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Article

The Effect of an Alternative Swimming Learning Program on Skills, Technique, Performance, and Salivary Cortisol Concentration at Primary School Ages Novice Swimmers

Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science of Thessaloniki, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 57001 Thermi, Greece
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Felipe Aidar
Received: 3 August 2021 / Revised: 14 September 2021 / Accepted: 16 September 2021 / Published: 19 September 2021
The playful training method shows positive effects on sports learning, thus the aim of the present study was to compare the effect of two different swimming learning programs. In an 8-week intervention with a training frequency of three times per week, 23 healthy primary school-aged novice swimmers (13 boys, 10 girls) aged 9.0 ± 0.9 participated. They were split into control (CG) and alternative (AG) groups and evaluated on skills (Start, Sink), backstroke (BK) and breaststroke (BR) technique, performance (Skills time, Kicks Time), and salivary cortisol concentration. According to the results, “Start” had a greater percentage of success in AG, at the first (CG = 9.1% vs. AG = 58.3%, p = 0.027) and third (CG = 63.6% vs. AG = 100%, p = 0.037) measurement. Additionally, greater scores were found in technique for AG in both BK (p = 0.009, η2 = 0.283) and BR (p = 0.020, η2 = 0.231). Salivary cortisol concentration was decreased for both groups (p < 0.001) and greater in CG at the second measurement (p < 0.001). The alternative swimming learning program was found to be more efficient or equally effective, compared with the standardized method in-water skills, swimming technique and performance, and in salivary cortisol concentration. View Full-Text
Keywords: backstroke; breaststroke; start; sink; cortisol backstroke; breaststroke; start; sink; cortisol
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MDPI and ACS Style

Papadimitriou, K.; Loupos, D. The Effect of an Alternative Swimming Learning Program on Skills, Technique, Performance, and Salivary Cortisol Concentration at Primary School Ages Novice Swimmers. Healthcare 2021, 9, 1234. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9091234

AMA Style

Papadimitriou K, Loupos D. The Effect of an Alternative Swimming Learning Program on Skills, Technique, Performance, and Salivary Cortisol Concentration at Primary School Ages Novice Swimmers. Healthcare. 2021; 9(9):1234. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9091234

Chicago/Turabian Style

Papadimitriou, Konstantinos, and Dimitrios Loupos. 2021. "The Effect of an Alternative Swimming Learning Program on Skills, Technique, Performance, and Salivary Cortisol Concentration at Primary School Ages Novice Swimmers" Healthcare 9, no. 9: 1234. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9091234

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