Bird Fancier’s Lung (BFL) is a rare, nonatopic immunologic response to repeated or intense inhalation of avian (bird) proteins/antigens found in the feathers or droppings of many species of birds, which leads to an immune-mediated inflammatory reaction in the respiratory system. Although this is the most common type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) reported in adults, it is one of the classifications of a rare subtype of interstitial lung disease that occurs in the pediatric age group of which few case reports are available in the literature. The pathophysiology of HP is complex; numerous organic and inorganic antigens can cause immune dysregulation, leading to an immune-related antigen–antibody response (immunoglobulin G—IgG- against the offending antigen). Diagnosing BFL in the pediatric age group is challenging due to the history of exposure usually being missed by health care providers, symptoms and clinical findings in such cases being nonspecific and often misdiagnosed during the acute illness with other common diseases such asthma or acute viral lower respiratory tract infection, and the lack of standardization of criteria for diagnosing such a condition or sensitive radiological or laboratory tests. Treatment, on the other hand, is also controversial. Avoidance of the offending antigen could be the sole or most important part of treatment, particularly in acute mild and moderate cases. Untreated cases can result in irreversible lung fibrosis. In this case report, we highlight how children presenting with an acute viral lower respiratory tract infection can overlap with the acute/subacute phase of HP. Early intervention with pulse steroids markedly improves the patient’s clinical course.
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