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Chemosensors, Volume 10, Issue 1 (January 2022) – 37 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In order to ensure a clean environment, modern vehicles are mounted with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems coupled with NOx sensors to convert harmful nitrogen oxides into harmless nitrogen and water by measuring the exact concentration of NOx and injecting the calculated amount of the urea solution into exhaust emission gas flow. Novel gas sensors based on sensor design with a metal/oxide/metal (Pt/TiO2/Pt) type structure offer a great opportunity to improve the sensing characteristics limited by traditional sensors based on interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). In addition, the proposed structure has outstanding resistive switching (Memristor) traits that can be incorporated with sensor capabilities, enabling built-in memory functionality. The NO2 surface adsorption kinetics are studied by fitting the obtained sensor response curves with pseudo first-order PFO model. View this paper
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Communication
A Bioorthogonal Double Fluorogenic Probe to Visualize Protein–DNA Interaction
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 37; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010037 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 900
Abstract
Two sets of bioorthogonally applicable, double fluorogenic probes, capable of sensing DNA–protein interactions, were prepared by installing an azide or tetrazine motif onto structurally fluorogenic, DNA sensitive frames. Installation of these bioorthogonal functions onto DNA intercalating dyes furnished these scaffolds with reactivity based [...] Read more.
Two sets of bioorthogonally applicable, double fluorogenic probes, capable of sensing DNA–protein interactions, were prepared by installing an azide or tetrazine motif onto structurally fluorogenic, DNA sensitive frames. Installation of these bioorthogonal functions onto DNA intercalating dyes furnished these scaffolds with reactivity based fluorogenicity, rendering these probes double-fluorogenic, AND-type logic switches that require the simultaneous occurrence of a bioorthogonal reaction and interaction with DNA to trigger high intensity fluorescence. The probes were evaluated for double fluorogenic behavior in the presence/absence of DNA and a complementary bioorthogonal function. Our studies revealed that azide and tetrazine appending thiazole orange frames show remarkable double fluorogenic features. One of these probes, a membrane permeable tetrazine modified thiazole orange derivative was further tested in live cell labeling studies. Cells expressing bioorthogonalized DNA-binding proteins showed intensive fluorescence characteristics of the localization of the proteins upon treatment with our double fluorogenic probe. On the contrary, labeling similarly bioorthogonalized cytosolic proteins did not result in the appearance of the fluorescence signal. These studies suggest that such double-fluorogenic probes are indeed capable of sensing DNA–protein interactions in cells. Full article
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Review
Application of Aminopolycarboxylic Complexes of V(IV) in Catalytic Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry of Germanium
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 36; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010036 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 545
Abstract
In the review, voltammetric analytical procedures that employ vanadium(IV) and aminopolycarboxylic complexes of V(IV) are presented and discussed. The focus of the paper is on the mechanism of vanadium-catalyzed reactions responsible for the amplification of the analytical signal of Ge(IV). The analytical efficacy [...] Read more.
In the review, voltammetric analytical procedures that employ vanadium(IV) and aminopolycarboxylic complexes of V(IV) are presented and discussed. The focus of the paper is on the mechanism of vanadium-catalyzed reactions responsible for the amplification of the analytical signal of Ge(IV). The analytical efficacy of different catalytic systems is compared, and the optimal parameters of the respective procedures are reported. Full article
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Review
Recent Advances in Chemical Sensors for Soil Analysis: A Review
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 35; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010035 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 963
Abstract
The continuously rising interest in chemical sensors’ applications in environmental monitoring, for soil analysis in particular, is owed to the sufficient sensitivity and selectivity of these analytical devices, their low costs, their simple measurement setups, and the possibility to perform online and in-field [...] Read more.
The continuously rising interest in chemical sensors’ applications in environmental monitoring, for soil analysis in particular, is owed to the sufficient sensitivity and selectivity of these analytical devices, their low costs, their simple measurement setups, and the possibility to perform online and in-field analyses with them. In this review the recent advances in chemical sensors for soil analysis are summarized. The working principles of chemical sensors involved in soil analysis; their benefits and drawbacks; and select applications of both the single selective sensors and multisensor systems for assessments of main plant nutrition components, pollutants, and other important soil parameters (pH, moisture content, salinity, exhaled gases, etc.) of the past two decades with a focus on the last 5 years (from 2017 to 2021) are overviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Directions in Ion Electroanalysis for Real World Applications)
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Article
Fluorescent Analogues of FRH Peptide: Cu(II) Binding and Interactions with ds-DNA/RNA
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10010034 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 594
Abstract
Four novel peptidoids, derived from the Phe-Arg-His (FRH) peptide motif, were prepared by replacing the histidine heterocycle with triazole and consequent triazole-fluorophore (coumarin) extension and also replacing arginine with less voluminous lysine. So the constructed Phe-Lys-Ala(triazole) (FKA(triazole)) peptidoids bind Cu2+ cations in [...] Read more.
Four novel peptidoids, derived from the Phe-Arg-His (FRH) peptide motif, were prepared by replacing the histidine heterocycle with triazole and consequent triazole-fluorophore (coumarin) extension and also replacing arginine with less voluminous lysine. So the constructed Phe-Lys-Ala(triazole) (FKA(triazole)) peptidoids bind Cu2+ cations in water with a strong, nanomolar affinity comparable to the parent FRH and its known analogs, demonstrating that triazole can coordinate copper similarly as histidine. Moreover, even short KA(triazole)coumarin showed submicromolar affinity to Cu2+. Only FKA(triazole)coumarin with free amino groups and its shorter analog KA(triazole)coumarin showed strong induced CD spectra upon Cu2+ cation binding. Thus, KA(triazole)coumarin can be considered as the shortest peptidoid sequence with highly sensitive fluorescent and chiral CD response for Cu2+ cation, encouraging further studies with other metal cations. The FKA(triazole) coumarin peptidoids show biorelevant, 10 µM affinity to ds-DNA and ds-RNA, binding within DNA/RNA grooves. Intriguingly, only peptidoid complexes with Cu2+ strongly stabilize ds-DNA and ds-RNA against thermal denaturation, suggesting significant interactions of Cu2+ cation within the DNA/RNA binding site. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptides and Their Derivatives as Chemical Sensors)
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Article
Electrochemical Sensing of Idarubicin—DNA Interaction Using Electropolymerized Azure B and Methylene Blue Mediation
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 33; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010033 - 13 Jan 2022
Viewed by 590
Abstract
A highly sensitive electrochemical DNA sensor for detection of the chemotherapeutic drug idarubicin mediated by Methylene blue (MB) has been developed. DNA from fish sperm has been immobilized at the electropolymerized layers of Azure B. The incorporation of MB into the DNA layers [...] Read more.
A highly sensitive electrochemical DNA sensor for detection of the chemotherapeutic drug idarubicin mediated by Methylene blue (MB) has been developed. DNA from fish sperm has been immobilized at the electropolymerized layers of Azure B. The incorporation of MB into the DNA layers substantially increased the sensor sensitivity. The concentration range for idarubicin determination by cyclic voltammetry was from 1 fM to 0.1 nM, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.3 fM. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the presence of a redox probe ([Fe(CN)6]3−/4−) allowed for the widening of a linear range of idarubicin detection from 1 fM to 100 nM, retaining LOD 0.3 fM. The DNA sensor has been tested in various real and artificial biological fluids with good recovery ranging between 90–110%. The sensor has been successfully used for impedimetric idarubicin detection in medical preparation Zavedos®. The developed DNA biosensor could be useful for the control of the level of idarubicin during cancer therapy as well as for pharmacokinetics studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Electrochemical Biosensors for Medical Diagnosis)
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Article
A Practical Hydrazine-Carbothioamide-Based Fluorescent Probe for the Detection of Zn2+: Applications to Paper Strip, Zebrafish and Water Samples
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010032 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 653
Abstract
A practical hydrazine-carbothioamide-based fluorescent chemosensor TCC (N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(thiophene-2-carbonyl)hydrazine-1-carbothioamide) was applied for Zn2+ detection. TCC exhibited selective fluorescence emission for Zn2+ and did not show any interference with other metal ions. In particular, TCC was utilized for the detection of Zn2+ in [...] Read more.
A practical hydrazine-carbothioamide-based fluorescent chemosensor TCC (N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(thiophene-2-carbonyl)hydrazine-1-carbothioamide) was applied for Zn2+ detection. TCC exhibited selective fluorescence emission for Zn2+ and did not show any interference with other metal ions. In particular, TCC was utilized for the detection of Zn2+ in paper strips, zebrafish and real water samples. TCC could detect Zn2+ down to 0.39 μM in the solution phase and 51.13 μM in zebrafish. The association ratio between TCC and Zn2+ was determined to be 2:1 by ESI-mass and Job plot. The sensing mechanism of TCC for Zn2+ was illustrated to be a chelation-enhanced fluorescence process through spectroscopic experiments and theoretical calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers on Optical Chemical Sensors and Biosensors)
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Review
Veni, Vidi, Vici: Immobilized Peptide-Based Conjugates as Tools for Capture, Analysis, and Transformation
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010031 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 763
Abstract
Analysis of peptide biomarkers of pathological states of the organism is often a serious challenge, due to a very complex composition of the cell and insufficient sensitivity of the current analytical methods (including mass spectrometry). One of the possible ways to overcome this [...] Read more.
Analysis of peptide biomarkers of pathological states of the organism is often a serious challenge, due to a very complex composition of the cell and insufficient sensitivity of the current analytical methods (including mass spectrometry). One of the possible ways to overcome this problem is sample enrichment by capturing the selected components using a specific solid support. Another option is increasing the detectability of the desired compound by its selective tagging. Appropriately modified and immobilized peptides can be used for these purposes. In addition, they find application in studying the specificity and activity of proteolytic enzymes. Immobilized heterocyclic peptide conjugates may serve as metal ligands, to form complexes used as catalysts or analytical markers. In this review, we describe various applications of immobilized peptides, including selective capturing of cysteine-containing peptides, tagging of the carbonyl compounds to increase the sensitivity of their detection, enrichment of biological samples in deoxyfructosylated peptides, and fishing out of tyrosine–containing peptides by the formation of azo bond. Moreover, the use of the one-bead-one-compound peptide library for the analysis of substrate specificity and activity of caspases is described. Furthermore, the evolution of immobilization from the solid support used in peptide synthesis to nanocarriers is presented. Taken together, the examples presented here demonstrate immobilized peptides as a multifunctional tool, which can be successfully used to solve multiple analytical problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptides and Their Derivatives as Chemical Sensors)
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Article
Adsorption and Sensing Properties of Dissolved Gas in Oil on Cr-Doped InN Monolayer: A Density Functional Theory Study
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010030 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 511
Abstract
Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) is recognized as one of the most reliable methods in transformer fault diagnosis technology. In this paper, three characteristic gases of transformer oil (CO, C2H4, and CH4) were used in conjunction with a [...] Read more.
Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) is recognized as one of the most reliable methods in transformer fault diagnosis technology. In this paper, three characteristic gases of transformer oil (CO, C2H4, and CH4) were used in conjunction with a Cr-decorated InN monolayer according to first principle calculations. The adsorption performance of Cr–InN for these three gases were studied from several perspectives such as adsorption structures, adsorption energy, electron density, density of state, and band gap structure. The results revealed that the Cr–InN monolayer had good adsorption performance with CO and C2H4, while the band gap of the monolayer slightly changed after the adsorption of CO and C2H4. Additionally, the adsorption property of the Cr–InN monolayer on CH4 was acceptable and a significant response was simultaneously generated. This paper provides the first insights regarding the possibility of Cr-doped InN monolayers for the detection of gases dissolved in oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The State of Art Gas Sensor)
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Article
Effect of Channel Radius on Fluorescent Nanoparticle Based Molecular Communication
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010029 - 11 Jan 2022
Viewed by 624
Abstract
The effect of the communication channel size on the transport and subsequent detection of chemical messengers is investigated on millimetric and micrometric channels. The transport of the information carriers, being characterized by an advective and a diffusive contribution, was simulated by varying the [...] Read more.
The effect of the communication channel size on the transport and subsequent detection of chemical messengers is investigated on millimetric and micrometric channels. The transport of the information carriers, being characterized by an advective and a diffusive contribution, was simulated by varying the flow velocity and the diffusion coefficient. Then, to evaluate the information quality, the Intersymbol Interference (ISI) between two consecutive signals at a specific release delay was estimated. This allowed us to verify that operating under micrometric channel conditions has a larger flow velocity range to obtain completely separated successive signals and smaller release delays can be used between signals. The theoretical results were confirmed by developing a prototype molecular communication platform operating under microfluidic conditions, which enables communication through fluorescent nanoparticles, namely Carbon Quantum Dots (CQDs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Cost Chemo/Bio-Sensors Based on Nanomaterials)
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Article
Visible-Light-Driven Room Temperature NO2 Gas Sensor Based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance: The Case of Gold Nanoparticle Decorated Zinc Oxide Nanorods (ZnO NRs)
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010028 - 11 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 740
Abstract
In this work, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas sensors based on zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) decorated with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) working under visible-light illumination with different wavelengths at room temperature are presented. The contribution of localized surface plasmon resonant (LSPR) [...] Read more.
In this work, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas sensors based on zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) decorated with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) working under visible-light illumination with different wavelengths at room temperature are presented. The contribution of localized surface plasmon resonant (LSPR) by Au NPs attached to the ZnO NRs is demonstrated. According to our results, the presence of LSPR not only extends the functionality of ZnO NRs towards longer wavelengths (green light) but also increases the response at shorter wavelengths (blue light) by providing new inter-band gap energetic states. Finally, the sensing mechanism based on LSPR Au NPs is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum-Dots Sensors)
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Article
In Situ Detection of Hydrogen Sulfide in 3D-Cultured, Live Prostate Cancer Cells Using a Paper-Integrated Analytical Device
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 27; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010027 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 560
Abstract
In this study, a paper-integrated analytical device that combined a paper-based colorimetric assay with a paper-based cell culture platform was developed for the in situ detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in three-dimensional (3D)-cultured, live prostate cancer cells. Two kinds of paper [...] Read more.
In this study, a paper-integrated analytical device that combined a paper-based colorimetric assay with a paper-based cell culture platform was developed for the in situ detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in three-dimensional (3D)-cultured, live prostate cancer cells. Two kinds of paper substrates were fabricated using a simple wax-printing methodology to form the cell culture and detection zones, respectively. LNCaP cells were seeded directly on the paper substrate and grown in the paper-integrated analytical device. The cell viability and H2S production of LNCaP cells were assessed using a simple water-soluble tetrazolium salt colorimetric assay and H2S-sensing paper, respectively. The H2S-sensing paper showed good sensitivity (sensitivity: 6.12 blue channel intensity/μM H2S, R2 = 0.994) and a limit of quantification of 1.08 μM. As a result, we successfully measured changes in endogenous H2S production in 3D-cultured, live LNCaP cells within the paper-integrated analytical device while varying the duration of incubation and substrate concentration (L-cysteine). This paper-integrated analytical device can provide a simple and effective method to investigate H2S signaling pathways and drug screening in a 3D culture model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Analytical Methods, Instrumentation and Miniaturization)
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Review
Development of Magnetically Soft Amorphous Microwires for Technological Applications
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010026 - 07 Jan 2022
Viewed by 623
Abstract
Amorphous magnetic microwires can be suitable for a variety of technological applications due to their excellent magnetic softness and giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect. Several approaches for optimization of soft magnetic properties and GMI effect of magnetic microwires covered with an insulating, flexible, and [...] Read more.
Amorphous magnetic microwires can be suitable for a variety of technological applications due to their excellent magnetic softness and giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect. Several approaches for optimization of soft magnetic properties and GMI effect of magnetic microwires covered with an insulating, flexible, and biocompatible glass coating with tunable magnetic properties are overviewed. The high GMI effect and soft magnetic properties, achieved even in as-prepared Co-rich microwires with a vanishing magnetostriction coefficient, can be further improved by appropriate heat treatment (including stress-annealing and Joule heating). Although as-prepared Fe-rich amorphous microwires exhibit low GMI ratio and rectangular hysteresis loops, stress-annealing, Joule heating, and combined stress-annealed followed by conventional furnace annealing can substantially improve the GMI effect (by more than an order of magnitude). Full article
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Article
Development of a Screening Method for Sulfamethoxazole in Environmental Water by Digital Colorimetry Using a Mobile Device
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 25; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010025 - 07 Jan 2022
Viewed by 632
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance is a major health concern of the 21st century. The misuse of antibiotics over the years has led to their increasing presence in the environment, particularly in water resources, which can exacerbate the transmission of resistance genes and facilitate the emergence [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance is a major health concern of the 21st century. The misuse of antibiotics over the years has led to their increasing presence in the environment, particularly in water resources, which can exacerbate the transmission of resistance genes and facilitate the emergence of resistant microorganisms. The objective of the present work is to develop a chemosensor for screening of sulfonamides in environmental waters, targeting sulfamethoxazole as the model analyte. The methodology was based on the retention of sulfamethoxazole in disks containing polystyrene divinylbenzene sulfonated sorbent particles and reaction with p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde, followed by colorimetric detection using a computer-vision algorithm. Several color spaces (RGB, HSV and CIELAB) were evaluated, with the coordinate a_star, from the CIELAB color space, providing the highest sensitivity. Moreover, in order to avoid possible errors due to variations in illumination, a color palette is included in the picture of the analytical disk, and a correction using the a_star value from one of the color patches is proposed. The methodology presented recoveries of 82–101% at 0.1 µg and 0.5 µg of sulfamethoxazole (25 mL), providing a detection limit of 0.08 µg and a quantification limit of 0.26 µg. As a proof of concept, application to in-field analysis was successfully implemented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Applied Chemical Sensors)
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Article
Sensors to the Diagnostic Assessment of Anticancer and Antimicrobial Therapies Effectiveness by Drugs a with Pyrazine Scaffold
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 24; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010024 - 07 Jan 2022
Viewed by 714
Abstract
Treatment with pyrazine derivatives—antituberculosis pyrazinamide (PZA), anticancer bortezomib (BZM), and antifungal pyrazine-2-amidoxime (PAOX) and pyrazine-2-thiocarboxamide (PTCA)—is associated with side effects, as observed in the case of other therapeutic drugs. To prevent the side effects of [...] Read more.
Treatment with pyrazine derivatives—antituberculosis pyrazinamide (PZA), anticancer bortezomib (BZM), and antifungal pyrazine-2-amidoxime (PAOX) and pyrazine-2-thiocarboxamide (PTCA)—is associated with side effects, as observed in the case of other therapeutic drugs. To prevent the side effects of pyrazine derivatives, researchers are working to develop a universal method that will detect these compounds in body fluids. There is a lack of literature data about voltammetric measurements with poly-L-amino acid-modified GCEs surfaces. The available reports describe the application of various modifications of these electrodes for the detection of different active substances of drugs; however, they do not indicate one particular method for the detection of drugs with a pyrazine skeleton. This research aimed to prepare three types of glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) with modified surfaces by electropolymerization using 1, 10, and 100 mM solutions of L-glycine (Gly), L-alanine (Ala), L-lysine (Lys), respectively. The poly-amino acid coatings applied on GCE surfaces were analyzed in detail under a three-dimensional (3D) microscope and were used as chemosensors of four pyrazine drugs in stoichiometric tests. The results were compared with the measurements made on an unmodified GCE. To obtain reliable results, the linearity of measurements was also verified in the concentration gradient and appropriate scanning speed was chosen to achieve the most accurate measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptides and Their Derivatives as Chemical Sensors)
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Communication
Ionophore-Based Potassium Selective Fluorescent Organosilica Nano-Optodes Containing Covalently Attached Solvatochromic Dyes
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 23; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010023 - 07 Jan 2022
Viewed by 616
Abstract
Fluorescent nanoprobes containing ionophores and solvatochromic dyes (SDs) were previously reported as an alternative to chromoionophore-based nano-optodes. However, the small-molecular SDs are prone to leakage and sequestration in complex samples. Here, we chemically attached the SDs to the surface of organosilica nanospheres through [...] Read more.
Fluorescent nanoprobes containing ionophores and solvatochromic dyes (SDs) were previously reported as an alternative to chromoionophore-based nano-optodes. However, the small-molecular SDs are prone to leakage and sequestration in complex samples. Here, we chemically attached the SDs to the surface of organosilica nanospheres through copper-catalyzed Click chemistry to prevent dye leakage. The nano-optodes remained well responsive to K+ even after exposure to a large amount of cation-exchange resin, which acted as a sink of the SDs. The potassium nanoprobes exhibited a dynamic range between 1 μM to 10 mM and a good selectivity thanks to valinomycin. Preliminary sensing device based on a nylon filter paper and agarose hydrogel was demonstrated. The results indicate that the covalent anchoring of SDs on nanospheres is promising for developing ionophore-based nanoprobes. Full article
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Review
Electrochemical Devices to Monitor Ionic Analytes for Healthcare and Industrial Applications
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 22; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010022 - 06 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 494
Abstract
Recent advances in electrochemical devices have sparked exciting opportunities in the healthcare, environment, and food industries. These devices can be fabricated at low costs and are capable of multiplex monitoring. This overcomes challenges presnted in traditional sensors for biomolecules and provides us a [...] Read more.
Recent advances in electrochemical devices have sparked exciting opportunities in the healthcare, environment, and food industries. These devices can be fabricated at low costs and are capable of multiplex monitoring. This overcomes challenges presnted in traditional sensors for biomolecules and provides us a unique gateway toward comprehensive analyses. The advantages of electrochemical sensors are derived from their direct integration with electronics and their high selectivity along with sensitivity to sense a wide range of ionic analytes at an economical cost. This review paper aims to summarize recent innovations of a wide variety of electrochemical sensors for ionic analytes for health care and industrial applications. Many of these ionic analytes are important biomarkers to target for new diagnostic tools for medicine, food quality monitoring, and pollution detection. In this paper, we will examine various fabrication techniques, sensing mechanisms, and will also discuss various future opportunities in this research direction. Full article
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Article
Recording the Fragrance of 15 Types of Medicinal Herbs and Comparing Them by Similarity Using the Electronic Nose FF-2A
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010020 - 05 Jan 2022
Viewed by 364
Abstract
Medical herbs have been recognized till now as having different constituents that act on the human body. However, the fragrance of herbs is a complex mixture of odors, which makes it difficult to qualify or quantify the scent objectively on the human sense [...] Read more.
Medical herbs have been recognized till now as having different constituents that act on the human body. However, the fragrance of herbs is a complex mixture of odors, which makes it difficult to qualify or quantify the scent objectively on the human sense of smell. In this study, aromas of 15 medicinal herbs were recorded using an electronic nose FF-2A, and their characteristics were compared with aroma samples of wine such as Le Nez du Vin, to determine which wine aromas are similar to each medicinal herb. Thereafter, the aromas of the 15 herbs were standardized to create a reference axis for the aroma of each herb, and the similarity of tea herbs to the reference axis was examined. Additionally, the results were compared with those obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In FF-2A, the measured scent is recorded as an absolute value. We succeeded in calculating the similarity of the scents of other herbs with the axes of the scent of each herb by standardizing their scents and creating new axis data. Conversely, although GC-MS is able to identify the components and concentrations of fragrances, an electronic nose can analyze fragrances in a way that is uncommon with GC-MS, such as comparison of similarities between fragrances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemometrics for Multisensor Systems and Artificial Senses)
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Article
Spectroscopic and Computational Study of the Protonation Equilibria of Amino-Substituted benzo[b]thieno[2,3-b]pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazoles as Novel pH-Sensing Materials
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 21; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010021 - 04 Jan 2022
Viewed by 332
Abstract
We present the synthesis and analytical, spectroscopic and computational characterization of three amino-substituted benzo[b]thieno[2,3-b]pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazoles as novel pH probes with a potential application in pH-sensing materials. The designed systems differ in the number and position of the introduced [...] Read more.
We present the synthesis and analytical, spectroscopic and computational characterization of three amino-substituted benzo[b]thieno[2,3-b]pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazoles as novel pH probes with a potential application in pH-sensing materials. The designed systems differ in the number and position of the introduced isobutylamine groups on the pentacyclic aromatic core, which affects their photophysical and acid-base properties. The latter were investigated by UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies and interpreted by DFT calculations. An excellent agreement in experimentally measured and computationally determined pKa values and electronic excitations suggests that all systems are unionized at neutral pH, while their transition to monocationic forms occurs at pH values between 3 and 5, accompanied by substantial changes in spectroscopic responses that make them suitable for detecting acidic conditions in solutions. Computations identified imidazole imino nitrogen as the most favorable protonation site, further confirmed by analysis of perturbations in the chemical shifts of 1H and 13C NMR, and showed that the resulting basicity emerges as a compromise between the basicity-reducing effect of a nearby nitrile and a favorable contribution from the attached secondary amines. With this in mind, we designed a system with three amino substituents for which calculations predict pKa = 7.0 that we suggest as an excellent starting point for a potential pH sensor able to capture solution changes during the transition from neutral towards acidic media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Optical Chemical Sensors)
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Article
Rational Design and Synthesis of Large Stokes Shift 2,6-Sulphur-Disubstituted BODIPYs for Cell Imaging
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 19; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010019 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 590
Abstract
Five new disubstituted 2,6-thioaryl-BODIPY dyes were synthesized via selective aromatic electrophilic substitution from commercially available thiophenols. The analysis of the photophysical properties via absorption and emission spectroscopy showed unusually large Stokes shifts for BODIPY fluorophores (70–100 nm), which makes them suitable probes for [...] Read more.
Five new disubstituted 2,6-thioaryl-BODIPY dyes were synthesized via selective aromatic electrophilic substitution from commercially available thiophenols. The analysis of the photophysical properties via absorption and emission spectroscopy showed unusually large Stokes shifts for BODIPY fluorophores (70–100 nm), which makes them suitable probes for bioimaging. Selected compounds were evaluated for labelling primary immune cells as well as different cancer cell lines using confocal fluorescence microscopy. Full article
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Article
Impact of the Covering Vegetable Oil on the Sensory Profile of Canned Tuna of Katsuwonus pelamis Species and Tuna’s Taste Evaluation Using an Electronic Tongue
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010018 - 03 Jan 2022
Viewed by 473
Abstract
The impact of the covering vegetable oil (sunflower oil, refined olive oil and extra virgin olive oil, EVOO) on the physicochemical and sensory profiles of canned tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis species) was evaluated, using analytical techniques and a sensory panel. The results showed [...] Read more.
The impact of the covering vegetable oil (sunflower oil, refined olive oil and extra virgin olive oil, EVOO) on the physicochemical and sensory profiles of canned tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis species) was evaluated, using analytical techniques and a sensory panel. The results showed that canned tuna covered with EVOO possesses a higher content of total phenols and an enhanced antioxidant capacity. This covering medium also increased the appreciated redness-yellowness color of the canned tuna, which showed a higher chromatic and intense color. Olfactory and kinesthetic sensations were significantly dependent on the type of oil used as covering medium. Tuna succulence and adhesiveness were promoted by the use of EVOO, which also contributed to decreasing the tuna-related aroma sensations. The tuna sensory data could be successfully used to identify the type of vegetable oil used. Moreover, a potentiometric electronic tongue allowed discriminating between the canned tuna samples according to the vegetable oil used (mean sensitivity of 96 ± 8%; repeated K-fold cross-validation) and the fruity intensity of the EVOO (mean sensitivity of 100%; repeated K-fold cross-validation). Thus, the taste sensor device could be a practical tool to verify the authenticity of the declared covering medium in canned tuna and to perceive the differences in consumers’ taste. Full article
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Communication
The Ionic Associate of Metamizole as an Electrode-Active Component of a PVC Plasticized Membrane Electrode
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010017 - 02 Jan 2022
Viewed by 404
Abstract
The technology for manufacturing a film membrane of the metamizole-selective electrode containing ion associate metamizole-octadecylammonium ODAH+MT as an electrode active component (EAC) has been proposed. The main potentiometric characteristics of the metamizole-selective electrode have been determined. The expediency of the [...] Read more.
The technology for manufacturing a film membrane of the metamizole-selective electrode containing ion associate metamizole-octadecylammonium ODAH+MT as an electrode active component (EAC) has been proposed. The main potentiometric characteristics of the metamizole-selective electrode have been determined. The expediency of the proposed design of the metamizole selective electrode for the determination of metamizole in dosage forms has been substantiated. The best composition of the membrane (wt.%) of the metamizole-selective electrode has corresponded to: ODAH+MT—5.3; 2-nitrophenyloctylether—63.1; poly(vinyl chloride)—31.6. Electrode-active component in the membrane phase functions as an ion associate ODAH+MT. Potentiometric characteristics of metamizole-selective electrode have been determined, which corresponded to: linear range 1 × 102–1 × 104 with limit of detection 4.58 × 105 M, electrode function slope −48.5 mV/dec., working interval pH 4.5–7.3, response time 60 s. The potentiometric coefficients of selectivity of the metamizole-selective electrode with respect to various ions have been determined. The possibility of determining metamizole in a medicinal product has been tested. The results of the analyses show good agreement between the two methods (relative error less than 7.0%) with coefficients of variation less than 5% for MT-SE and iodometric methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrochemical Devices and Sensors)
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Article
Self-Assembled Corn-Husk-Shaped Fullerene Crystals as Excellent Acid Vapor Sensors
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010016 - 02 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 525
Abstract
Low-molecular-weight acid vapors cause aging and destruction in material processing. In this paper, facile fabrication of novel corn-husk-shaped fullerene C60 crystals (CHFCs) through the dynamic liquid–liquid interfacial precipitation method is reported. The CHFCs were grown at the liquid–liquid interface between isopropyl alcohol [...] Read more.
Low-molecular-weight acid vapors cause aging and destruction in material processing. In this paper, facile fabrication of novel corn-husk-shaped fullerene C60 crystals (CHFCs) through the dynamic liquid–liquid interfacial precipitation method is reported. The CHFCs were grown at the liquid–liquid interface between isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and a saturated solution of C60 in mesitylene under ambient temperature and pressure conditions. The average length, outer diameter, and inner diameter of CHFCs were ca. 2.88 μm, 672 nm, and 473 nm, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed the CHFCs exhibit a mixed face-centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal-close pack (hcp) crystal phases with lattice parameters a = 1.425 nm, V = 2.899 nm3 for fcc phase and a = 2.182 nm, c = 0.936 nm, a/c ratio = 2.33, and V = 3.859 nm3 for hcp phase. The CHFCs possess mesoporous structure as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen sorption analysis. The specific surface area and the pore volume were ca. 57.3 m2 g−1 and 0.149 cm3 g−1, respectively, are higher than the nonporous pristine fullerene C60. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensing results show the excellent sensing performance CHFCs sensitive to acetic acid vapors due to the enhanced diffusion via mesoporous architecture and hollow structure of the CHFCs, demonstrating the potential of the material for the development of a new sensor system for aliphatic acid vapors sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Materials, Technologies, and Sensors)
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Review
Recent Development of Optofluidics for Imaging and Sensing Applications
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010015 - 01 Jan 2022
Viewed by 559
Abstract
Optofluidics represents the interaction of light and fluids on a chip that integrates microfluidics and optics, which provides a promising optical platform for manipulating and analyzing fluid samples. Recent years have witnessed a substantial growth in optofluidic devices, including the integration of optical [...] Read more.
Optofluidics represents the interaction of light and fluids on a chip that integrates microfluidics and optics, which provides a promising optical platform for manipulating and analyzing fluid samples. Recent years have witnessed a substantial growth in optofluidic devices, including the integration of optical and fluidic control units, the incorporation of diverse photonic nanostructures, and new applications. All these advancements have enabled the implementation of optofluidics with improved performance. In this review, the recent advances of fabrication techniques and cutting-edge applications of optofluidic devices are presented, with a special focus on the developments of imaging and sensing. Specifically, the optofluidic based imaging techniques and applications are summarized, including the high-throughput cytometry, biochemical analysis, and optofluidic nanoparticle manipulation. The optofluidic sensing section is categorized according to the modulation approaches and the transduction mechanisms, represented by absorption, reflection/refraction, scattering, and plasmonics. Perspectives on future developments and promising avenues in the fields of optofluidics are also provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanophotonic Biosensors: Challenges and Development)
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Review
Recent Advances of Nanostructured Materials for Photoelectrochemical Bioanalysis
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010014 - 30 Dec 2021
Viewed by 520
Abstract
Nowadays, the emerging photoelectrochemical (PEC) bioanalysis has drawn intensive interest due to its numerous merits. As one of its core elements, functional nanostructured materials play a crucial role during the construction of PEC biosensors, which can not only be employed as transducers but [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the emerging photoelectrochemical (PEC) bioanalysis has drawn intensive interest due to its numerous merits. As one of its core elements, functional nanostructured materials play a crucial role during the construction of PEC biosensors, which can not only be employed as transducers but also act as signal probes. Although both chemical composition and morphology control of nanostructured materials contribute to the excellent analytical performance of PEC bioassay, surveys addressing nanostructures with different dimensionality have rarely been reported. In this review, according to classification based on dimensionality, zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional nanostructures used in PEC bioanalysis are evaluated, with an emphasis on the effect of morphology on the detection performances. Furthermore, using the illustration of recent works, related novel PEC biosensing patterns with promising applications are also discussed. Finally, the current challenges and some future perspectives in this field are addressed based on our opinions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Based on Bio/Chemical Sensors)
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Article
A Fluorescence-Based Chemical Sensor for Detection of Melamine in Aqueous Solutions
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010013 - 30 Dec 2021
Viewed by 442
Abstract
Melamine, an industrial chemical, receives wide attention nowadays because of its unethical usage as a nitrogen enhancer in protein-rich foods and dairy products. Since most of the existing melamine detection methods are highly expensive and time-consuming, high sensitivity biosensor-based detection methods have arisen [...] Read more.
Melamine, an industrial chemical, receives wide attention nowadays because of its unethical usage as a nitrogen enhancer in protein-rich foods and dairy products. Since most of the existing melamine detection methods are highly expensive and time-consuming, high sensitivity biosensor-based detection methods have arisen in the scientific literature as promising alternatives. This study reports the design, synthesis, and fluorescent investigations of a carbazole-based sensor (CB) for the detection of melamine in aqueous solutions. The titration studies and microplate experiments on a CB-cyanuric acid mixture (CB-CA) with melamine suggested that the novel sensor could detect melamine even at very low concentrations in both aqueous solutions and dairy samples. Full article
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Article
Au-Decorated WS2 Microflakes Based Sensors for Selective Ammonia Detection at Room Temperature
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010009 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 842
Abstract
Gold nanoparticles decorated WS2 microflakes (Au/WS2) have been synthesized by an in situ chemical reducing process. A chemiresistive-type sensor using as-synthesized Au/WS2 heterostructures as sensing materials shows an improved response to different concentrations of ammonia compared to pure WS [...] Read more.
Gold nanoparticles decorated WS2 microflakes (Au/WS2) have been synthesized by an in situ chemical reducing process. A chemiresistive-type sensor using as-synthesized Au/WS2 heterostructures as sensing materials shows an improved response to different concentrations of ammonia compared to pure WS2 at room temperature. As the concentrations of gold nanoparticles increased in heterostructures, response/recovery speeds of the sensors became faster although the sensitivity of the sensor was compromised compared to the sensitivity of the sensor with lower concentrations of Au. In addition, the Au/WS2-based sensor indicated excellent selectivity to formaldehyde, ethanol, benzene and acetone at room temperature. The improved performance of the sensors was attributed to the synergistic effect of electronic sensitization and chemical sensitization between WS2 and Au. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The State of Art Gas Sensor)
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Review
Temperature Sensors Based on Organic Field-Effect Transistors
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010012 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 999
Abstract
The rapid growth of wearable electronics, Internet of Things, smart packaging, and advanced healthcare technologies demand a large number of flexible, thin, lightweight, and ultralow-cost sensors. The accurate and precise determination of temperature in a narrow range (~0–50 °C) around ambient temperatures and [...] Read more.
The rapid growth of wearable electronics, Internet of Things, smart packaging, and advanced healthcare technologies demand a large number of flexible, thin, lightweight, and ultralow-cost sensors. The accurate and precise determination of temperature in a narrow range (~0–50 °C) around ambient temperatures and near-body temperatures is critical for most of these applications. Temperature sensors based on organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have the advantages of low manufacturing cost, excellent mechanical flexibility, easy integration with other devices, low cross-sensitivity, and multi-stimuli detectability and, therefore, are very suitable for the above applications. This article provides a timely overview of research progress in the development of OFET-based temperature sensors. First, the working mechanism of OFETs, the fundamental theories of charge transport in organic semiconductors, and common types of OFET temperature sensors based on the sensing element are briefly introduced. Next, notable advances in the development of OFET temperature sensors using small-molecule and polymer semiconductors are discussed separately. Finally, the progress of OFET temperature sensors is summarized, and the challenges associated with OFET temperature sensors and the perspectives of research directions in this field are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functionalized Organic Thin Film Transistors for Sensing)
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Article
Adsorption Kinetics of NO2 Gas on Pt/Cr-TiO2/Pt-Based Sensors
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010011 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 727
Abstract
Metal oxides are excellent candidates for the detection of various gases; however, the issues such as the limited operating temperature and selectivity are the most important ones requiring the comprehensive understanding of gas adsorption kinetics on the sensing layer surfaces. To this context, [...] Read more.
Metal oxides are excellent candidates for the detection of various gases; however, the issues such as the limited operating temperature and selectivity are the most important ones requiring the comprehensive understanding of gas adsorption kinetics on the sensing layer surfaces. To this context, the present study focuses mainly on the fabrication of a Pt/Cr-TiO2/Pt type sensor structure that is highly suitable in reducing the operating temperature (from 400 to 200 °C), extending the lower limit NO2 gas concentration (below 10 ppm) with fast response (37 s) and recovery (24 s) times. This illustrates that the sensor performance is not only solely dependent on the nature of sensing material, but also, it is significantly enhanced by using such a new kind of electrode geometry. Moreover, Cr doping into TiO2 culminates in altering the sensor response from n- to p-type and thus contributes to sensor performance enhancement by detecting low NO2 concentrations selectively at reduced operating temperatures. In addition, the NO2 surface adsorption kinetics are studied by fitting the obtained sensor response curves with Elovich, inter-particle diffusion, and pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order adsorption models. It is found that a pseudo first-order reaction model describes the best NO2 adsorption kinetics toward 7–170 ppm NO2 gas at 200 °C. Finally, the sensing mechanism is discussed on the basis of the obtained results. Full article
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Article
Improving the Detection Accuracy of an Ag/Au Bimetallic Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor Based on Graphene
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010010 - 27 Dec 2021
Viewed by 678
Abstract
A theoretical study was conducted with the aim of improving the detection accuracy of graphene-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors. We studied the effect of applying a bias voltage to the sensor surface on its detection accuracy. The optimum thicknesses of silver and [...] Read more.
A theoretical study was conducted with the aim of improving the detection accuracy of graphene-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors. We studied the effect of applying a bias voltage to the sensor surface on its detection accuracy. The optimum thicknesses of silver and gold layers in the biosensor of 47 nm and 3 nm, respectively, were determined. Graphene layers deposited on these thin silver and gold films formed a sensor surface system, on which the surface plasmons were excited. The real and imaginary parts of the refractive index of graphene were controlled by the bias voltage. When the chemical potential was increased from 36 meV to 8 eV, the detection accuracy of the sensor was correspondingly increased by 213%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors for Bio-Medical and Environmental Applications)
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Article
Spermine and Spermidine Detection through Restricted Intramolecular Rotations in a Tetraphenylethylene Derivative
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010008 - 25 Dec 2021
Viewed by 891
Abstract
Biogenic polyamines, especially spermine and spermidine, are associated with cell growth and development. These amines can be found at high concentrations in the tumor cells, tissues, and urine of cancer patients. In contrast, spermidine levels drop with age, and a possible connection between [...] Read more.
Biogenic polyamines, especially spermine and spermidine, are associated with cell growth and development. These amines can be found at high concentrations in the tumor cells, tissues, and urine of cancer patients. In contrast, spermidine levels drop with age, and a possible connection between low endogenous spermidine concentrations and age-related deterioration has been suggested. Thus, the quantification of these amines in body fluids like urine could be used in the diagnosis of different pathological situations. Here a new fluorescent molecular probe based on a tetraphenylethylene derivative is reported. This probe is able to selectively detect these amines through the enhancement of the fluorescence emission of the resulting complex. This fluorescence enhancement may be related to restricted intramolecular rotations of TPE phenyl rings induced by the analyte. Theoretical studies were carried out to shed light on the observed selectivity. Finally, the detection of these amines in urine was performed with limits of detection of 0.70 µM and 1.17 µM for spermine and spermidine, respectively. Full article
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