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Article

Development of a Natural Preservative from Chestnut Flowers: Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Optimization and Functionality Assessment

1
Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
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Department of Food Processing, Private Higher Polytechnic Institute (ISP2), Free University of Tunis (ULT), 32 Bis Av. Kheireddine Pacha, 1002 Tunis, Tunisia
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Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”-National Institute of Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
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Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo—Ourense Campus, E-32004 Ourense, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vardan Galstyan
Received: 10 April 2021 / Revised: 26 May 2021 / Accepted: 7 June 2021 / Published: 15 June 2021
This study was carried out with the aim of optimizing the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds from male chestnut flowers (C. sativa Mill) to develop a bioactive extract with potential to be used as a natural antioxidant preservative ingredient in the food industry. Time (t, 1–39 min), solvent concentration (S, 0–100%), and ultrasonic power (P, 5–500 W) were used as the independent variables for a 5-level experimental circumscribed central composite design (CCCD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds by UAE. Regarding the variables, the three showed a significant effect on the extraction of phenolic compounds. The content of phenolic compounds (including flavonoids and tannins) and the extraction yield (extract weight gravimetrically assessed) were the response criteria for the optimization. Based on the statistically validated predictive polynomial models, it was possible to reach a maximum content of phenolic compounds at the global optimal conditions of 24 ± 3 min, 259 ± 16 W, and 51 ± 7% ethanol. Additionally, pentagalloyl-glucoside and trigalloyl-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-glucoside were the major phenolic compounds identified. The optimized extract was then analyzed for their biological properties. The bioactive potential of the chestnut flower extract obtained under these optimized conditions was evaluated using in vitro assays for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity, as well as cytotoxicity and hepatotoxicity tests. The results revealed that the enriched extract has antioxidant, antitumoral, and anti-inflammatory activities without toxicity issues. Overall, this study allowed to define the optimal conditions for the extraction of phenolic compounds from chestnuts male flowers by UAE, to obtain an enriched extract with biological properties that could be further used as a natural antioxidant ingredient with applications on functional foods. View Full-Text
Keywords: Castanea sativa Mill.; phenolic compounds; ultrasonic-assisted extraction; response surface methodology; circumscribed central composite design; preservative and functional properties Castanea sativa Mill.; phenolic compounds; ultrasonic-assisted extraction; response surface methodology; circumscribed central composite design; preservative and functional properties
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alaya, I.b.; Pereira, E.; Dias, M.I.; Pinela, J.; Calhelha, R.C.; Soković, M.; Kostić, M.; Prieto, M.A.; Essid, F.; Caleja, C.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R.; Barros, L. Development of a Natural Preservative from Chestnut Flowers: Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Optimization and Functionality Assessment. Chemosensors 2021, 9, 141. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors9060141

AMA Style

Alaya Ib, Pereira E, Dias MI, Pinela J, Calhelha RC, Soković M, Kostić M, Prieto MA, Essid F, Caleja C, Ferreira ICFR, Barros L. Development of a Natural Preservative from Chestnut Flowers: Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Optimization and Functionality Assessment. Chemosensors. 2021; 9(6):141. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors9060141

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alaya, Ikbel b., Eliana Pereira, Maria I. Dias, José Pinela, Ricardo C. Calhelha, Marina Soković, Marina Kostić, Miguel A. Prieto, Faten Essid, Cristina Caleja, Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira, and Lillian Barros. 2021. "Development of a Natural Preservative from Chestnut Flowers: Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Optimization and Functionality Assessment" Chemosensors 9, no. 6: 141. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors9060141

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