia (p < 0.001, OR 1.84), and depression (p < 0.001, OR 2.56), respectively. Subgroup analyses showed dyslipidemia (female subjects, p < 0.001, OR 1.04; male subjects, p = 0.94, OR 1.09) and depression (female subjects, p < 0.001, OR 1.76; male subjects, p = 0.51, OR 0.62) were associated with osteoporotic female subjects but not in male subjects. The comorbidity of dyslipidemia and depression in female subjects was associated with osteoporosis and an odds ratio was 13.33 (95% CI: 8.58–20.71) (p < 0.001). The comorbidity of abdominal obesity (female subjects, p = 0.75, OR 0.97; male subjects, p = 0.94, OR 1.02) and hyperuricemia (female subjects, p = 0.27, OR 0.81; male subjects p = 0.07, OR 0.35) was not associated with osteoporosis in both Subgroup. The result of this study shows a strong dependency of comorbidity with dyslipidemia and depression in elderly women with osteoporosis. Therefore, efforts to improve dyslipidemia and depression might prevent compromised bone health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Informatics and Big Data)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Attitude, Barriers/Facilitators, and Visual Differentiation on Oral Mucosa Pressure Ulcer Prevention Performance Intention
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 76; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010076 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 248
Abstract
Oral mucosa pressure ulcers (PUs) can result in frequent pain and discomfort, and have negative effects on quality of life. We aimed to examine attitude, barriers/facilitators of oral mucosa PU prevention, the ability to differentiate oral mucosa PU, and to identify factors influencing [...] Read more.
Oral mucosa pressure ulcers (PUs) can result in frequent pain and discomfort, and have negative effects on quality of life. We aimed to examine attitude, barriers/facilitators of oral mucosa PU prevention, the ability to differentiate oral mucosa PU, and to identify factors influencing PU prevention performance intention. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 112 nurses in seven tertiary hospitals and three secondary hospitals. The data collection period was from August to December 2018. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and multiple regression were used. The mean score of attitudes toward oral mucosa PU prevention was 3.74 ± 0.39. Barriers to oral mucosa PU prevention were 5.65 ± 1.66, and facilitators were 5.35 ± 1.34. The mean correct answer rate of visual differentiation ability was 13%. The factors affecting intention to perform oral mucosa PU prevention were facilitators of oral mucosa PU prevention (β = 0.32, p = 0.001) and attitude (β = 0.26, p = 0.005). To increase intention to perform oral mucosa PU prevention, positive attitudes and enhanced facilitators should be encouraged. Therefore, standardized guidelines and strategies, such as educational opportunities and allocation of resources and personnel focused on oral mucosa PU prevention, need to be provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Solutions for Oral Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle
Determinants of Behavioral Changes Since COVID-19 among Middle School Students
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 75; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010075 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 386
Abstract
Middle school students are of particular interest when examining the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic because they are in a formative period for socioemotional development, and because they are not as mature as adults, making them more vulnerable to the effects of the [...] Read more.
Middle school students are of particular interest when examining the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic because they are in a formative period for socioemotional development, and because they are not as mature as adults, making them more vulnerable to the effects of the current pandemic. This study seeks to examine determinants of protective behavior changes since COVID-19 among middle school students. Participants were recruited through an official online flatform used by public schools. The final sample included 328 middle school students in South Korea. A multiple linear regression was conducted to explore what factors influence protective behavior changes since COVID-19. Gender and health status were associated with protective behavior changes since COVID-19. Family satisfaction was positively associated with protective behavior changes. Levels of sanitation since COVID-19 and perceptions regarding the risk of COVID-19 were significantly related to protective behavior changes. This study suggests to consider three factors–individual, family, and environmental—in order to prevent middle school students from contracting and spreading the virus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Impact on Public Health and Healthcare)
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Open AccessCase Report
Prehospital Diagnosis of Shortness of Breath Caused by Profound Metformin-Associated Metabolic Acidosis
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 74; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9010074 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 296
Abstract
Shortness of breath is a common complaint among patients in emergency medicine. While most common causes are usually promptly identified, less frequent aetiologies might be challenging to diagnose, especially in the pre-hospital setting. We report a case of prehospital dyspnoea initially ascribed to [...] Read more.
Shortness of breath is a common complaint among patients in emergency medicine. While most common causes are usually promptly identified, less frequent aetiologies might be challenging to diagnose, especially in the pre-hospital setting. We report a case of prehospital dyspnoea initially ascribed to pulmonary oedema which turned out to be the result of profound metformin-associated metabolic acidosis. This diagnosis was already made during the prehospital phase by virtue of arterial blood gas measurement. Pre-hospital measurement of arterial blood gases is therefore feasible and can improve diagnostic accuracy in the field, thus avoiding unnecessary delay and potential harm to the patient before initiating the appropriate therapeutic actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prehospital Care)
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